The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 7 of 22.

Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males | 2007
Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A. , Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. , Harrington, H. L., Poulton, R., Sears, M.R., Thomson, W. M. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2007, 64(64), 476-484.
download pdf Our ref: RO528
Show abstract » Context A cardinal feature of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder is the distinction between childhood- vs adolescent-onset subtypes. Whether such developmental subtypes exist in the population and have different prognoses should be rigorously tested to inform the DSM-V. Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological validity of childhood- vs adolescent-onset conduct problems in a prospective birth cohort, and to assess whether life-course-persistent conduct problems are associated with a greater adult health burden. Design, Setting, and Participants Our sample includes 526 male study members in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a 1-year birth cohort (April 1, 1972, through March 30, 1973). Developmental trajectories were defined using prospective ratings of conduct problems at 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Health burden was assessed as mental and physical health problems at 32 years of age measured via diagnostic interviews and physical examinations. Results We identified the following 4 developmental subtypes of conduct problems through general growth mixture modeling: (1) childhood-onset/life-course-persistent, (2) adolescent onset, (3) childhood limited, and (4) low. At 32 years of age, study members with the life-course-persistent subtype experienced the worst health burden. To a lesser extent, those with the adolescent-onset subtype also experienced health problems. A childhood-limited subtype not specified by DSM-IV was revealed; its adult health outcomes were within the range of the cohort norm. Conclusions Results support the epidemiological validity of the DSM-IV conduct disorder distinction based on age of onset but highlight the need to also consider long-term persistence to refine diagnosis. Preventing and treating conduct problems has the potential to reduce the adult health burden.
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Adiposity, asthma and airway inflammation | 2007
McLachlan, C. R. , Poulton, R., Car, ... Show all » G., Cowan, J.O., Filsell, S., Taylor, D.R. , Welch, D., Williamson, A., Sears, M.R., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2007, 119(119), 634-639.
Our ref: RO527
Show abstract » Background. Several studies have found obesity to be associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. For reasons that remain unclear, this association has often been reported to be stronger in women than men. One possible explanation may be that these studies have used body mass index to identify adiposity, which may be a less reliable measure of body fat in men than women. Objective. To explore the association between body fat percent measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and asthma, airflow obstruction and airway inflammation in men and women. Methods. Respiratory questionnaires, spirometry, bronchodilator response, exhaled nitric oxide and percent body fat were measured in a population-based cohort of approximately 1000 individuals at age 32. Results. There was a significant association between percent body fat and asthma in women (p=0.043) but not in men (p=0.75). Airflow obstruction was associated with percent body fat in women (p=0.046) but there was an inverse association in men (p=0.010). Bronchodilator responsiveness was also associated with lower body fat in men (p=0.004). Airway inflammation, measured by exhaled nitric oxide, was not associated with body fat in either women (p=0.17) or men (p=0.25). Conclusion. Adiposity is associated with asthma and airflow obstruction in women. This does not appear to be mediated by airway inflammation. In men airflow obstruction and bronchodilator responsiveness are associated with a lower percent body fat. Clinical Implication. In women, but not in men, obesity is associated with asthma and airflow obstruction but there was no association with airway inflammation.
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No negative outcomes of childhood middle ear disease in adulthood | 2007
Welch, D. , Dawes, P. J.
Laryngoscope, 2007, 117(117), 466-69.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO526
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To test the hypothesis that childhood middle-ear disease may have disadvantageous long-term psychosocial consequences in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study of a general-population birth cohort. METHODS: One thousand thirty-seven people born in 1972/73 were studied from birth to age 26 when 1,019 (96% of survivors) were followed up. Childhood otitis media was assessed, and effects of it have previously been observed in childhood and adolescence. We considered outcome measures that were plausible adult counterparts of the childhood constructs shown to be impaired by otitis media: socioeconomic status, employment status, educational outcomes, personality, mental health, antisocial and criminal behavior, and subjective ratings of personal health (SF-36). RESULTS: No outcome measure was predicted by severity of childhood otitis media. CONCLUSIONS: Adult psychological and socioeconomic outcomes are not related to childhood otitis media when appropriate treatment is available.
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Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32 | 2007
Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A. , Harrington, ... Show all » H. L. , Milne, B. J. , Melchior, M. , Goldberg, D. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 441-52.
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Our ref: RO525
Show abstract » Background. The close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize them in future diagnostic systems. We tested whether risk factors for MDD and GAD are similar or different. Method. The representative 1972-73 Dunedin birth cohort of 1037 males and females was followed to age 32 with 96% retention. Adult GAD and MDD were diagnosed at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years, and juvenile anxiety/depression were also taken into account. Thirteen prospective risk measures indexed domains of family history, adverse family environment, childhood behavior, and adolescent self-esteem and personality traits.Results. Co-morbid MDD+GAD was antedated by highly elevated risk factors broadly across all domains. MDD+GAD was further characterized by the earliest onset, most recurrence, and greatest use of mental health services and medication. Pure GAD had levels of risk factors similar to the elevated levels for co-morbid MDD+GAD; generally, pure MDD did not. Pure GAD had risks during childhood not shared by pure MDD, in domains of adverse family environment (low SES, somewhat more maltreatment) and childhood behavior (internalizing problems, conduct problems, somewhat more inhibited temperament). Pure MDD had risks not shared by pure GAD, in domains of family history (of depression) and personality (low positive emotionality).Conclusions. Specific antecedent risk factors for pure adult MDD versus GAD may suggest partly different etiological pathways. That GAD and co-morbid MDD+GAD share many risk markers suggests that the presence of GAD may signal a pathway toward relatively more severe internalizing disorder.
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Self-control and criminal career dimensions | 2007
Piquero, A.R., Moffitt, T. E. , Wright, ... Show all » B.R. « Hide
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 2007, 23(23), 72-89.
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Our ref: RO524
Show abstract » The criminal career paradigm parcels offenders' careers into multiple dimensions, including participation, frequency, persistence, seriousness, career length, and desistance, and each dimension may have different causes. In a forceful critique of this perspective, Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that low self-control equally predicts all dimensions of criminal behavior and that its effect holds steady across types of people, including both men and women. This study examines the link between low self-control and the career dimensions of participation, frequency, persistence, and desistance from crime. Analyses also investigate whether self-control distinguishes between persistence and desistance. Using data from 985 participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Human Development Study, the authors found overall support for Gottfredson and Hirschi's position.
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Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders | 2007
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Koenen, K., Eley, T. C. , Poulton, R. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2007, 164(164), 301-308.
download pdf Our ref: RO523
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Information about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts. METHOD: The authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort (N=1,037) from ages 11 to 32 years, making psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria. For adults with anxiety disorders at 32 years, follow-back analyses ascertained first diagnosis of anxiety and other juvenile disorders. RESULTS: Of adults with each type of anxiety disorder, approximately half had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (one-third with an anxiety disorder) by age 15. The juvenile histories of psychiatric problems for adults with different types of anxiety disorders were largely nonspecific, partially reflecting comorbidity at 32 years. Histories of anxiety and depression were most common. There was also specificity. For example, adults with panic disorder did not have histories of juvenile disorders, whereas those with other anxiety disorders did. Adults with posttraumatic stress disorder had histories of conduct disorder, whereas those with other anxiety disorders did not. Adults with specific phobia had histories of juvenile phobias but not other anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Strong comorbidity between different anxiety disorders and lack of specificity in developmental histories of adults with anxiety disorders supports a hierarchical approach to classification, with a broad class of anxiety disorders having individual disorders within it. The early first diagnosis of psychiatric difficulties in individuals with anxiety disorders suggests the need to target research examining the etiology of anxiety disorders and preventions early in life.
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Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort | 2007
Koenen, K., Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, ... Show all » R., Martin, J. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 181-192.
download pdf Our ref: RO522
Show abstract » Background. Childhood factors have been associated with increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies assessed only a limited number of childhood factors retrospectively. We examined the association between childhood neurodevelopmental, temperamental, behavioral and family environmental characteristics assessed before age 11 years and the development of PTSD up to age 32 years in a birth cohort.Method. Members of a 1972-73 New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) who were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years for PTSD as defined by DSM-IV.Results. We identified two sets of childhood risk factors. The first set of risk factors was associated both with increased risk of trauma exposure and with PTSD assessed at age 26. These included childhood externalizing characteristics and family environmental stressors, specifically maternal distress and loss of a parent. The second set of risk factors affected risk for PTSD only and included low IQ and chronic environmental adversity. The effect of cumulative childhood factors on risk of PTSD at age 26 was substantial; over 58% of cohort members in the highest risk quartile for three developmental factors had PTSD as compared to only 25% of those not at high risk on any factors. Low IQ at age 5, antisocial behavior, and poverty before age 11 continued to predict PTSD related to traumatic events that occurred between the ages of 26 and 32.Conclusions. Developmental capacities and conditions of early childhood may increase both risk of trauma exposure and the risk that individuals will respond adversely to traumatic exposures. Rather than being solely a response to trauma, PTSD may have developmental origins.
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Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation: A life-course study | 2007
Danese, A., Caspi, A., Pariante, ... Show all » C.M., Taylor, A. , Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, R. « Hide
PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA), 2007, 104(104), 1319-1324.
Our ref: RO521
Show abstract » BACKGROUND. Stress in early life has been associated with insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in adulthood, possibly affecting inflammation processes. Childhood maltreatment has also been linked to increased risk of adult disease with potential inflammatory origin. However, the impact of early-life stress on adult inflammation has not been investigated in humans to date. METHODS. We tested the life-course association between childhood maltreatment and adult inflammation in a birth cohort from birth to age 32 years as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effect of childhood maltreatment on inflammation adjusted for co-occurring risk factors and potential mediating variables. RESULTS. Maltreated children showed a significant and graded increase in the risk for high C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in adulthood (RR=1.80, 95% CI=1.26-2.58). The effect of childhood maltreatment on adult inflammation was independent of the influence of co-occurring early-life risks (RR=1.58, 95% CI=1.08-2.31), stress exposure in adulthood (RR=1.64, 95% CI=1.13-2.40), and adult health and health behavior (RR=1.76, 95% CI=1.23-2.51). More than 10% of cases of low-grade inflammation in the population - as indexed by high hsCRP may be attributable to childhood maltreatment. The association between maltreatment and adult inflammation also generalizes to fibrinogen and white blood cells count. CONCLUSION. Childhood maltreatment is a novel and preventable risk factor for low-grade inflammation in adulthood. Inflammation may be an important developmental mediator linking adverse experiences in early life to adult health.
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The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: are its findings consistent with the overall New Zealand population? | 2006
Poulton, R., Hancox, R. J. , Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Baxter, J., Scott, K., Wilson, N. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), U2002.
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Our ref: NZ91
Show abstract » AIMS: To compare the health of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study members with people of the same age in the nationally representative New Zealand Health and National Nutrition Surveys. METHOD: Where similar information was obtained, means or proportions and confidence intervals were generated for both the age 26 assessment of the Dunedin sample and for the 25-26 year old participants in the national surveys. The populations were considered to differ when confidence intervals did not overlap. RESULTS: For smoking habit, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, general practitioner and medical specialist consultations, and hospital admissions, the findings of the Dunedin Study were not significantly different to the nationally representative surveys. The Dunedin Study members also did not differ from their national counterparts on SF-36 subscales measuring physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and mental health. They had better scores on the three interference subscales of the SF-36 compared to the national sample, and men in the Dunedin Study spent a little more time doing vigorous physical activity. DISCUSSION: For most outcomes, the Dunedin Study members were very similar to the nationally representative samples. There was little evidence that the repeated assessments in the Dunedin Study had significantly altered the Study members' health, either in terms of responses to questionnaires or on physiological measures of health status. Findings from the Dunedin Study are likely to be generalisable to most young New Zealanders. However, the Dunedin Study is under-representative of Maori and Pacific peoples, so these findings need to be interpreted with caution in this context. Implications for the proposed national Longitudinal Study of New Zealand Children and Families are discussed.
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Domestic violence as witnessed by New Zealand children | 2006
Martin, J. , Langley, J.D., Millichamp, ... Show all » J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), .
http:/www.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1228/1817/
Our ref: NZ90
Show abstract » Background: This study reports on domestic violence in New Zealand families witnessed by members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Method: Questions on the witnessing of father to mother and mother to father physical violence and threats of harm up to the age of 18 were included in a retrospective family violence interview carried out when the cohort was interviewed at age 26. Study members who reported violence between parents were asked about the nature, context, and consequences of this violence. Results: One-quarter (24%) of the sample reported violence or threats of violence directed from one parent to the other. Nine percent reported infrequent assaults while one in 10 reported more than five acts of physical violence. In violent families, 55% reported violence by fathers only, 28% by both partners, and 16% by mothers only. Almost 90% of the exposed group witnessed violence between natural parents, and 80% were exposed to violence before the age of 11. The gender of the study member or parent did not predict how upset study members were, but frequency of violence did. Witnesses were more likely than non-witnesses to have diagnoses of anxiety and depression at age 21. Socioeconomic status and age of parents were related to violence patterns, but not the mothers education or employment status. Conclusion: This study suggests that a quarter of young adults have been exposed to acts or threats of violence carried out by one parent toward another parent, and the majority found such witnessing to be a very upsetting experience. Public education programmes should emphasise that all violence carries risk of harm to all family members.
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On the receiving end: young adults describe their parents' use of physical punishment and other disciplinary measures during childhood | 2006
Millichamp, J., Martin, J. , Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), .
http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1228/1818/
Our ref: NZ89
Show abstract » Aim: To investigate the prevalence, nature, and context of physical punishment and other forms of parental discipline, as reported by study members (SMs) of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Methods: 962 26-year-old adults (born in Dunedin, New Zealand) were interviewed about their experiences of discipline in childhood. Study members were asked about the usual forms of punishment received in primary and secondary school years, as well as the worst punishment they ever received. Details regarding the study members reactions to different punishments were collected. Variables related to the person administering the punishment were also investigated. Results: Of the study members providing data, 80% reported receiving physical punishment at some time during childhood: 29% identifying smacking; 45% reporting being hit with an object; and 6% reporting extreme physical punishment as the most severe form. Physical punishment on a regular basis was reported by 71% of study members. Results varied by age with more study members reporting physical punishment in primary school years. However, the number of study members experiencing physical punishment in adolescence was still high, at 47%. Significant gender differences were found in reported punishment, with more girls smacked, and more boys hit with an object in primary school years. Punisher-related reports showed that mothers were significantly more likely to employ non-physical forms of punishment whereas fathers were significantly more likely to use extreme physical punishment. Conclusion: For many New Zealanders, experiences of physical punishment during childhood are very much the norm. These findings have implications for the young adults studied as they now enter the parenting years and for efforts aimed at prevention and early intervention for at-risk groups.
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Associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a population-based birth cohort | 2006
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R., Taylor, ... Show all » D.R. , Greene, J.M., McLachlan, C. R. , Cowan, J.O., Flannery, E. M. , Herbison, G. P. , Sears, M.R., Talley, N. J. « Hide
Respiratory Research, 2006, 7(7), 142.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147826
Our ref: RO520
Show abstract » ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported an association between asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it is unclear which condition develops first. The role of obesity in mediating this association is also unclear. We explored the associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function, and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a birth cohort of approximately 1000 individuals. METHODS: Information on respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, lung function and airway responsiveness was obtained at multiple assessments from childhood to adulthood in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 individuals followed to age 26. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome were recorded at age 26. RESULTS: Heartburn and acid regurgitation symptoms that were at least moderately bothersome at age 26 were significantly associated with asthma (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.4), wheeze (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.7-7.2), and nocturnal cough (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 2.1-8.7) independently of body mass index. In women reflux symptoms were also associated with airflow obstruction and a bronchodilator response to salbutamol. Persistent wheezing since childhood, persistence of asthma since teenage years, and airway hyperresponsiveness since age 11 were associated with a significantly increased risk of heartburn and acid regurgitation at age 26. There was no association between irritable bowel syndrome and respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Reflux symptoms are associated with respiratory symptoms in young adults independently of body mass index. The mechanism of these associations remains unclear.
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The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults | 2006
Thomson, W. M. , Lawrence, H. P. , Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 2006, 4(4), 86.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17090332
Our ref: RO519
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). RESULTS: Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality). CONCLUSION: Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives.
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The Role of Low Expectations in Health and Education investment and Hazardous Consumption | 2006
Clarke, J., Kim, B., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Milne, B.J. « Hide
Canadian Journal of Economics, 2006, 39(39), 1151-1172.
Our ref: RO518
Show abstract » Young people with little "social or health capital" may be more likely to take up hazardous consumption and shun investments in human capital, raising their likelihood of a "rags to rags" sequence. First, diminishing marginal utility could raise the marginal benefit of hazardous consumption, and the cost of investment. But poor youths may also have lower expectations of future success, independent of the choices they make. Lower expectations of success could reduce the future cost of hazardous consumption and benefit of investment. We test the effect of expectations on decisions to smoke, drink hazardously, exercise, and complete high school, using a longitudinal study of youth in New Zealand. We find that 15 year olds' expectations of success predict the subsequent onset of smoking, lack of exercise and failure to complete high school, but not hazardous drinking. While some of the influence of expectations can be explained by low social and health capital, IQ and other factors, expectations retain a direct effect on smoking and exercise once these other factors are controlled for.
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Parental tobacco smoking behaviour and their children's smoking and cessation in adulthood | 2006
McGee, R. , Williams, S.M. , Reeder, ... Show all » A. « Hide
Addiction, 2006, 101(101), 1193-201.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16869849
Our ref: RO517
Show abstract » AIMS: To examine the extent to which childhood exposure to parental tobacco smoking, smoking cessation and parental disapproval of smoking predicts daily smoking and attempts to quit in adulthood. DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective design was used to examine the possible association between parental smoking variables in childhood and adolescence and subsequent smoking and cessation by age 26 years. PARTICIPANTS: Interview data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of some 950 individuals followed from birth to age 26 years. Outcome measures were daily smoking and self-reported attempts to quit smoking. FINDINGS: Less daily smoking among the participants at age 26 was related more strongly to parental smoking cessation in the adolescent years than the childhood years. By contrast, inconsistent advice about smoking in childhood and adolescence predicted later daily smoking. Cessation attempts to age 26 were unrelated to earlier parental quitting but were related to consistent advice in adolescence from both parents about smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Encouraging parents to voice consistent messages about their disapproval of smoking has a significant role to play in discouraging smoking in their adult children and promoting attempt to quit where their children are smokers.
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Neuropsychological performance at the age of 13 years and adult schizophreniform disorder: prospective birth cohort study. Short Report. | 2006
Cannon, M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L., Poulton, R. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 189(189), 463-464.
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Our ref: RO516
Show abstract » We examined neuropsychological functioning at age 13 years in adolescents who later developed schizophreniform disorder, compared with healthy controls and with adolescents diagnosed as having had a manic episode or depression or anxiety disorder. Participants were from an unselected birth cohort. Attentional, executive and motor impairments at age 13 were found in those who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for schizophreniform disorder, suggesting that these impairments may be the earliest emerging neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia-related disorders.
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Progression of dental caries and tooth loss between the third and fourth decades of life: a birth cohort study | 2006
Broadbent, J. M. , Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Caries Research, 2006, 40(40), 459-465.
Our ref: RO515
Show abstract » The majority of what is known of the experience of dental caries among adults is from cross-sectional studies, and there are surprisingly few population-level longitudinal studies of dental caries among adults. Dental examinations were conducted at age 26 and again at age 32 among participants in a longstanding prospective study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 1972/1973. Some 901 individuals (88.8%) were dentally examined at both ages. The mean number of remaining teeth and tooth surfaces fell between 26 and 32, reflecting ongoing tooth loss. The overall prevalence of caries rose from 94.9 to 96.8%, while there were greater increases in the proportion with caries-associated tooth loss (from 10.8 to 22.8%). Caries experience was greatest in the molar teeth and upper premolars, and was lowest in the lower anterior teeth. The mean crude caries increment (CCI) was 5.0 surfaces (SD 6.6); 681 (75.5%) experienced 1+ CCI, and the mean CCI among those individuals was 6.6 surfaces (SD 6.9). Substantial dental caries and tooth loss experience occur as people move from the third into the fourth decade of life.
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Dental restorations: a risk factor for periodontal attachment loss? | 2006
Broadbent, J. M. , Williams, K. B. , Thomson, ... Show all » W. M. , Williams, S. M. « Hide
Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2006, 33(33), 803-10.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16970623
Our ref: RO514
Show abstract » Background: Dental caries and restorations in proximal tooth surfaces often impinge upon the periodontal biological width. Aim: This study examines whether these factors may contribute to risk for periodontal attachment loss at these sites. Methods: The study is based upon data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a long-standing cohort study. Approximal tooth surfaces of 884 study members were evaluated for restorations and caries at age 26 and again at 32 years, and probing depth and gingival recession were recorded in millimetres at age 32. Attachment loss was computed as the sum of pocket depth and gingival recession. Data were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Where a caries/restorative event had occurred on an inter-proximal tooth surface before age 26, the age-32 attachment loss at the corresponding periodontal site was approximately twice more likely to be >/=3 mm than if the adjacent tooth surface had remained sound to age 32. This was also true where a caries/restorative event had occurred subsequent to age 26. The association remained after controlling for potential confounders, including smoking. Conclusions: Site-specific periodontal attachment loss due to dental caries or restorative events occurs in adults in their third and fourth decades of life.
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Predictors of persistent smoking and quitting among women smokers [short communication] | 2006
McGee, R. , Williams, S. M.
Addictive Behaviors, 2006, 31(31), 1711-1715.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16457962
Our ref: RO513
Show abstract » This study examined predictors of persistent tobacco smoking and smoking cessation in a longitudinal study of women's health. The sample consisted of 575 women, with an average age of 34 years at baseline. Follow-up occurred some 13 years later. Two models of smoking behavior were examined, the first identifying correlates of daily smoking at baseline and the second identifying predictors of subsequent quitting at follow-up among those smoking at baseline. Poor maternal education, being young at birth of first child, high level of anxiety, having a partner who smoked, and high tea/coffee consumption were all associated with smoking at baseline. Being a young mother and number of cigarettes smoked at baseline predicted subsequent persistent smoking while high levels of anxiety significantly predicted subsequent quitting.
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Socially isolated children 20 years later: risk of cardiovascular disease | 2006
Caspi, A. , Harrington, H. L., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Milne, B. J. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2006, 160(160), 805-11.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16894079
Our ref: RO512
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children who occupy peripheral or isolated roles in their peer groups (isolated children) are at risk of poor adult health. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of an entire birth cohort. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1037 children who were followed up from birth to age 26 years. INTERVENTIONS: Measurement of social isolation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: When study members were 26 years old, we measured adult cardiovascular multifactorial risk status (overweight, elevated blood pressure, elevated total cholesterol level, low high-density lipoprotein level, elevated glycated hemoglobin concentration, and low maximum oxygen consumption). RESULTS: Socially isolated children were at significant risk of poor adult health compared with nonisolated children (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.61). This association was independent of other well-established childhood risk factors for poor adult health (low childhood socioeconomic status, low childhood IQ, childhood overweight), was not accounted for by health-damaging behaviors (lack of exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse), and was not attributable to greater exposure to stressful life events. In addition, longitudinal findings showed that chronic social isolation across multiple developmental periods had a cumulative, dose-response relationship to poor adult health (risk ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-4.56). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal findings about children followed up to adulthood suggest that social isolation has persistent and cumulative detrimental effects on adult health. The findings underscore the usefulness of a life-course approach to health research, by focusing attention on the effect of the timing of psychosocial risk factors in relation to adult health.
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Family conflict in childhood: A predictor of later insomnia | 2006
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Poulton, R. « Hide
Sleep, 2006, 29(29), 1063-1067.
download pdf Our ref: RO511
Show abstract » Study Objectives: To examine the association between childhood exposure to family conflict and insomnia at 18 years. Design: Longitudinal prospective data on an entire birth cohort were obtained. Parents completed the Conflict subscale of the Moos Family Environment Scale when the study members were 7, 9, 13 and 15 years of age. Insomnia was examined in a standardized interview when the participants were aged 18 years. Setting: Participants were born in Dunedin, New Zealand and were interviewed at this location. Patients or Participants: 1,037 children born between April 1, 1972 and March 31, 1973 enrolled in the study (52% male). At age 18 years, 993 (97% of living cohort members) provided data. Measurements and Results: Mean level of family conflict at 7 to 15 years predicted insomnia at 18 years after controlling for sex, SES, sleep problems at 9 years and self-reported health (OR(95%CI) = 1.42 (1.17-1.73), p <.001). There was a dose-response relationship, whereby the more assessments at which families scored in the top 25% for conflict, the greater the young person's likelihood of developing insomnia at 18 years. This association was present even after controlling for depression at 18 years. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a modest but robust longitudinal link between family conflict during childhood and insomnia experienced at 18 years. Future work needs to replicate this finding in different populations and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association.
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Xerostomia and medications among 32-year-olds | 2006
Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, R., Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Al-Kubaisy, S. « Hide
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 2006, 64(64), 249-254.
Our ref: RO510
Show abstract » Objective. To describe the prevalence and associations of xerostomia among adults in their early thirties, with particular attention to medication exposure as a putative risk factor. Material and Methods. The prevalence and associations of xerostomia were investigated among 32-year-old participants in a long-standing prospective cohort study. Some 950 individuals were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years, with medications being recorded on both occasions. Results. The prevalence of xerostomia was 10.0% (with no apparent gender difference), and was significantly higher among those taking antidepressants (odds ratio/4.7), iron supplements (OR/4.1) or narcotic analgesics (OR/2.4). Those taking antidepressants at both ages 26 and 32 years had 22 times the odds of reporting xerostomia. Conclusion. Xerostomia may be a problem for a sizeable minority of young adults.
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Changes in periodontal disease experience from age 26 to 32 years of age in abirth cohort | 2006
Thomson, W. M. , Broadbent, J. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R., Beck, J.D. « Hide
Journal of Periodontology, 2006, 77(77), 947-54.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16734567
Our ref: RO509
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Information is lacking on the natural history of periodontitis through the third and fourth decades of life. METHODS: Periodontal examinations were conducted at 26 and 32 years of age in a longstanding prospective study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973. At each age, gingival recession (GR) and probing depth (PD) were recorded at three sites per tooth using a diagonal half-mouth design (measurements were made in all four quadrants at 32 years of age, but longitudinal comparisons were made using only the half-mouth data). RESULTS: A total of 882 individuals were examined at both ages. The mean number of measured sites fell between 26 and 32 years of age. The overall prevalence of one or more sites with >or=4 mm combined attachment loss (CAL) rose from 18.6% to 21.8%, whereas there were greater increases in the proportion with two or more sites with >or=4 mm CAL (from 8.0% to 12.6%) and one or more sites with >or=5 mm CAL (from 3.6% to 8.0%). The extent and severity of CAL also increased. A total of 403 individuals (45.7%) had an increase in CAL >or=2 mm at one or more sites, whereas 110 (12.5%) had a CAL increase >or=3 mm at one or more sites. Seen in approximately 4% of sites, negative GR (i.e., gingival enlargement) had a substantial effect on PD-based estimates. An increase in PD >or=2 mm at one or more sites was experienced by 345 individuals (39.1%), whereas 88 people (10.0%) had an increase in PD >or=3 mm at one or more sites. The greatest mean attachment loss was experienced at disto-lingual sites on molars, and most manifested as PD increases. Notable increases in GR were seen with lower incisors and canines. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal loss of attachment continues among a sizable proportion of people from the third to the fourth decade of life; however, contrary to patterns in older adults, changes in the PD component are greater than the changes in the recession component. Incident attachment loss is most frequently observed at proximal sites on posterior teeth.
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The effects of childhood otitis media on the acoustic reflex threshold at age 15 | 2006
Welch, D. , Dawes, P. J.
International Journal of Audiology, 2006, 45(45), 353-9.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16777782
Our ref: RO508
Show abstract » Previous research has found that childhood otitis media leads to elevated adulthood acoustic reflex thresholds because of worsened audiometric thresholds in the stimulation ear, and abnormality of the tympanic membrane in the ear from which acoustic reflexes were measured. To confirm and expand this finding, our research utilized longitudinal data from 631 general-population-sampled children assessed between ages 5 and 15. Otitis media was assessed to age 9, audiometric thresholds were measured at age 11, and otoscopy and acoustic reflex thresholds testing were performed at age 15. Our findings support the earlier research, in that acoustic reflex threshold was higher in those with the worst experience of childhood otitis media. However, this was directly mediated not by audiometric threshold in the ear to which the stimulus was delivered, but by the amount of tympanic membrane abnormality in both the stimulus and probe ears. This appeared to have an effect independent of audiometric threshold. Furthermore, only those who suffered the worst, persistent, binaural childhood otitis media showed raised acoustic reflex thresholds.
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When parents have a history of conduct disorder: how is the caregiving environment affected? | 2006
Jaffee, S.R., Belsky, J., Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115(115), 309-319.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO507
Show abstract » Individuals with early-emerging conduct problems are likely to become parents who expose their children to considerable adversity. The current study tested the specificity of and alternative explanations for this trajectory. The sample included 246 members of a prospective, 30-year cohort study and their 3-year-old children. Parents who had a history of conduct disorder were specifically at elevated risk for socioeconomic disadvantage and relationship violence, but suboptimal parenting and offspring temperament problems were common to parents with any history of disorder. Recurrent disorder, comorbidity, and adversity in the family of origin did not fully account for these findings. The cumulative consequences of early-onset conduct disorder and assortative mating for antisocial behavior may explain the long-term effects of conduct disorder on young adult functioning.
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Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood | 2006
Trzesniewski, K. H. , Donnellan, M. B. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Robins, R. W. , Poulton, R. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 2006, 42(42), 381-90.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO506
Show abstract » Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term consequences of self-esteem could not be explained by adolescent depression, gender, or socioeconomic status. Moreover, the findings held when the outcome variables were assessed using objective measures and informant reports; therefore, the findings cannot be explained by shared method variance in self-report data. The findings suggest that low self-esteem during adolescence predicts negative real-world consequences during adulthood.
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Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood | 2006
Broadbent, J. M. , Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 2006, 85(85), 339-43.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567555
Our ref: RO505
Show abstract » According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.
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Is domestic violence followed by an increased risk of psychiatric disorders among women but not among men? A longitudinal cohort study | 2006
Ehrensaft, M. K. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 163(163), 885-92.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO504
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: The association between violence between intimate partners and psychiatric disorders is assumed to reflect a causal link. This assumption is now questioned because several longitudinal studies have documented that adolescents with psychiatric disorders grow up to be overrepresented among adults involved in partner violence. METHOD: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively. Adolescent mental disorders were diagnosed at age 18 years. Between ages 24 and 26 years, the authors identified individuals involved in nonabusive relationships versus those involved in clinically abusive relationships (i.e., resulting in injury and/or official intervention). At age 26 years, mental disorders were again diagnosed. RESULTS: Male and female adolescents with psychiatric disorders were at greatest risk of becoming involved in abusive adult relationships. After the authors controlled for earlier psychiatric history, women who were involved in abusive relationships, but not men, had an increased risk of adult psychiatric morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Psychiatric disorders pose risk for involvement in abusive relationships for both sexes; 2) partner abuse is a contributing source of psychiatric disorders among women but not among men.
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Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from 2 birth cohorts | 2006
Mill, J. S., Caspi, A. , Williams, ... Show all » B. S. , Craig, I. , Taylor, A. , Polo-Tomas, M. , Berridge, C. W. , Poulton, R. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2006, 63(63), 462-9.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16585476
Our ref: RO503
Show abstract » CONTEXT: The study and treatment of psychiatric disorders is made difficult by the fact that patients with identical symptoms often differ markedly in their clinical features and presumably in their etiology. A principal aim of genetic research is to provide new information that can resolve such clinical heterogeneity and that can be incorporated into diagnostic practice. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the DRD4 seven-repeat allele and DAT1 ten-repeat allele would prove useful in identifying a subset of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have compromised intellectual functions. DESIGN: Longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of 2 independent birth cohorts. SETTING: Britain and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: The first cohort was born in Britain in 1994-1995 and includes 2232 children; the second cohort was born in New Zealand in 1972-1973 and includes 1037 children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evaluation of ADHD, IQ, and adult psychosocial adjustment. RESULTS: We present replicated evidence that polymorphisms in the DRD4 and DAT1 genes were associated with variation in intellectual functioning among children diagnosed as having ADHD, apart from severity of their symptoms. We further show longitudinal evidence that these polymorphisms predicted which children with ADHD were at greatest risk for poor adult prognosis. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that genetic information of this nature may prove useful for etiology-based psychiatric nosologies.
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Cannabis and psychosis: a summary and synthesis of the evidence | 2006
Fergusson, D.M., Poulton, R., Smith, ... Show all » P.F., Boden, J.M. « Hide
BMJ, 2006, 332(332), 172-175.
download pdf Our ref: RO502
Show abstract » The link between cannabis and psychosis has been extensively investigated in both epidemiological and neuroscientific studies. Epidemiological studies focus on the association between use of cannabis and development of psychosis (box), whereas neuroscientific studies have looked at how cannabis affects neurochemical functioning. However, these two lines of research have been poorly integrated, with little disciplinary cross fertilisation. We have brought together both strands of evidence to give a broader picture.
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Participation in clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence and its effects on attachment and self-esteem | 2006
McGee, R. , Williams, S.M. , Howden-Chapman, ... Show all » P. , Martin, J. , Kawachi, I. « Hide
Journal of Adolescence, 2006, 29(29), 1-17.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338427
Our ref: RO501
Show abstract » We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as sports and cultural/youth groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path analyses suggested strong continuities in participation over time. Both family active-recreational orientation (ARO) and intellectual-cultural orientation (ICO) predicted participation, and mediated the effects of disadvantage on participation. Participation was significantly related to adolescent attachment to parents, friends and school/workplace, as well as self-perceived strengths, after controlling for early family disadvantage and social support, peer attachment and literacy. The effect of participation in adolescence is to widen the social convoy to which young people are exposed as well as strengthening relationships within that convoy.
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Breast feeding is related to C reactive protein concentration in adult women | 2006
Williams, M. J. A., Williams, S. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2006, 60(60), 146-148.
doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.039222
Our ref: RO500
Show abstract » Objective: To assess the influence of infant breast feeding on C reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low grade inflammation associated with cardiovascular mortality independent of serum cholesterol concentrations. Design: Serum CRP, total cholesterol, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed along with assessment of infant breast feeding duration, birth weight, smoking status, adult socioeconomic status, number of health problems, and hormonal contraceptive use. Setting: A New Zealand predominantly European descent community birth cohort. Participants: 822 men and women aged 26 years. Main results: There was a significant linear relation (p<0.001) between duration of breast feeding and adult CRP level in women. The geometric means (IQR) for CRP were 2.22 (1, 4) mg/l for women breast fed for six months or more and 3.95 (2, 8) mg/l for women not breast fed (ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 (0.55 to 0.87). The linear association between cholesterol and breast feeding was also significant (p = 0.01), the geometric mean (IQR) total cholesterol levels being 4.62 (4.10, 5.10) for those breast fed for six months or more and 5.04 (4.5, 5.80) for those not breast fed (ratio, 95% CI: 0.92 (0.87, 0.98). There was no relation between CRP or total cholesterol and duration of breast feeding in men. Conclusions: The findings of lower CRP with an increased duration of breast feeding in women suggest early postnatal nutrition may influence long term cardiovascular risk.
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Watching television is associated with childhood obesity - but is it clinically important? | 2006
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R.
International Journal of Obesity, 2006, 30(30), 171-175.
10.1038/sj.ijo.0803071
Our ref: RO490
Show abstract » Objective: To assess the impact of television viewing during childhood and adolescence on body mass index (BMI) in children up to the age of 15 years. Design: Unselected birth cohort, assessed at birth and every 2 years from age 3 to 15 years. Subjects: In all, 1037 individuals were assessed at age 3 years. At age 15 years, 976 (95% of living cohort) continued to participate. Measurements: Parental estimates of weekday television viewing between age 5 and 11 years. Self-reports of television viewing at age 13 and 15 years. Weight and height were measured at each age to calculate BMI. Results: BMI and prevalence of overweight at all ages were significantly associated with mean hours of television viewing reported in the assessments up to that age. These associations were stronger in girls than boys. The associations remained significant after adjusting for parental body mass indices and socio-economic status. Conclusion: Time spent watching television is a significant predictor of BMI and overweight in childhood. Although the effect size appears small, it is larger than the effect sizes commonly reported for nutritional intake and physical activity. Television viewing should be regarded as an important contributing factor to childhood obesity.
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For debate: problems with the DMF index pertinent to dental caries data analysis | 2005
Broadbent, J. M. , Thomson, W. M.
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2005, 33(6), 400-409.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00259.x/full
Our ref: RO488.2
Show abstract » Abstract – The Decayed, Missing, Filled (DMF) index has been used for over 50 years and is well established as the key measure of caries experience in dental epidemiology. Despite its long history of use, there is debate about the most appropriate number of surfaces to include for a missing tooth. Assigning the maximum possible value for the ‘M’ component of DMFS (Surfaces) leads to overestimation of an individual's caries experience, and in any associated comparisons of in-caries experience, whereas assigning the minimum possible value for the ‘M’ component has the opposite effect. Alternative methods of assigning the number of caries-affected surfaces for an extracted tooth are considered. The net caries increment and adjusted caries increment (common methods of correction of the crude increment measure for reversals) are discussed, along with incidence density, a measure of caries extent. Problems exist with the adjusted caries increment, particularly among cohorts with low mean baseline caries experience. Development of an alternative method of estimating the relationship of ‘true’ and ‘examiner’ reversals is advocated, as well as greater utilization of incidence density in dental epidemiology.
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Personality traits in adolescence and satisfaction with orthodontic treatment in young adulthood | 2005
Barker, M.J., Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Australian Orthodontic Journal, 2005, 21(21), 87-93.
Our ref: RO498
Show abstract » Objective: This study aimed to determine whether personality traits are associated with satisfaction with orthodontic treatment by age 26. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted with 1,037 individuals, one-third of whom had received orthodontic treatment by age 26. A comprehensive personality assessment was conducted at age 18 using the multidimensional personality questionnaire. At age 26, orthodontic outcome was rated as either Excellent, Pretty good, Fair or Poor. Results: Those who were less satisfied (rating their treatment outcome as Fair or Poor) scored lower on the personality traits of control and social closeness, and higher on stress reactivity. Individuals with low scores on social closeness were twice as likely (Odds ratio: 2.07) to be less satisfied with their orthodontic result. Conclusions: Individuals who are impulsive, stress-reactive or socially isolated are more likely to be disappointed with their orthodontic outcome. Pretreatment knowledge about certain aspects of personality might be useful to practising orthodontists.
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Lifetime risk of depression: restricted to a minority or waiting for most? Editorial | 2005
Andrews, G., Poulton, R., Skoog, ... Show all » I. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2005, 187(187), 495-496.
Our ref: RO497
Show abstract » Depression remits and recurs, but among what proportion of the population? Retrospective surveys report the lifetime risk to be around 10%. A modelling study and two prospective studies concur that close to half the population can expect one or more episodes of depression in their lifetime.
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Extending the study of continuity and change: gender differences in the linkage between adolescent and adult offending | 2005
Piquero, A.R., Brame, B., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2005, 21(21), 219-243.
Our ref: RO496
Show abstract » Recently, Paternoster et al. used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys mostly born in 1953, to investigate the linkage between adolescent and adult offending and found that variations in adult offending were consistent with a random process after conditioning on adolescent offending. In this paper, we test the robustness of this early study across data sources and genders. Here, we use data from the Dunedin New Zealand 1972 birth cohort study to replicate previous findings regarding stability and change in criminal offending between the adolescent and adult years. In particular, our interest centers on the stochastic properties of the adolescent and adult conviction distribution in the cohort and whether the structure of this distribution is similar for males and females. This replication and extension of prior work is especially important since criminologists have little understanding of the pattern of female adolescent offending or how the patterns are linked to adult offending for women. The analysis reveals that variation in adult offending after conditioning on adolescent offending is consistent with a random (Poisson) process. Furthermore, this pattern is evident for both the males and the females in the Dunedin New Zealand 1972 birth cohort.
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Sex differences in factors associated with childhood- and adolescent-onset wheeze | 2005
Mandhane, P. J. , Greene, J. M. , Cowan, ... Show all » J. O. , Taylor, D. R. , Sears, M. R. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2005, 172(172), 45-54.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15805179
Our ref: RO495
Show abstract » RATIONALE: Factors predicting the development of wheeze may differ between sexes and between childhood and adolescence. METHODS: A New Zealand birth cohort of 1,037 children was followed to age 26. For this analysis, those reporting recurrent wheezing at two or more assessments were classified as wheezers. We examined risk factors for development of wheeze before age 10 (childhood) and subsequently (adolescent-onset) for males and for females separately using Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: Males more often developed childhood wheeze (p = 0.002) and females adolescent-onset wheeze (p < 0.001). Maternal atopy (asthma or hay fever) was a risk factor for childhood wheeze in both sexes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.48, p < 0.05 for males; HR, 2.37, p < 0.001 for females). Paternal atopy also influenced childhood wheeze, significantly for males (HR, 1.72; p = 0.01), and similarly but not significantly for females (HR, 1.70; p = 0.08). For adolescent-onset wheeze, neither maternal (HR, 1.41; p = 0.19) nor paternal history (HR, 0.73; p = 0.42) was a risk factor in males, but maternal history (HR, 2.08; p < 0.01) was a significant risk factor for females. When both age ranges were combined, providing greater power for analysis, paternal history was a stronger risk factor for wheeze in females (HR, 1.62; p = 0.02) than in males (HR, 1.35; p = 0.12). CONCLUSION: The influence of parental atopy on the development for wheeze differs between males and females and between childhood- and adolescent-onset wheeze.
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Mental disorder and violent victimisation in a total birth cohort | 2005
Silver, E., Arseneault, L., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
American Journal of Public Health, 2005, 95(95), 2015-2021.
download pdf Our ref: RO494
Show abstract » We examined the association between mental disorder and violent victimization in a general population sample. We performed a multivariate analysis of violent victimization in a 12-month period on a total birth cohort with follow-up data that assessed, during their 21st year, males and females born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in the early 1970s. Compared with people with no mental disorder, (1) people with anxiety disorders experienced more sexual assaults, (2) people with schizophreniform disorders experienced more threatened and completed physical assaults, (3) people with alcohol dependence disorders experienced more completed physical assaults, and (4) people with marijuana dependence disorders experienced more attempted physical assaults. These results held after control for psychiatric comorbidity, demographic characteristics, and the study participants' own violent behavior. Mentally disordered young adults tend to experience more violent victimization in the community than those without a mental disorder.
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Usual water-related behaviour and 'near-drowning' incidents in young adults | 2005
Gulliver, P. , Begg, D. J.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2005, 29(29), 238-243.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15991771
Our ref: RO493
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To describe usual water-related behaviour and 'near-drowning' incidents in a cohort of young New Zealand adults. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study based on data collected as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which is the study of a cohort (n = 1,037) born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. The data analysed were collected at age 21 (1993/94). Each study member was given a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Males reported a higher level of water confidence, exposure to risk behaviours, and exposure to unsafe locations, and more 'near-drowning' incidents, than the females, but protective behaviour did not differ. Males and females who were 'confident' in the water were more likely to be exposed to unsafe water locations, and water-confident males were more likely to drink alcohol before water activities, but not boating. A total of 169 'near-drowning' incidents were reported by 141 study members (63% males). 'Near-drowning' incidents were associated with unsafe swimming environments for males (p < 0.001) and boating within two hours of consuming alcohol for females (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study described usual water-related behaviour and has provided preliminary evidence of the factors associated with 'near-drowning' incidents among a high-risk age group. Larger case-control studies are required to further investigate risk factors for 'near-drowning'. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS: Further investigation is required to determine the effectiveness of providing water skills acquisition in both safe and unsafe environments on 'near-drowning' experience.
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