The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 7 of 23.

Trajectory patterns of dental caries experience to the fourth decade of life | 2008
Broadbent, J. M. , Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 2008, 87(87), 69-72.
Our ref: RO553
Show abstract » Dental caries is a chronic, cumulative disease, but no studies have investigated longitudinal patterns of caries experience. The objective of this study was to identify and describe developmental trajectories of caries experience in the permanent dentition to age 32. Longitudinal caries data for 955 participants in a longstanding birth cohort study were analyzed by trajectory analysis. Three caries experience trajectories were identified by the SAS macro PROC TRAJ; these were categorized as high (approximately 15%), medium (approximately 43%), and low (approximately 42%) DMFS (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces). All were relatively linear, although the higher trajectories were more S-shaped. This effect disappeared following adjustment for the number of unaffected surfaces remaining at each age, suggesting that, among individuals following a similar caries trajectory, caries rate is relatively constant across time.
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A replicated molecular genetic basis for subtyping antisocial behavior in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder | 2008
Caspi, A., Langley, K., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Moffitt, T. E. , O'Donovan, M., Owen, M.J., Polo-Tomas, M. , Poulton, R., Rutter, M. , Taylor, A. , Williams, B. S., Thapar, A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2008, 65(65), 203-210.
download pdf Our ref: RO552
Show abstract » CONTEXT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that in some cases is accompanied by antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVE: To test if variations in the catechol O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) would prove useful in identifying the subset of children with ADHD who exhibit antisocial behavior. DESIGN: Three independent samples composed of 1 clinical sample of ADHD cases and 2 birth cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the clinical sample were drawn from child psychiatry and child health clinics in England and Wales. The 2 birth cohort studies included 1 sample of 2232 British children born in 1994-1995 and a second sample of 1037 New Zealander children born in 1972-1973. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of ADHD and measures of antisocial behavior. RESULTS: We present replicated evidence that the COMT valine/methionine polymorphism at codon 158 (COMT Val158Met) was associated with phenotypic variation among children with ADHD. Across the 3 samples, valine/valine homozygotes had more symptoms of conduct disorder, were more aggressive, and were more likely to be convicted of criminal offenses compared with methionine carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm the presence of genetic heterogeneity in ADHD and illustrate how genetic information may provide biological evidence pointing to clinical subtypes.
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Cannabis smoking and periodontal disease among young adults | 2008
Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, R., Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A., Beck, J.D., Welch, D., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
JAMA, 2008, 299(299), 525-531.
download pdf Our ref: RO551
Show abstract » Context: Tobacco smoking is a recognized behavioral risk factor for periodontal disease (through its systemic effects), and cannabis smoking may contribute in a similar way. Objective: To determine whether cannabis smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Design and Setting: Prospective cohort study of the general population, with cannabis use determined at ages 18, 21, 26 and 32 years and dental examinations conducted at ages 26 and 32 years. The most recent data collection (at age 32 years) was completed in June 2005. Participants: A complete birth cohort born in 1972 and 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand, and assessed periodically (with a 96% follow-up rate of the 1015 participants who survived to age 32 years). Compete data for this analysis were available from 903 participants (comprising 89.0% of the surviving birth cohort). Main Outcome Measure: Periodontal disease status at age 32 years (and changes from ages 26 to 32 years) determined from periodontal combined attachment loss (CAL) measured at 3 sites per tooth. Results: Three cannabis exposure groups were determined: no exposure (293individuals, or 32 3%), some exposure (428; 47.4%), and high exposure (182; 20.2%). At age 32 years, 265 participants (29.3%) had 1 or more sites with 4 mm or greater CAL, and 111 participants (12.3%) had 1 or more sites with 5 mm or greater CAL. Incident attachment loss between the ages of 26 and 32 years in the none, some, and high cannabis exposure groups was 6 5%, 112%, and 23.6%, respectively. After controlling for tobacco smoking (measured in pack-years), sex, irregular use of dental services, and dental plaque, the relative risk estimates for the highest cannabis exposure group were as follows: 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.2) for having 1 or more sites with 4 mm or greater CAL; 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5-6.4) for having 1 or more sites with 5 mm or greater CAL; and2.2 (95% CI, 1.2-3.9) for having incident attachment loss (in comparison with those who had never smoked cannabis). Tobacco smoking was strongly associated with periodontal disease experience, but there was no interaction between cannabis use and tobacco smoking in predicting the condition's occurrence. Conclusion: Cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for periodontal disease that is independent of the use of tobacco.
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Cigarette smoking and allergic sensitization: a 32-year population-based cohort study | 2008
Hancox, R. J. , Welch, D., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Taylor, A. , McLachlan, C. R. , Sears, M.R. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2008, 121(121), 38-42.e3.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18061657
Our ref: RO550
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke has immunosuppressant effects, but its effect on allergic sensitization is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between parental and personal smoking and skin prick tests (SPTs) for atopy in a population-based birth cohort of 1037 participants followed to adulthood. METHODS: Parental history of atopic disease, parental smoking, and personal smoking were obtained at multiple assessments between birth and age 32 years. Atopy was assessed by SPTs for 11 common inhaled allergens at ages 13 and 32 years. RESULTS: Children of atopic parents were less likely to have positive SPTs at age 13 years if either parent smoked (odds ratio, 0.55; P = .009). This association was not significant after adjusting for breast-feeding history, number of siblings, and childhood socioeconomic status. Subjects with atopic parents were also less likely to develop positive results to SPTs between ages 13 and 32 years if they smoked themselves (odds ratio, 0.18; P < .001). This reduction in risk remained significant after adjusting for multiple potential confounding factors. Neither parental nor personal smoking was significantly associated with allergic sensitization among subjects whose parents did not have a history of atopic disease. Few of those with positive SPT results at age 13 years had negative tests at age 32 years, and there was no evidence that this was influenced by smoking. CONCLUSION: Personal and parental smoking is associated with a reduced risk of allergic sensitization in people with a family history of atopy.
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Effective strategies for suicide prevention in New Zealand: A review of the evidence | 2007
Beautrais, A.L., Fergusson, D.M., Cogan, ... Show all » C., Doughty, C., Ellis, P.M., Hatcher, S., Horwood, L.J., Merry, S.N., Mulder, R., Poulton, R. , Surgenor, L. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2007, 120(120), 1-13.
http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1251/2459/
Our ref: NZ92
Show abstract » A national suicide prevention strategy for New Zealand was developed in 2006. There is relatively little strong evidence for the efficacy of many existing suicide prevention initiatives, and this area has frequently been captured by strong claims about the effectiveness of programmes that have not been adequately evaluated. This paper provides a conceptual framework for classifying suicide prevention initiatives, reviews evidence for their effectiveness, and makes recommendations for initiatives to be undertaken as part of suicide prevention activities in New Zealand. The available evidence thus far suggests that the most promising interventions likely to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviours are medical practitioner and gatekeeper education, and restriction of access to lethal means of suicide. This evidence also suggests a clear agenda for research, which includes evaluating interventions and prevention programmes, developing model and demonstration projects, identifying meaningful outcome measures, and refining and identifying the critical elements of effective programmes.
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Body piercing, personality, and sexual behavior | 2007
Skegg, K. M., Nada-Raja, S. , Paul, ... Show all » C. , Skegg, D. C. « Hide
Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 2007, 36(36), 47-54.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17136589
Our ref: RO588
Show abstract » The associations of body piercing with other social characteristics, personality, and sexual behavior were investigated in a population-based sample of young adults, in light of the theory that body piercing has meaning in terms of a corporeal expression of the self. At age 26 years, 966 (95%) of 1019 members of the birth-cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were asked about body piercing (at interview) and sexual behavior (questions presented by computer). Assessment of personality traits was conducted at ages 18 or 21 years. In total, 183 participants (9% of the men and 29% of the women) had piercings at a site other than the earlobes. People who lived outside New Zealand or who were of Maori descent were more likely to be pierced, but unemployment and low occupational status were not significantly related to piercing. Women who were pierced, compared with those without piercings, were more likely to have personality traits of low constraint or high negative emotionality. Women with piercings were also more likely to report having had, during the previous year, five or more heterosexual partners (odds ratio, 5.8, 95% CI: 2.3-14.6) or any same-sex partner involving genital contact (odds ratio, 10.3, CI: 2.9-37.2). The associations with sexual behavior in men were weaker and not statistically significant. In this population, body piercing in women was associated with sexual behavior. Having multiple heterosexual partners or any same-sex partner was very rare among women without piercings. The theory of meaning for body piercing was generally supported, offering the possibility of a richer understanding of this phenomenon in the general population.
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What evidence is there that adjustment for adult height influences the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure? | 2007
Head, R. F. , Tu, Y. K. , Gilthorpe, ... Show all » M. S. , Mishra, G. D. , Williams, S. M., Ellison, G. T. « Hide
Annals of Human Biology, 2007, 34(34), 252-64.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17558595
Our ref: RO563
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: The inverse association between birth weight and blood pressure may partly be the result of inappropriate adjustment for adult body size, but it remains unclear whether adjustment for adult height elicits this effect. AIM: The study investigated the impact of adjustment for adult height on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline from 1996 to 2006 was conducted using the terms 'birth weight', 'blood pressure' and 'hypertension', and any papers containing linear regression analyses of blood pressure on birth weight for populations with an average age of 25+ were eligible for inclusion in comparative meta-analyses. RESULTS: None of the 30 studies identified had published regression coefficients for blood pressure on birth weight before and after adjustment for adult height, and only two studies were found to adjust for adult height at all. Data from these studies were obtained, and it was found that adjustment for height made the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) more negative in one study but less negative in the other. When compared with meta-analyses of comparable models, it was found that both studies were substantially different from the combined estimate of the relationship between birth weight and SBP. CONCLUSIONS: Both the differences between the two selected studies and their differences from the combined estimates obtained by meta-analysis are likely to be due to differences in the age of the participants. The relationship between birth weight and SBP tended to become more strongly inverse in studies with older participants. Additionally, the correlations between height and SBP were found to change from positive to negative with increasing age, which explained the differential impact of adjustment for height in the two selected studies. It therefore appears that adjustment for height may have little effect for older participants, but more so for younger participants.
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Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex | 2007
Taylor, D. R. , Mandhane, P. J., Greene, ... Show all » J. M. , Hancox, R. J. , Filsell, S. , McLachlan, C. R. , Williamson, A. J. , Cowan, J. O. , Smith, A. D. , Sears, M. R. « Hide
Respiratory Research, 2007, 8(8), 82.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18005450
Our ref: RO549
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect F(E)NO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting F(E)NO in a well characterised adult population. METHODS: Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on F(E)NO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. RESULTS: The effect of sex on F(E)NO was both statistically and clinically significant, with F(E)NO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced F(E)NO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the F(E)NO measurement. Atopy increased F(E)NO by 60%. The sex-related differences in F(E)NO remained significant (p < 0.001) after controlling for all other significant factors affecting F(E)NO. CONCLUSION: Even after adjustment, F(E)NO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.
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Personality factors as predictors of persistent risky driving behaviour and crash involvement among young adults | 2007
Gulliver, P. , Begg, D.J.
Injury Prevention, 2007, 13(13), 376-81.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18056312
Our ref: RO548
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between personality factors assessed during adolescence and persistent risky driving behavior and traffic crash involvement among young adults. DESIGN: Data for this investigation were drawn from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: The study population was 1037 young people born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were persistent risky driving behaviors and crash involvement, collected in a face-to-face road-safety interview at ages 21 and 26. RESULTS: The only outcomes for which there were sufficient numbers of females were a driver involved in any crash and a driver involved in an injury crash. Univariate logistic regression revealed that there were no significant predictors for either of these outcomes. For the males, at the univariate level, aggression, traditionalism, and alienation were the personality scales most frequently associated with risky driving behavior and crash risk. After adjusting for driving exposure, only high levels of aggression predicted being a driver involved in a crash, and alienation predicted being a driver involved in an injury crash. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that road-safety interventions seeking to deter young adult males from persistent risky driving behavior need to be directed at those who do not endorse traditional views, are aggressive, and feel alienated from the rest of society.
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Tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood | 2007
Richards, R., Reeder, A.I., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Williams, S. M. « Hide
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2007, 78(78), 413-419.
Our ref: RO547
Show abstract » This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally used correlation coefficients, summary statistics (intraclass correlations; ICC) from random effect models and stability coefficients from generalized estimating equations (GEE) were calculated using all the longitudinal data and controlling for the influence of covariates on tracking strength. Correlation coefficients revealed statistically significant tracking of club sport participation (7-21 years) at low levels (r = .07-0.28). The ICC summary statistic (0.23) was consistent with this, while the GEE suggested moderate tracking (0.59). The results of this study suggest that encouraging sport participation during childhood and adolescence may result in a modest increase in the likelihood of participation later in life. However, the substantial movement into and out of sport participation observed here and in other studies cautions against relying solely on sport promotion among youth as a strategy to promote lifelong participation.
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Cognitive function in tension-type headache | 2007
Waldie, K.E., Welch, D.
Current Pain and Headache Reports, 2007, 11(11), 454-460.
Our ref: RO546
Show abstract » The association between tension-type headache and cognitive ability was assessed among 971 members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. Primary headache status was determined at age 32 years according to 2004 International Headache Society criteria, frequent childhood headaches were identified from parent report from ages 7 to 13 years, and data relating to cognitive and academic performance from ages 3 to 32 years were analyzed. Adult study members with tension-type headache did not score worse on any of the cognitive measures relative to headache-free controls or headache-free tinnitus sufferers. Instead, a consistent relation was found between childhood headache (regardless of headache diagnosis in adulthood) and lower scores on most cognitive measures from age 3 years through adolescence (verbal and performance IQ, receptive language, and reading scores). The data indicate that cognitive performance deficits in childhood headache sufferers can probably be attributed to factors stemming from utero or early childhood.
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Psychosocial correlates of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) ratings in a birth cohort | 2007
McAnally, H.M., Poulton, R., Hancox, ... Show all » R. J. , Prescott, J., Welch, D. « Hide
Appetite, 2007, 49(49), 700-703.
Our ref: RO545
Show abstract » This study investigated the relation between ratings of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and two psychosocial constructs, socioeconomic status and IQ, which are related to health outcomes. A 3.2mM solution of PROP was rated by 922 32-year-old members of a birth cohort (450 women) relative to the strongest imaginable sensation of any kind using the generalised Labelled Magnitude Scale. Women had higher PROP ratings than men. Following normalisation of PROP ratings, multiple linear regression showed that higher ratings were independently associated with lower childhood socioeconomic status, lower childhood IQ scores and ratings of an imagined stimulus made on the same scale (r(2)=0.12). Results suggest that psychosocial variables, sex and scale use, in addition to established genetic determinants, may help explain variability in ratings of supra-threshold concentrations of PROP.
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Moderation of breastfeeding effects on cognitive development by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism | 2007
Caspi, A., Williams, B. S., Kim-Cohen, ... Show all » J. , Craig, I. , Milne, B.J., Poulton, R., Schalkwyk, L.C., Taylor, A. , Werts, H., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA), 2007, 104(104), 18860-65.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO544
Show abstract » Children's intellectual development is influenced by both genetic inheritance and environmental experiences. Breastfeeding is one of the earliest such postnatal experiences. Breastfed children attain higher IQ scores than children not fed breast milk, presumably because of the fatty acids uniquely available in breast milk. Here we show that the association between breastfeeding and IQ is moderated by a genetic variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the genetic control of fatty acid pathways. We confirmed this gene'environment interaction in two birth cohorts, and we ruled out alternative explanations of the finding involving gene'exposure correlation, intrauterine growth, social class, and maternal cognitive ability, as well as maternal genotype effects on breastfeeding and breast milk. The finding shows that environmental exposures can be used to uncover novel candidate genes in complex phenotypes. It also shows that genes may work via the environment to shape the IQ, helping to close the nature versus nurture debate.
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Association between exhaled nitric oxide and systemic inflammatory markers | 2007
Sutherland, T.J.T., Taylor, D.R. , Sears, ... Show all » M.R., Cowan, J.O., McLachlan, C. R. , Filsell, S., Williamson, A., Greene, J.M., Poulton, R., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 2007, 99(99), 534-39.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17941280
Our ref: RO543
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the airways, and there is some evidence to suggest that it is associated with a systemic inflammatory response, as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Exhaled nitric oxide is a noninvasive measure of asthmatic airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is an association between exhaled nitric oxide and these systemic inflammatory markers. METHODS: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 individuals born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973. At the age of 32 years, study members were assessed for diagnosis of asthma, atopy by skin prick testing, smoking, body mass index, exhaled nitric oxide, high-sensitivity serum CRP, and plasma fibrinogen level. RESULTS: There was no significant association between exhaled nitric oxide and CRP (P = .99). There was a trend to an inverse association between exhaled nitric oxide and fibrinogen (P = .049), but this was not significant after adjusting for smoking and use of corticosteroids or after further adjustment for body mass index and atopy (P = .71). CONCLUSION: In this population-based sample of young adults, there was no association between airway inflammation, as measured by exhaled nitric oxide, and systemic inflammation, as measured by either CRP or fibrinogen.
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Childhood hearing is associated with growth rates in infancy and adolescence | 2007
Welch, D., Dawes, P. J.
Pediatric Research, 2007, 62(62), 495-498.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17667854
Our ref: RO542
Show abstract » It is known that shorter stature is associated with sensorineural hearing loss; and that cochlear development is associated with activity of IGF 1, as are many important aspects of neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that this relation might be extrapolated to a normally hearing group, and that the strongest relation between hearing level and growth rate would be in late puberty, when serum IGF-1 levels are highest. We examined the statistical relation between childhood hearing threshold and rate of growth in height at different times during the life course up to age 32. We found mixed support for the hypothesis. The strongest relations were observed in late puberty, at the ages which previous research shows are associated with the highest serum concentrations of IGF-1 in males and females, but also in infancy and early childhood. The association between hearing and height is present in a normally hearing, general population sample, and is associated with growth in late adolescence. Our findings support the idea that childhood hearing threshold may be predictive of IGF-1 mediated developmental characteristics.
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Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A lifecourse study | 2007
Melchior, M. , Moffitt, T. E. , Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Poulton, R., Caspi, A. « Hide
American Journal of Epidemiology, 2007, 166(166), 966-974.
download pdf Our ref: RO541
Show abstract » The authors investigated what risk factors contribute to an excess risk of poor adult health among children who experience socioeconomic disadvantage. Data came from 1,037 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-1973, who were followed from birth to age 32 years (2004-2005). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured at multiple points between birth and age 15 years. Risk factors evaluated included a familial liability to poor health, childhood/adolescent health characteristics, low childhood intelligence quotient (IQ), exposure to childhood maltreatment, and adult SES. Adult health outcomes evaluated at age 32 years were major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, tobacco dependence, alcohol or drug dependence, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results showed that low childhood SES was associated with an increased risk of substance dependence and poor physical health in adulthood (for tobacco dependence, sex-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41, 3.65; for alcohol or drug dependence, RR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.84; for cardiovascular risk factor status, RR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.46, 4.46). Together, the risk factors studied here accounted for 55-67% of poor health outcomes among adults exposed to low SES as children. No single risk factor emerged as the prime explanation, suggesting that the processes mediating the link between childhood low SES and adult poor health are multifactorial.
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Predicting prognosis for the conduct-problem boy: Can family history help? | 2007
Odgers, C.L., Milne, B.J., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Crump, R., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007, 46(46), 1240-1249.
doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e31813c6c8d
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO540
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Many children with conduct disorder develop life-course persistent antisocial behavior; however, other children exhibit childhood-limited or adolescence-limited conduct disorder symptoms and escape poor adult outcomes. Prospective prediction of long-term prognosis in pediatric and adolescent clinical settings is difficult. Improved prognosis prediction would support wise allocation of limited treatment resources. The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether family history of psychiatric disorder can statically predict long-term prognosis among conduct-problem children. METHOD: Participants were male members of the Dunedin Study, a birth cohort of 1,037 children (52% male). Conduct-problem subtypes were defined using prospective assessments between ages 7 and 26 years. Family history interviews assessed mental disorders for three generations: the participants' grandparents, parents, and siblings. RESULTS: Family history of externalizing disorders distinguished life-course persistent antisocial males from other conduct-problem children and added significant incremental validity beyond family and child risk factors. A simple three-item family history screen of maternal-reported alcohol abuse was associated with life-course persistent prognosis in our research setting and should be evaluated in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Family history of externalizing disorders distinguished between life-course persistent versus childhood-limited and adolescent-onset conduct problems. Brief family history questions may assist clinicians in pediatric settings to refine the diagnosis of conduct disorder and identify children who most need treatment in pediatric settings to refine the diagnosis of CD and identify children who need treatment most.
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Childhood behaviour problems linked to sexual risk taking in young adulthood: a birth cohort study | 2007
Ramrakha, S., Paul, C., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Bell, M.L.., Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007, 46(46), 1272-1279.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO539
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE::To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. METHOD:: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n = 1,037), a prospective, longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort born in 1972-1973. Data obtained at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 21 years were used. Adjustment was made for gender, socioeconomic status, parenting factors, and residence changes. RESULTS:: High levels of antisocial behavior between age 5 and 11 years were associated with increased odds of early sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence [CI] 1.34-3.54) and risky sex (AOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.04-3.40). No relationship was observed between hyperactivity and later sexual health outcomes. In contrast, high levels of anxiety were associated with reduced odds of risky sex (AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.80) and sexually transmitted infections (AOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.70). Involvement with delinquent peers explained some of the association between antisocial behavior and early sexual debut and risky sex. A poor relationship with parents also explained some of the association between antisocial behavior and early sexual debut. CONCLUSIONS:: The findings demonstrate links between behavioral and emotional problems occurring early in life and later deleterious sexual health outcomes. Targeting antisocial behavior and teaching accurate appraisals of danger during childhood may help mitigate these negative consequences.
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Cigarette smoking and periodontal disease among 32-year-olds: a prospective study of a representative birth cohort | 2007
Thomson, W.M., Broadbent, J. M. , Welch, ... Show all » D., Beck, J.D., Poulton, R. « Hide
Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2007, 34(34), 828-34.
Published article online: 16-Aug-2007 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2007.01131.x
Our ref: RO538
Show abstract » Background: Smoking is recognized as the primary behavioural risk factor for periodontal attachment loss (AL), but confirmatory data from prospective cohort studies are scarce. Aim: To quantify the association between cigarette smoking patterns and AL by age 32. Methods: Periodontal examinations were conducted at ages 26 and 32 in a longstanding prospective study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 1972/1973. Longitudinal categorization of smoking exposure was undertaken using data collected at ages 15, 18, 21, 26 and 32. Results: Complete data were available for 810 individuals of whom 48.9% had ever smoked (31.5% were current smokers). Compared with never-smokers, long-term smokers (and other age-32 smokers) had very high odds ratios (ORs of 7.1 and 5.7, respectively) for having 1 +sites with 5 +mm AL, and were more likely to be incident cases after age 26 (ORs of 5.2 and 3.2, respectively). Two-thirds of new cases after age 26 were attributable to smoking. There were no significant differences in periodontal health between never-smokers and those who had quit smoking after age 26. Conclusions: Current and long-term smoking in young adults is detrimental to periodontal health, but smoking cessation may be associated with a relatively rapid improvement in the periodontium.
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Does childhood television viewing lead to attention problems in adolescence? Results from a prospective longitudinal study | 2007
Landhuis, C.E., Poulton, R., Welch, ... Show all » D., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Pediatrics, 2007, 120(120), 532-537.
http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/120/3/532
Our ref: RO537
Show abstract » CONTEXT: There is controversy over whether childhood television viewing causes attention problems. The findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have been mixed. To our knowledge, no longitudinal studies have assessed the impact of children's television viewing on attention problems in adolescence. The objective of this study was to assess this association. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING: Study members were a general population birth cohort of 1037 participants (502 female) born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1972 and March 1973. Parental estimates of children's television-viewing time were obtained at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 years. Self-, parent-, and teacher-reported attention problems in adolescence were obtained at ages 13 and 15 years. RESULTS: The mean of hours of television viewing during childhood was associated with symptoms of attention problems in adolescence. These associations remained significant after controlling for gender, attention problems in early childhood, cognitive ability at 5 years of age, and childhood socioeconomic status. This association was also independent of adolescent television viewing. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood television viewing was associated with attention problems in adolescence, independent of early attention problems and other confounders. These results support the hypothesis that childhood television viewing may contribute to the development of attention problems and suggest that the effects may be long-lasting.
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Predicting the counterproductive employee in a child-to-adult prospective study | 2007
Roberts, B.W., Harms, P.D., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007, 92(92), 1427-1436.
DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1427
download pdf Our ref: RO536.2
Show abstract » The present research tested the relations between a battery of background factors and counterproductive work behaviors in a 23-year longitudinal study of young adults (N 930). Background information, such as diagnosed adolescent conduct disorder, criminal conviction records, intelligence, and personality traits, was assessed before participants entered the labor force. These background factors were combined with work conditions at age 26 to predict counterproductive work behaviors at age 26. The results showed that people diagnosed with childhood conduct disorder were more prone to commit counterproductive work behaviors in young adulthood and that these associations were partially mediated by personality traits measured at age 18. Contrary to expectations, criminal convictions that occurred prior to entering the workforce were unrelated to counterproductive work behaviors. Job conditions and personality traits had independent effects on counterproductive work behaviors, above and beyond background factors.
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Birth weight predicts IQ: Fact or artefact? | 2007
Newcombe, R., Milne, B.J., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 2007, 10(10), 581-586.
doi: 10.1375/twin.10.4.581
Our ref: RO536
Show abstract » It has been shown that lower birthweight is associated with lower IQ, but it remains unclear whether this association is causal or spurious. We examined the relationship between birthweight and IQ in two prospective longitudinal birth cohorts: a UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs (563 monozygotic [MZ] pairs), born in 199495, and a New Zealand cohort of 1037 singletons born in 197273. IQ was tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Birthweight differences within MZ twin pairs predicted IQ differences within pairs, ruling out genetic and shared environmental explanations for the association. Birthweight predicted IQ similarly in the twin and nontwin cohorts after controlling for social disadvantage, attesting that the association generalized beyond twins. An increase of 1000 g in birthweight was associated with a 3 IQ point increase. Results from two cohorts add to evidence that low birthweight is a risk factor for compromised neurological health. Our finding that birthweight differences predict IQ differences within MZ twin pairs provides new evidence that the mechanism can be narrowed to an environmental effect during pregnancy, rather than any familial environmental influence shared by siblings, or genes. With the increasing numbers of low-birthweight infants, our results support the contention that birthweight could be a target for early preventive intervention to reduce the number of children with compromised IQ.
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Changes in medication use from age 26 to 32 in a representative birth cohort | 2007
Thomson, W. M. , Poulton, R., Hancox, ... Show all » R. J. , Ryan, K.M., Al-Kubaisy, S. « Hide
Internal Medicine Journal, 2007, 37(37), 543-549.
Our ref: RO535
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: To date, longitudinal studies of medications have been confined to older adults or clinical samples, with no data from prospective studies of younger adults. The aim of the study was to examine changes in medication usage between ages 26 and 32 in a prospective study of a representative birth cohort. METHODS: Medication use during the previous 2 weeks was investigated among 960 individuals at ages 26 and 32. RESULTS: Nearly two-thirds took at least one medication at each age, with medication prevalence higher among women than among men. Three-quarters of those taking at least one at age 26 were doing so at 32. Over-the-counter medication prevalence increased from 35 to 43% between 26 and 32 years of age. Although the prevalence of prescribed medications decreased (from just under half to just over one-third, and from two-thirds to below half among women), there was no significant difference between the ages once hormonal contraceptives were accounted for. By 32, reduced usage of hormonal contraceptives was apparent, with one-third of age-26 users still taking these at 32. Other categories showing major changes were analgesics (increased), anti-asthma drugs (decreased), antidepressants (increased) and antiulcer drugs (increased). At 32, 82% of those taking analgesics, 85% of those taking nutrient supplements, 71% of those taking antihistamines and 33% of those taking antiulcer drugs had self-prescribed them. CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of the sample used medications by age 32, and there was considerable change between 26 and 32. The changes are likely to have been due to a mix of ageing and period effects.
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Work stress precipitates depression and anxiety in young, working women and men | 2007
Melchior, M. , Caspi, A. , Milne, ... Show all » B. J. , Danese, A. , Poulton, R. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 1119-1129.
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Our ref: RO534
Show abstract » ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rates of depression have been rising, as have rates of work stress. We tested the influence of work stress on diagnosed depression and anxiety in young working adults.MethodParticipants were enrolled in the Dunedin study, a 1972-1973 longitudinal birth cohort assessed most recently in 2004-2005, at age 32 (n=972, 96% of 1015 cohort members still alive). Work stress (psychological job demands, work decision latitude, low work social support, physical work demands) was ascertained by interview. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were ascertained using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Participants exposed to high psychological job demands (excessive workload, extreme time pressures) had a twofold risk of MDD or GAD compared to those with low job demands. Relative risks (RRs) adjusting for all work characteristics were: 1.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.98] in women, and 2.00 (95% CI 1.13-3.56) in men. Analyses ruled out the possibility that the association between work stress and disorder resulted from study members' socio-economic position, a personality tendency to report negatively, or a history of psychiatric disorder prior to labour-market entry. Prospective longitudinal analyses showed that high-demand jobs were associated with the onset of new depression and anxiety disorder in individuals without any pre-job history of diagnosis or treatment for either disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Work stress appears to precipitate diagnosable depression and anxiety in previously healthy young workers. Helping workers cope with work stress or reducing work stress levels could prevent the occurrence of clinically significant depression and anxiety.
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Variation in the normal hearing threshold predicts childhood IQ, linguistic and behavioural outcomes | 2007
Welch, D., Dawes, P. J.
Pediatric Research, 2007, 61(61), 737744.
Our ref: RO533
Show abstract » Childhood hearing level varies considerably within the range considered normal. Four classes of outcome were investigated for associations with hearing thresholds in this range: ability to detect signals in noise, neurocognitive ability, linguistic ability, and behavior. The research was conducted in a general population cohort of 711 children with mean hearing threshold of 15 dB HL or better. Some outcomes: speech in noise, intelligence, and certain linguistic abilities, were predicted in both boys and girls; effects were stronger in girls. In girls only, poorer hearing predicted worse behavior. These effects remained after statistical control for childhood socioeconomic status and otitis media. Variability in normal hearing, due to causes other than otitis media, is associated with the listening, language, and neurocognitive abilities of children, and the behavior of girls. We suggest that these effects may be present for three reasons, cochlear insults, neurodevelopmental factors, and psychological factors. We discuss how these may interact to produce the effects observed.
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Systemic inflammation and lung function in young adults | 2007
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R., Greene, ... Show all » J.M., Filsell, S., McLachlan, C. R. , Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R. , Williams, M. J. A., Williamson, A., Sears, M.R. « Hide
Thorax, 2007, 62(62), 1064-1068.
doi:10.1136/thx.2006.076877
Our ref: RO532
Show abstract » Background: Impaired lung function is associated with systemic inflammation and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in older adults. It is unknown when these associations emerge and to what extent they are mediated by smoking, chronic airways disease, and/or established atherosclerosis. We explored the association between the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein in young adults. Methods: Associations between spirometric lung function and blood C-reactive protein were assessed in a population-based birth-cohort of approximately 1000 New Zealanders at ages 26 and 32 years. Analyses adjusted for height and sex to account for differences in predicted lung function and excluded pregnant women. Results: There were significant inverse associations between FEV1 and C-reactive protein at both ages. Similar results were found for the forced vital capacity. These associations were similar in men and women and were independent of smoking, asthma, and body mass index. Conclusions: Reduced lung function is associated with systemic inflammation in young adults. This association is not due to smoking, asthma, or obesity. The reasons for the association are unexplained, but the findings indicate that the association between lower lung function and increased inflammation predates the development of either chronic lung disease or clinically significant atherosclerosis. The association between poor lung function and cardiovascular disease may be mediated by an inflammatory mechanism.
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Interactions between breast-feeding, specific parental atopy, and sex on development of asthma and atopy | 2007
Mandhane, P.J., Greene, J.M., Sears, ... Show all » M.R. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2007, 119(119), 1359-1366.
Our ref: RO531
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: The influence of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopy and asthma remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To examine asthma and atopy outcomes by sex, reported specific parental history of atopy, and breast-feeding. METHODS: In a birth cohort, we examined childhood asthma and atopy (positive skin prick tests) by sex and breast-feeding in relation to maternal and paternal atopy. Interactions were explored in logistic regression models. RESULTS: For boys, breast-feeding (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% CI, 0.93-2.87; P = .09) and maternal atopy (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.93-4.08; P = .08) were each associated with atopy at age 13 years. Breast-feeding increased the risk for atopy among boys with paternal atopy (OR, 7.39; 95% CI, 2.21-24.66) compared with non-breast-fed boys with paternal atopy, but did not significantly further increase risk among subjects with maternal atopy. For girls, breast-feeding (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41-1.31) and maternal and paternal atopy were not independent risk factors for atopy at age 13 years. However, breast-feeding increased the risk for atopy in girls with maternal atopy (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.20-8.14) compared with non-breast-fed girls with maternal atopy. There was no such effect among subjects with paternal atopy. Results for the outcome of asthma followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: The influence of breast-feeding on development of atopy and asthma differs by sex and by maternal and paternal atopy, and is most significant among subjects at lower baseline risk. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Analyses of environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy should be stratified by specific parental atopy and sex.
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Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years | 2007
Moffitt, T. E. , Harrington, H.L. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. , Kim-Cohen, J. , Goldberg, D. , Gregory, A. M. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2007, 64(64), 651-60.
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Our ref: RO530
Show abstract » CONTEXT: The close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize this association in future diagnostic systems. Most information about GAD-MDD comorbidity comes from patient samples and retrospective surveys. OBJECTIVE: To revisit the sequential and cumulative comorbidity between GAD and MDD using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: The representative 1972-1973 Dunedin birth cohort of 1037 members was followed up to age 32 years with 96% retention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Research diagnoses of anxiety and depression were made at ages 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 26, and 32 years. Mental health services were reported on a life history calendar. RESULTS: Sequentially, anxiety began before or concurrently in 37% of depression cases, but depression began before or concurrently in 32% of anxiety cases. Cumulatively, 72% of lifetime anxiety cases had a history of depression, but 48% of lifetime depression cases had anxiety. During adulthood, 12% of the cohort had comorbid GAD + MDD, of whom 66% had recurrent MDD, 47% had recurrent GAD, 64% reported using mental health services, 47% took psychiatric medication, 8% were hospitalized, and 11% attempted suicide. In this comorbid group, depression onset occurred first in one third of the participants, anxiety onset occurred first in one third, and depression and anxiety onset began concurrently in one third. CONCLUSIONS: Challenging the prevailing notion that generalized anxiety usually precedes depression and eventually develops into depression, these findings show that the reverse pattern occurs almost as often. The GAD-MDD relation is strong, suggesting that the disorders could be classified in 1 category of distress disorders. Their developmental relation seems more symmetrical than heretofore presumed, suggesting that MDD is not necessarily primary over GAD in diagnostic hierarchy. This prospective study suggests that the lifetime prevalence of GAD and MDD may be underestimated by retrospective surveys and that comorbid GAD + MDD constitutes a greater mental health burden than previously thought.
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Risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition increases over early adulthood: evidence from a cohort study | 2007
Dickson, N., van Roode, T., Herbison, ... Show all » G. P. , Taylor, J. , Cunningham, A. L. , Paul, C. « Hide
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2007, 83(83), 87-90.
Our ref: RO529
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine how the risk of acquisition of herpes simplex type 2 infection varies with age and sex in early adulthood. Design/ SETTING: A cohort study of 1037 children established at age three from those born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/3. PARTICIPANTS: At the age 32 assessment, 884 participants (432 women and 452 men), 87.1% of the surviving cohort, provided both sera and information on sexual behaviour. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured the proportion with antibodies to HSV-2 infection at ages 26 and 32, then calculated the incidence rates from first coitus to age 26 and from age 26 to 32, adjusting for the number of sexual partners and same sex contact in these age periods. RESULTS: At age 32, 14.6% of men and 22.5% of women had antibodies to HSV-2. Up to age 26 the incidence rates were 6.5 and 14.3 per 1000 person-years for men and women respectively. From age 26 to 32 the incidence rates were 14.3 and 15.8 per 1000 person-years for men and women respectively. When adjusted for sexual behaviour, the incidence rate ratio, comparing the older to the younger age periods, was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.9) for men and 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.4) for women. Comparing women to men, up to age 26 the adjusted incidence rate ratio was 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0) and from age 26 to 32, 1.3 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 2.2). A test for interaction indicated that men and women had different patterns of incidence over time (p=0.039). CONCLUSION: In the general population, risk of acquiring HSV-2 infection appears to increase with age at least to the early 30s, and differences in risk of acquisition for women compared to men become less with age. Health promotion and treatment to control HSV-2 infection should be aimed at all ages, not just the young.
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Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males | 2007
Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A. , Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. , Harrington, H. L., Poulton, R., Sears, M.R., Thomson, W. M. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2007, 64(64), 476-484.
download pdf Our ref: RO528
Show abstract » Context A cardinal feature of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder is the distinction between childhood- vs adolescent-onset subtypes. Whether such developmental subtypes exist in the population and have different prognoses should be rigorously tested to inform the DSM-V. Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological validity of childhood- vs adolescent-onset conduct problems in a prospective birth cohort, and to assess whether life-course-persistent conduct problems are associated with a greater adult health burden. Design, Setting, and Participants Our sample includes 526 male study members in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a 1-year birth cohort (April 1, 1972, through March 30, 1973). Developmental trajectories were defined using prospective ratings of conduct problems at 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Health burden was assessed as mental and physical health problems at 32 years of age measured via diagnostic interviews and physical examinations. Results We identified the following 4 developmental subtypes of conduct problems through general growth mixture modeling: (1) childhood-onset/life-course-persistent, (2) adolescent onset, (3) childhood limited, and (4) low. At 32 years of age, study members with the life-course-persistent subtype experienced the worst health burden. To a lesser extent, those with the adolescent-onset subtype also experienced health problems. A childhood-limited subtype not specified by DSM-IV was revealed; its adult health outcomes were within the range of the cohort norm. Conclusions Results support the epidemiological validity of the DSM-IV conduct disorder distinction based on age of onset but highlight the need to also consider long-term persistence to refine diagnosis. Preventing and treating conduct problems has the potential to reduce the adult health burden.
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Adiposity, asthma and airway inflammation | 2007
McLachlan, C. R. , Poulton, R., Car, ... Show all » G., Cowan, J.O., Filsell, S., Taylor, D.R. , Welch, D., Williamson, A., Sears, M.R., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2007, 119(119), 634-639.
Our ref: RO527
Show abstract » Background. Several studies have found obesity to be associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. For reasons that remain unclear, this association has often been reported to be stronger in women than men. One possible explanation may be that these studies have used body mass index to identify adiposity, which may be a less reliable measure of body fat in men than women. Objective. To explore the association between body fat percent measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and asthma, airflow obstruction and airway inflammation in men and women. Methods. Respiratory questionnaires, spirometry, bronchodilator response, exhaled nitric oxide and percent body fat were measured in a population-based cohort of approximately 1000 individuals at age 32. Results. There was a significant association between percent body fat and asthma in women (p=0.043) but not in men (p=0.75). Airflow obstruction was associated with percent body fat in women (p=0.046) but there was an inverse association in men (p=0.010). Bronchodilator responsiveness was also associated with lower body fat in men (p=0.004). Airway inflammation, measured by exhaled nitric oxide, was not associated with body fat in either women (p=0.17) or men (p=0.25). Conclusion. Adiposity is associated with asthma and airflow obstruction in women. This does not appear to be mediated by airway inflammation. In men airflow obstruction and bronchodilator responsiveness are associated with a lower percent body fat. Clinical Implication. In women, but not in men, obesity is associated with asthma and airflow obstruction but there was no association with airway inflammation.
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No negative outcomes of childhood middle ear disease in adulthood | 2007
Welch, D. , Dawes, P. J.
Laryngoscope, 2007, 117(117), 466-69.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO526
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To test the hypothesis that childhood middle-ear disease may have disadvantageous long-term psychosocial consequences in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study of a general-population birth cohort. METHODS: One thousand thirty-seven people born in 1972/73 were studied from birth to age 26 when 1,019 (96% of survivors) were followed up. Childhood otitis media was assessed, and effects of it have previously been observed in childhood and adolescence. We considered outcome measures that were plausible adult counterparts of the childhood constructs shown to be impaired by otitis media: socioeconomic status, employment status, educational outcomes, personality, mental health, antisocial and criminal behavior, and subjective ratings of personal health (SF-36). RESULTS: No outcome measure was predicted by severity of childhood otitis media. CONCLUSIONS: Adult psychological and socioeconomic outcomes are not related to childhood otitis media when appropriate treatment is available.
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Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32 | 2007
Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A. , Harrington, ... Show all » H. L. , Milne, B. J. , Melchior, M. , Goldberg, D. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 441-52.
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Our ref: RO525
Show abstract » Background. The close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize them in future diagnostic systems. We tested whether risk factors for MDD and GAD are similar or different. Method. The representative 1972-73 Dunedin birth cohort of 1037 males and females was followed to age 32 with 96% retention. Adult GAD and MDD were diagnosed at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years, and juvenile anxiety/depression were also taken into account. Thirteen prospective risk measures indexed domains of family history, adverse family environment, childhood behavior, and adolescent self-esteem and personality traits.Results. Co-morbid MDD+GAD was antedated by highly elevated risk factors broadly across all domains. MDD+GAD was further characterized by the earliest onset, most recurrence, and greatest use of mental health services and medication. Pure GAD had levels of risk factors similar to the elevated levels for co-morbid MDD+GAD; generally, pure MDD did not. Pure GAD had risks during childhood not shared by pure MDD, in domains of adverse family environment (low SES, somewhat more maltreatment) and childhood behavior (internalizing problems, conduct problems, somewhat more inhibited temperament). Pure MDD had risks not shared by pure GAD, in domains of family history (of depression) and personality (low positive emotionality).Conclusions. Specific antecedent risk factors for pure adult MDD versus GAD may suggest partly different etiological pathways. That GAD and co-morbid MDD+GAD share many risk markers suggests that the presence of GAD may signal a pathway toward relatively more severe internalizing disorder.
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Self-control and criminal career dimensions | 2007
Piquero, A.R., Moffitt, T. E. , Wright, ... Show all » B.R. « Hide
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 2007, 23(23), 72-89.
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Our ref: RO524
Show abstract » The criminal career paradigm parcels offenders' careers into multiple dimensions, including participation, frequency, persistence, seriousness, career length, and desistance, and each dimension may have different causes. In a forceful critique of this perspective, Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that low self-control equally predicts all dimensions of criminal behavior and that its effect holds steady across types of people, including both men and women. This study examines the link between low self-control and the career dimensions of participation, frequency, persistence, and desistance from crime. Analyses also investigate whether self-control distinguishes between persistence and desistance. Using data from 985 participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Human Development Study, the authors found overall support for Gottfredson and Hirschi's position.
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Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders | 2007
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Koenen, K., Eley, T. C. , Poulton, R. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2007, 164(164), 301-308.
download pdf Our ref: RO523
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Information about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts. METHOD: The authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort (N=1,037) from ages 11 to 32 years, making psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria. For adults with anxiety disorders at 32 years, follow-back analyses ascertained first diagnosis of anxiety and other juvenile disorders. RESULTS: Of adults with each type of anxiety disorder, approximately half had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (one-third with an anxiety disorder) by age 15. The juvenile histories of psychiatric problems for adults with different types of anxiety disorders were largely nonspecific, partially reflecting comorbidity at 32 years. Histories of anxiety and depression were most common. There was also specificity. For example, adults with panic disorder did not have histories of juvenile disorders, whereas those with other anxiety disorders did. Adults with posttraumatic stress disorder had histories of conduct disorder, whereas those with other anxiety disorders did not. Adults with specific phobia had histories of juvenile phobias but not other anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Strong comorbidity between different anxiety disorders and lack of specificity in developmental histories of adults with anxiety disorders supports a hierarchical approach to classification, with a broad class of anxiety disorders having individual disorders within it. The early first diagnosis of psychiatric difficulties in individuals with anxiety disorders suggests the need to target research examining the etiology of anxiety disorders and preventions early in life.
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Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort | 2007
Koenen, K., Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, ... Show all » R., Martin, J. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 181-192.
download pdf Our ref: RO522
Show abstract » Background. Childhood factors have been associated with increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies assessed only a limited number of childhood factors retrospectively. We examined the association between childhood neurodevelopmental, temperamental, behavioral and family environmental characteristics assessed before age 11 years and the development of PTSD up to age 32 years in a birth cohort.Method. Members of a 1972-73 New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) who were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years for PTSD as defined by DSM-IV.Results. We identified two sets of childhood risk factors. The first set of risk factors was associated both with increased risk of trauma exposure and with PTSD assessed at age 26. These included childhood externalizing characteristics and family environmental stressors, specifically maternal distress and loss of a parent. The second set of risk factors affected risk for PTSD only and included low IQ and chronic environmental adversity. The effect of cumulative childhood factors on risk of PTSD at age 26 was substantial; over 58% of cohort members in the highest risk quartile for three developmental factors had PTSD as compared to only 25% of those not at high risk on any factors. Low IQ at age 5, antisocial behavior, and poverty before age 11 continued to predict PTSD related to traumatic events that occurred between the ages of 26 and 32.Conclusions. Developmental capacities and conditions of early childhood may increase both risk of trauma exposure and the risk that individuals will respond adversely to traumatic exposures. Rather than being solely a response to trauma, PTSD may have developmental origins.
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Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation: A life-course study | 2007
Danese, A., Caspi, A., Pariante, ... Show all » C.M., Taylor, A. , Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, R. « Hide
PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA), 2007, 104(104), 1319-1324.
Our ref: RO521
Show abstract » BACKGROUND. Stress in early life has been associated with insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in adulthood, possibly affecting inflammation processes. Childhood maltreatment has also been linked to increased risk of adult disease with potential inflammatory origin. However, the impact of early-life stress on adult inflammation has not been investigated in humans to date. METHODS. We tested the life-course association between childhood maltreatment and adult inflammation in a birth cohort from birth to age 32 years as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effect of childhood maltreatment on inflammation adjusted for co-occurring risk factors and potential mediating variables. RESULTS. Maltreated children showed a significant and graded increase in the risk for high C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in adulthood (RR=1.80, 95% CI=1.26-2.58). The effect of childhood maltreatment on adult inflammation was independent of the influence of co-occurring early-life risks (RR=1.58, 95% CI=1.08-2.31), stress exposure in adulthood (RR=1.64, 95% CI=1.13-2.40), and adult health and health behavior (RR=1.76, 95% CI=1.23-2.51). More than 10% of cases of low-grade inflammation in the population - as indexed by high hsCRP may be attributable to childhood maltreatment. The association between maltreatment and adult inflammation also generalizes to fibrinogen and white blood cells count. CONCLUSION. Childhood maltreatment is a novel and preventable risk factor for low-grade inflammation in adulthood. Inflammation may be an important developmental mediator linking adverse experiences in early life to adult health.
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The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: are its findings consistent with the overall New Zealand population? | 2006
Poulton, R., Hancox, R. J. , Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Baxter, J., Scott, K., Wilson, N. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), U2002.
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Our ref: NZ91
Show abstract » AIMS: To compare the health of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study members with people of the same age in the nationally representative New Zealand Health and National Nutrition Surveys. METHOD: Where similar information was obtained, means or proportions and confidence intervals were generated for both the age 26 assessment of the Dunedin sample and for the 25-26 year old participants in the national surveys. The populations were considered to differ when confidence intervals did not overlap. RESULTS: For smoking habit, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, general practitioner and medical specialist consultations, and hospital admissions, the findings of the Dunedin Study were not significantly different to the nationally representative surveys. The Dunedin Study members also did not differ from their national counterparts on SF-36 subscales measuring physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and mental health. They had better scores on the three interference subscales of the SF-36 compared to the national sample, and men in the Dunedin Study spent a little more time doing vigorous physical activity. DISCUSSION: For most outcomes, the Dunedin Study members were very similar to the nationally representative samples. There was little evidence that the repeated assessments in the Dunedin Study had significantly altered the Study members' health, either in terms of responses to questionnaires or on physiological measures of health status. Findings from the Dunedin Study are likely to be generalisable to most young New Zealanders. However, the Dunedin Study is under-representative of Maori and Pacific peoples, so these findings need to be interpreted with caution in this context. Implications for the proposed national Longitudinal Study of New Zealand Children and Families are discussed.
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Domestic violence as witnessed by New Zealand children | 2006
Martin, J. , Langley, J.D., Millichamp, ... Show all » J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), .
http:/www.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1228/1817/
Our ref: NZ90
Show abstract » Background: This study reports on domestic violence in New Zealand families witnessed by members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Method: Questions on the witnessing of father to mother and mother to father physical violence and threats of harm up to the age of 18 were included in a retrospective family violence interview carried out when the cohort was interviewed at age 26. Study members who reported violence between parents were asked about the nature, context, and consequences of this violence. Results: One-quarter (24%) of the sample reported violence or threats of violence directed from one parent to the other. Nine percent reported infrequent assaults while one in 10 reported more than five acts of physical violence. In violent families, 55% reported violence by fathers only, 28% by both partners, and 16% by mothers only. Almost 90% of the exposed group witnessed violence between natural parents, and 80% were exposed to violence before the age of 11. The gender of the study member or parent did not predict how upset study members were, but frequency of violence did. Witnesses were more likely than non-witnesses to have diagnoses of anxiety and depression at age 21. Socioeconomic status and age of parents were related to violence patterns, but not the mothers education or employment status. Conclusion: This study suggests that a quarter of young adults have been exposed to acts or threats of violence carried out by one parent toward another parent, and the majority found such witnessing to be a very upsetting experience. Public education programmes should emphasise that all violence carries risk of harm to all family members.
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On the receiving end: young adults describe their parents' use of physical punishment and other disciplinary measures during childhood | 2006
Millichamp, J., Martin, J. , Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), .
http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1228/1818/
Our ref: NZ89
Show abstract » Aim: To investigate the prevalence, nature, and context of physical punishment and other forms of parental discipline, as reported by study members (SMs) of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Methods: 962 26-year-old adults (born in Dunedin, New Zealand) were interviewed about their experiences of discipline in childhood. Study members were asked about the usual forms of punishment received in primary and secondary school years, as well as the worst punishment they ever received. Details regarding the study members reactions to different punishments were collected. Variables related to the person administering the punishment were also investigated. Results: Of the study members providing data, 80% reported receiving physical punishment at some time during childhood: 29% identifying smacking; 45% reporting being hit with an object; and 6% reporting extreme physical punishment as the most severe form. Physical punishment on a regular basis was reported by 71% of study members. Results varied by age with more study members reporting physical punishment in primary school years. However, the number of study members experiencing physical punishment in adolescence was still high, at 47%. Significant gender differences were found in reported punishment, with more girls smacked, and more boys hit with an object in primary school years. Punisher-related reports showed that mothers were significantly more likely to employ non-physical forms of punishment whereas fathers were significantly more likely to use extreme physical punishment. Conclusion: For many New Zealanders, experiences of physical punishment during childhood are very much the norm. These findings have implications for the young adults studied as they now enter the parenting years and for efforts aimed at prevention and early intervention for at-risk groups.
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