The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 8 of 22.

The natural history of childhood abdominal pain and its association with adult irritable bowel syndrome: birth cohort | 2005
Howell, S., Poulton, R., Talley, ... Show all » N. J. « Hide
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2005, 100(100), 2071-2078.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16128954
Our ref: RO491
Show abstract » NTRODUCTION: The natural history of childhood abdominal pain (CAP) and its association with adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly described. We aim to investigate the characteristics of CAP over the first 11 yr of life and evaluate the association of CAP to IBS at age 26 yr. METHOD: The data were collected from a 1972 birth cohort (Dunedin, NZ) who were re-assessed at ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 yr. IBS was classified according to Manning Criteria, as assessed using symptom data collected at age 26 yr. A history of CAP was established by scrutinizing data for all assessments completed from birth to age 11 yr. Three measures were described: medical service encounters for CAP, parental (mainly maternal) report of stomach pain (frequency over the past year), and a composite measure which included both medical encounters and parent report: three childhood time frames were evaluated-ages 0-7, 7-9, and 9-11 yr. RESULTS: A history of CAP was reported by 18.1% of children. This was typically characterized by CAP on one assessment; complaints over two or more assessment were rare. CAP was slightly more common in females and appeared to peak at age 7-9 yr. IBS at age 26 yr was significantly more common among individuals with a history of CAP between ages 7 and 9 yr compared to those with no such history, as assessed by any history (OR = 1.85; p= 0.02), parental report (OR = 1.82; p= 0.03), and medical service encounters (OR = 3.75; p= 0.03). The association between CAP at age 7-9 yr and adult IBS was not altered by adjustment for sex, socio-economic status, psychiatric disorder at age 26 yr, childhood emotional distress, or mother's score on the Malaise Inventory. CONCLUSIONS: CAP is a common complaint, which can progress to adult IBS in some children.
« Hide abstract

Herpes simplex virus type-2 status at age 26 is not related to early circumcision in a birth cohort | 2005
Dickson, N., van Roode, T., Paul, ... Show all » C. « Hide
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2005, 32(32), 517-519.
Our ref: RO489
Show abstract » Objectives: To determine if circumcision in early childhood affects the risk of acquiring herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. Study Design: Study members were born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand. Circumcision status was sought at age 3, when the cohort was established. Information about sexual behaviour was obtained at ages 21 and 26. Serum was tested for HSV-2 antibodies at age 26 for 435 men (82.9% of the surviving cohort). Results: Of eligible men, 40.2% had been circumcised. The prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 7.3% in uncircumcised men and 7.4% in circumcised men. Social and sexual factors were very similar between the two groups and adjustment had no effect on the association (odds ratio=1.1, 95% CI 0.46-2.5). Seroconversion rates according to years since first sexual intercourse were 0.85 and 0.86 per 100 person-years for uncircumcised and circumcised men. Conclusion: The results support a lack of association between circumcision status and HSV-2 acquisition, although a small effect cannot be ruled out.
« Hide abstract

Does caries in primary teeth predict enamel defects in permanent teeth? A longitudinal study | 2005
Broadbent, J. M. , Thomson, W. M. , Williams, ... Show all » S. M. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 2005, 84(84), 260-4.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15723867
Our ref: RO488
Show abstract » The notion that caries in primary teeth causes developmental defects of enamel in permanent teeth has been recently revived. The research objective was to test this hypothesis through analysis of data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a longstanding prospective cohort study. The maxillary incisors of 663 children were assessed for existing restorations and dental caries at age five and for developmental defects of enamel at age nine. Where a primary tooth had been carious, the permanent successor was more likely to have a demarcated opacity after adjustment for gender, family socio-economic status, years of exposure to water fluoridation, trauma to primary teeth, and early loss of primary teeth (unadjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3, 4.1; adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.3). These findings support a time-ordered association between dental caries in primary maxillary incisors and demarcated opacities in their permanent successors.
« Hide abstract

Weight and height growth rate and the timing of adiposity rebound | 2005
Williams, S. M.
Obesity Research, 2005, 13(13), 1123-1130.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15976156
Our ref: RO487
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Adiposity rebound occurs when the ratio of the velocities of log(weight) to log(height) changes from <2 to >2. This study examined the timing of adiposity rebound in the context of the velocities of weight and height in early childhood because it is not known whether faster weight gain or slower gain in stature is the more important determinant. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This was a longitudinal study of 406 boys and 397 girls born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973. Each child's height and weight were measured at 3 years of age and at least twice more as part of their two yearly assessments until 11 years of age. RESULTS: The mean age of adiposity rebound was 6.6 +1.10 years (SD) for boys and 6.0 + 1.21 years for girls. After adjusting for sex, the correlations between the timing of rebound and z-scores for BMI, weight, and height at rebound were -0.35, -0.30, and -0.14, respectively. Correlations between the timing of rebound and estimated values of weight and height velocities at 3 years were -0.48 and -0.00. The correlations with BMI and waist girth at 26 years were -0.39 and -0.35. DISCUSSION: Children with an earlier adiposity rebound were heavier and had above average BMIs. Early rebound is the result of higher rates of weight gain, measured in percentage terms, rather than slower than average accrual of stature. This suggests that restraining weight gain could delay adiposity rebound and prevent obesity in early adulthood.
« Hide abstract

Personality and problem gambling: a prospective study of a birth cohort of young adults | 2005
Slutske, W., Caspi, A., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005, 62(62), 769-775.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO486
Show abstract » Context Individual differences in dimensions of personality may play an important role in explaining risk for disordered gambling behavior as well as the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorders. Objectives To identify the personality correlates of problem gambling in a representative nontreatment-seeking sample, as well as to determine whether these are similar to the personality correlates of other substance-related addictive disorders and whether individual differences in personality might account for the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorders. Design Longitudinal population-based study. Participants A complete birth cohort of young adults born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973 (N=939; 475 men, 464 women). Main Outcome Measures Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire assessments of personality were obtained at age 18 years; structured interview-based diagnoses of past-year problem gambling and alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence were obtained at age 21 years. Results Problem gambling at age 21 years was associated with higher scores on the higher-order personality dimension of negative emotionality (d=0.90) and with lower scores on the personality dimension of constraint (d=0.72) measured at age 18 years compared with control subjects who did not have a past-year addictive disorder at age 21 years. Problem gambling was also associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire indicators of risk-taking (d=0.50) and impulsivity (d=0.56). The personality profile associated with problem gambling was similar to the profiles associated with alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence. The relations between problem gambling and the substance-related addictive disorders (odds ratios=3.32-3.61) were reduced after controlling for individual differences in personality (odds ratios=1.90-2.32). Conclusions From the perspective of personality, problem gambling has much in common with the addictive disorders, as well as with the larger class of externalizing or disinhibitory disorders. Knowledge gained from the study of common personality underpinnings may be helpful in determining where disordered gambling behavior should reside in our diagnostic classification system.
« Hide abstract

Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational achievement | 2005
Hancox, R. J. , Milne, B.J., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2005, 159(159), 614-618.
Our ref: RO485
Show abstract » Background: Excessive television viewing in childhood has been associated with adverse effects on health and behavior. A common concern is that watching too much television may also have a negative impact on education. However, no long-term studies have measured childhood viewing and educational achievement. Objective: To explore these associations in a birth cohort followed up to adulthood. Design: Prospective birth cohort study. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants: Approximately 1000 unselected individuals born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973. Ninety-six percent of the living cohort participated at 26 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: Educational achievement by 26 years of age. Results: The mean time spent watching television during childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with leaving school without qualifications and negatively associated with attaining a university degree. Risk ratios for each hour of television viewing per weeknight, adjusted for IQ and sex, were 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.65) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67- 0.85), respectively (both, P<.001). The findings were similar in men and women and persisted after further adjustment for socioeconomic status and early childhood behavioral problems. Television viewing during childhood (ages 5-11 years) and adolescence (ages 13 and 15 years) had adverse associations with later educational achievement. However, adolescent viewing was a stronger predictor of leaving school without qualifications, whereas childhood viewing was a stronger predictor of non-attainment of a university degree. Conclusions: Television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 26 years of age. Excessive television viewing in childhood may have long-lasting adverse consequences for educational achievement and subsequent socioeconomic status and well-being.
« Hide abstract

Helicobacter pylori serology in a birth cohort of New Zealanders from age 11 to 26 | 2005
Fawcett, J. P. , Barbezat, G. O. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. , Milne, B. J. , Xia, H. H. , Talley, N. J. « Hide
World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2005, 11(11), 3273-3276.
Our ref: RO484
Show abstract » AIM: To determine seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) at age 26 in order to investigate seroconversion and seroreversion from age 11 to 26 and the association of seropositivity with risk factors for H pylori infection. METHODS: Participants in the DMHDS at age 26 and retrospectively at age 21 were tested for H pylori antibodies using two commercially available ELISA kits. Gender, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking, educational attainment and employment at age 26 were tested for association with H pylori seropositivity. RESULTS: At ages 21 and 26, seroprevalence of H pylori using one or other kit was 4.2% (n = 795) and 6.3% (n = 871) respectively. Seroreversion rate was lower than seroconversion rate (0.11% vs 0.53% per person-year) in contrast to the period from age 11 to 21 when seroreversion rate exceeded seroconversion rate (0.35% vs 0.11% per person-year). Serology in those tested at ages 11, 21, and 26 remained unchanged in 93.6% of the sample. Seroprevalence at age 26 was lower among those with a secondary school qualification (P = 0.042) but was not associated with gender, SES, smoking or employment status. CONCLUSION: H pylori seroprevalence in a New Zealand birth cohort remains low between ages 11 and 26. H pylori infection remains stable from childhood to adulthood although seroreversion seems to be more common in the adolescent years than in young adults.
« Hide abstract

C-reactive protein and cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults | 2005
Williams, M. J. A., Milne, B. J. , Hancox, ... Show all » R. J. , Poulton, R. « Hide
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 2005, 12(12), 216-20.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15942418
Our ref: RO483
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Fitness and obesity are both independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. C-reactive protein (CRP), a predictor of cardiovascular events is associated with obesity; but its association with cardiorespiratory fitness in early adulthood is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and CRP, controlling for obesity in an unselected cohort of young adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in a representative birth cohort. METHODS: We measured CRP levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric variables, blood pressure and smoking in 26-year-old men (n=400) and women (n=315). Log CRP levels were compared across cardiorespiratory fitness with adjustment for body mass index (BMI), sex, blood pressure, smoking and combined oral contraceptive use. RESULTS: Geometric mean CRP levels were higher in women (3.23 mg/l, 95% CI 2.85-3.64) compared with men (1.70 mg/l, 1.52-1.89). Regression analysis adjusting for sex and weight showed an inverse association between fitness and CRP (beta=-0.16, P<0.001). This association held after statistical controls were added for BMI, systolic blood pressure and smoking and combined oral contraceptive use (P
« Hide abstract

Adolescents' intentions to smoke as a predictor of smoking | 2005
Stanton, W. R. , Barnett, A. G. , Silva, ... Show all » P. A. « Hide
Preventive Medicine, 2005, 40(40), 221-226.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533533
Our ref: RO482
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Adolescents' intentions to smoke are generally regarded as a valid and reliable predictor of subsequent smoking. This association is largely based on research with adults and needs a more detailed analysis for adolescents. METHODS: Data on intentions and smoking status were collected as part of a longitudinal, birth-cohort study when the study members were 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21 years of age. RESULTS: The results showed that intention to smoke only had an important predictive power in the subgroup of previous nonsmokers. Among those already smoking (on a monthly basis or greater), previous level of smoking was a more important predictor of future behavior than intention to smoke. In addition, the effect of positive intention to smoke was nonlinear over age and had the greatest effect at age 15. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that in adolescence, measurement of intentions to smoke or not smoke cannot be assumed to be a general predictor of behavior at a later age for all groups of adolescents.
« Hide abstract

Asthma in remission: can relapse in early adulthood be predicted at age 18 years of age | 2005
Taylor, D.R. , Cowan, J.O., Greene, ... Show all » J.M., Willan, A., Sears, M.R. « Hide
Chest, 2005, 127(127), 845-850.
Our ref: RO481
Show abstract » Study Objective: To determine the frequency of relapse of asthma in young adults in remission at age 18, during a follow-up period of 8 years, and to identify possible prognostic markers for relapse. Design: Longitudinal study of birth cohort (n=1037) born in New Zealand in 1972/3. Setting: University Hospital research clinic. Measurements: Participants were assessed at age 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21 and 26 using a respiratory questionnaire (all ages), spirometry (all ages), bronchodilator response (ages 18 and 26), methacholine challenge (ages 9, 11, 13, 15 and 21) and allergen skin prick testing (ages 13 and 21). Results: Approximately one third (35%) of study members whose asthma was in remission at age 18 experienced relapse by age 21 or 26. Atopy and lower FEV1/VC ratio at age 18 were significant independent prognostic factors for relapse in multiple logistic regression analyses. Increased responsiveness to methacholine (PC20 less than 8mg/ml) or bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of 10% or greater) at age 21 were more common among those who relapsed, but the positive and negative predictive values for a previous positive methacholine challenge test at age 15 were low. Asthma after relapse was generally mild (mean FEV1 97.1% predicted). Totally new adult asthma developed by age 26 in 9% of study members who had no asthma or wheezing at any time up to age 18. Conclusions: Subsequent relapse of previously diagnosed asthma which is in remission at age 18 occurs in one in three young adults. Such relapse is not easily predicted, especially by measurements of airway responsiveness. A history of asthma currently in remission should not be used to prejudice employment opportunities for young adults.
« Hide abstract

Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency | 2005
Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, ... Show all » R. W., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Science, 2005, 16(16), 328-35.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15828981
download pdf Our ref: RO480
Show abstract » The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.
« Hide abstract

Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood | 2005
Gregory, A.M., Caspi, A., Eley, ... Show all » T.C., Moffitt, T. E. , O'Connor, T.G., Poulton, R. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2005, 33(33), 157-163.
download pdf Our ref: RO479
Show abstract » The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. When the participants were 21 and 26 years, adult anxiety and depression were diagnosed using a standardized diagnostic interview. After controlling for childhood internalizing problems, sex, and socioeconomic status, persistent sleep problems in childhood predicted adulthood anxiety disorders (OR (95% CI) = 1.60 (1.05-2.45), p = .030) but not depressive disorders (OR (95% CI) = .99 (.63-1.56), p = .959). Persistent sleep problems in childhood may be an early risk indicator of anxiety in adulthood.
« Hide abstract

Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene x environment interaction | 2005
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Cannon, ... Show all » M., McClay, J., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B.S., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Craig, I. « Hide
Biological Psychiatry, 2005, 57(57), 1117-1127.
download pdf Our ref: RO478
Show abstract » Background: Recent evidence documents that cannabis use by young people is a modest statistical risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as clinically significant schizophrenia. The vast majority of cannabis users do not develop psychosis, however, prompting us to hypothesize that some people are genetically vulnerable to the deleterious effects of cannabis. Methods: In a longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort followed to adulthood, we tested why cannabis use is associated with the emergence of psychosis in a minority of users, but not in others. Results: A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene moderated the influence of adolescent cannabis use on developing adult psychosis. Carriers of the COMT valine allele were most likely to exhibit psychotic symptoms and to develop schizophreniform disorder if they used cannabis. Cannabis use had no such adverse influence on individuals with two copies of the methionine allele. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of a gene ' environment interaction and suggest that a role of some susceptibility genes is to influence vulnerability to environmental pathogens.
« Hide abstract

Intergenerational transmission of warm-sensitive-stimulating parenting: A prospective study of mothers and fathers of 3-year-olds | 2005
Belsky, J., Jaffee, S.R., Sligo, ... Show all » J., Woodward, L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Child Development, 2005, 76(76), 384-396.
Our ref: RO477
Show abstract » More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b) whether romantic relationship quality moderated the effect of childrearing history on observed parenting. Support for the first hypothesis emerged across all 3 developmental periods for mothers (only), with no evidence of moderating effects of romantic relationship quality for mothers or fathers. Results are discussed in terms of supportive versus harsh parenting, motherfather differences, and the characteristics of the sample.
« Hide abstract

Commentary: How does socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood damage health in adulthood? Testing psychosocial pathways | 2005
Poulton, R. , Caspi, A.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 2005, 34(34), 344-345.
ISSN 0300-5771
Our ref: RO476
Show abstract » Commentary in Special Theme Section on Socioeconomic Position and Health
« Hide abstract

Is cigarette smoking associated with suicidal ideation among young people? | 2005
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Nada-Raja, ... Show all » S. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005, 162(162), 619-620.
download pdf Our ref: RO475
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE The authors examined the association between suicidal ideation in early adulthood and daily tobacco smoking in a community sample of adolescents. METHOD Participants were enrolled in a longitudinal study of health and development. The factors of disadvantage, impulsiveness, stress, depressed mood, tobacco smoking, other substance use, and parental attachment were included in multivariate modelling of suicidal ideation. RESULTSData on tobacco use were available for 764 participants. Early tobacco smoking was significantly predictive of later suicidal ideation, but there was no longer a significant relationship when high levels of stress and depression and low levels of parental attachment in adolescence were included in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco smoking in adolescence does not appear to elevate the risk of later suicidal ideation
« Hide abstract

First fracture increases risk of new fractures during growth | 2005
Goulding, A., Jones, I.E., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Grant, A.M., Taylor, R.W., Manning, P.J., Langley, J.D. « Hide
Journal of Pediatrics, 2005, 146(146), 286-288.
Our ref: RO474
Show abstract » Prior fracture was associated with increased risk of new fracture in 601 members of a cohort studied between birth and l8 years. Hazard ratios for new fracture in data adjusted for age and sex were l.90 (95%CI l.51-2.39) after first fracture and 3.04 (95% CI 2.23-4.15) after second fracture.
« Hide abstract

Sex Differences in the relation between Body Mass Index and asthma and atopy in a Birth Cohort | 2005
Hancox, R. J. , Milne, B. J. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. , Taylor, D. R. , Greene, J. M. , McLachlan, C. R. , Cowan, J. O. , Flannery, E. M. , Herbison, G. P. , Sears, M. R. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2005, 171(171), 440-445.
Our ref: RO473
Show abstract » Rationale: Several studies have identified an association between asthma and obesity in women. It remains unclear if this association is due to genuine asthma or to symptoms caused by overweight, at what age the association develops, and whether it is confined to females. Objective: To explore the relations between body mass index, asthma, and atopy in a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 individuals. Methods: Information on asthma and measurements of lung function, airway responsiveness, and atopy were obtained on multiple occasions between ages 9 and 26. Associations between these outcomes and body mass index were analyzed using generalized mixed linear regression models. Further analyses adjusted for potential covariates including breastfeeding, birth order, parental asthma, and personal and family smoking history. Main results: Body mass index was positively associated with asthma, wheeze, asthma treatment, atopy, immunoglobulin E, and inversely with the FEV1/ FVC ratio in females. There was no significant association with airway responsiveness to methacholine or salbutamol. There was little evidence of an association between body mass index and asthma or atopy in males. Analyses adjusting for potential covariates showed similar findings. Asthma was not associated with a raised body mass index in childhood and childhood asthma did not lead to being overweight as an adult. Conclusions: A raised body mass index is associated with asthma and atopy in women but not men. Population attributable fraction calculations estimate that28%(95% confidence interval 745) of asthma developing in women after age 9 is due to overweight.
« Hide abstract

Low back pain in young New Zealanders | 2004
McBride, D.L., Begg, D.J., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Buckingham, K. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2004, 117(117), U1099.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15477923
Our ref: NZ88
Show abstract » AIMS: To describe the occupational implications and impact of low back pain (LBP) in a birth cohort now aged 26. METHODS: The LBP data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Study members were asked about the prevalence and frequency of LBP and, for the worst episode, details were sought on occupation, time off work or job limitation, the severity of the discomfort, and disability. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 980 individuals, and 969 individuals answered the questionnaire. Of these 969 individuals, 524 (54%) experienced LBP in the previous 12 months, with a modal frequency of three or more times a year. For the 448 individuals with a current occupation, there was no difference in the distribution of LBP between those with professional, clerical, and technical jobs and those with production or trades jobs. Fifty-six individuals had to have time off work (the majority for less than 7 days), and 13 individuals could not look after themselves because of pain. Based on data gathered on 26 year olds, the cost to the economy is estimated as NZ500 million dollars per annum. CONCLUSION: LBP is prevalent and disabling even in young people, and has high costs. The natural history of the disorder is still largely unknown, but work does play a part. Although getting a person back to work may still be the best treatment, it is important to address the workplace factors.
« Hide abstract

The self-rated health of women in mid-life: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of a New Zealand sample | 2004
Keller-Olaman, S., Williams, S.M., Knight, ... Show all » R.G., McGee, R. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 2004, 33(33), 66-77.
Our ref: NZ87
Show abstract » Correlates of self-rated health were examined among 704 New Zealand women in mid-life. Logistic regression was used and the variables were grouped within six domains: Health status variables, socio-demographics, social integration, health-influencing behaviours, preventive behaviours, and service utilisation. The final models were dominated by the health status variables. When health status was excluded, poor self-rated health was predicted by not having paid work, low satisfaction with social support, and use of hospital services. A low level of physical activity, being overweight, and two or more visits to a health professional in the past 12 months were associated with good rather than very good self-rated health. The models validated the use of self-rated health as an indicator of health status. The findings also identified the importance of social circumstances when interpreting poor health and lifestyle factors when interpreting good health.
« Hide abstract

Identifying and predicting adolescent smokers' developmental trajectories | 2004
Stanton, W.R., Flay, B.R., Colder, ... Show all » C.R., Mehta, P. « Hide
Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2004, 6(6), 843-852.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO499
Show abstract » Very few studies have defined trajectories of smoking. In the present study, we modeled growth in adolescent smoking and empirically identified prototypical trajectories. We conceptualized escalation of smoking as a growth process and modeled rates of change and heterogeneity of these patterns using latent growth mixture modeling. The analysis identified six trajectories with low ambiguity about group membership (early rapid escalators, late rapid escalators, late moderate escalators, late slow escalators'smokers, stable puffers, and late slow escalators'puffers). A trajectory of quitters was not identified. We also examined predictors of the smoking trajectories. The predictors were assessed across the adolescent years and included variables related to smoking and other substance use, as well as a range of variables related to sociodemographic factors and mental health. Observed change in the pattern of predictors across age has implications for the mechanism of effect of these variables in relation to smoking trajectories, including predictors that differentiated among daily smokers, variables that may determine the trajectory (e.g., friends smoking), and variables that may result from the trajectory (e.g., marijuana use, less attachment to friends).
« Hide abstract

Who do young adult victims of assault talk to about their experiences | 2004
Thomson, R., Langley, J.D.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2004, 32(32), 479-488.
Our ref: RO492
Show abstract » Many victims of physical assaults do not report the assault to the police. In this study we examine whom these victims talked to and how satisfied they were with the help they received. A sample of 374 participants of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) who had been assaulted in the preceding 12 months, were asked questions about an assault that had the greatest impact on their life and who they had talked to about it. It was found that not only did very few participants report the assault to the police; most victims talked to no one. If they did talk to someone, they were more likely to talk to friends and family and find them more helpful than the police and other services. Talking to others appears to be influenced by the nature of the assault, as participants were most likely to report serious assaults resulting in injuries requiring medical attention.
« Hide abstract

Specialization and the propensity to violence: support from self-reports but not official records | 2004
Lynam, D.R., Piquero, A.R., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. « Hide
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 2004, 20(20), 215-228.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO472
Show abstract » The degree to which the propensity to commit violence is distinct from the propensity to commit other nonviolent acts informs theory, research, and practice. This research examines whether there are individuals who tend to specialize in violent versus nonviolent crimes and whether these individuals differ from one another on other measures. Building off prior research, a distributional approach to specialization that examines offenses within individuals' careers was applied to both self-reported and official crime data from a large birth cohort from Dunedin, New Zealand. Whereas analyses of official reports were consistent with previous research in documenting little specialization, analyses using self-reports indicated that individuals differed in their propensities to commit violent crime. Further, individuals with some violent crimes in their offense distribution differ from those with no violent crimes in terms of previous histories of behavior problems and personality. Implications for current theory and future directions are discussed.
« Hide abstract

Substance abuse ensnares young adults in trajectories of antisocial behavior | 2004
Hussong, A., Curran, P.J., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Caspi, A., Carrig, M.M. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 2004, 16(16), 1029-1046.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO471
Show abstract » We examined two hypotheses about the developmental relation between substance abuse and individual differences in desistance from antisocial behavior during young adulthood. The 'snares' hypothesis posits that substance abuse should result in time-specific elevations in antisocial behavior relative to an individual's own developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior, whereas the 'launch' hypothesis posits that substance abuse early in young adulthood slows an individual's overall pattern of crime desistance relative to the population norm during this developmental period. We conducted latent trajectory analyses to test these hypotheses using interview data about antisocial behaviors and substance abuse assessed at ages 18, 21, and 26 in men from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (N = 461). We found significant individual variability in initial levels and rates of change in antisocial behavior over time as well as support for both the snares hypothesis and the launch hypothesis as explanations for the developmental relation between substance abuse and crime desistance in young men.
« Hide abstract

Obesity and chronic gastrointestinal tract symptoms in young adults: a birth cohort study | 2004
Talley, N. J., Howell, S., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2004, 99(99), 1807-1814.
Our ref: RO470
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: The childhood socioeconomic environment has been linked to adult health status in several studies. However, its role in the pathogenesis of adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unknown. We aim to assess the influence of the childhood environment on adult IBS, using data from a New Zealand birth cohort study. METHODS: The Dunedin birth cohort was assembled in 1972-1973 and has been followed prospectively to age 26 (n = 980). IBS was classified according to both Rome and Manning criteria, using self-reported symptom data obtained at age 26 yr. Childhood social class was used as a proxy measure of the quality of the childhood socioeconomic environment and was assigned according to the highest average socioeconomic (SES) level of either parent from interviews across the first 15 yr of life. RESULTS: Childhood social class was significantly associated with IBS according to Manning Criteria (p= 0.05) and Rome II Criteria (p= 0.05). The prevailing trend was identical for both measures of IBS in the sex-adjusted models: this trend can be characterized as a general, and near-linear decrease in the odds of IBS across decreasing levels of social class. Contrasts with the reference group were significant on all comparisons for Manning Criteria IBS (high vs upper middle, p= 0.04; lower middle, p= 0.04; low, p= 0.01), and on comparisons involving the two lower social class groups for Rome II Criteria IBS (high vs lower middle, p= 0.03; low, p= 0.03). The associations were attenuated, but not eliminated by further adjustment for adult social class. CONCLUSIONS: An affluent childhood environment is an independent risk factor for adult IBS.
« Hide abstract

The irritable bowel syndrome has origins in the childhood socio-economic environment | 2004
Howell, S., Talley, N. J., Quine, ... Show all » S., Poulton, R. « Hide
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2004, 99(99), 1572-1578.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15307879
Our ref: RO469
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: The childhood socioeconomic environment has been linked to adult health status in several studies. However, its role in the pathogenesis of adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unknown. We aim to assess the influence of the childhood environment on adult IBS, using data from a New Zealand birth cohort study. METHODS: The Dunedin birth cohort was assembled in 1972-1973 and has been followed prospectively to age 26 (n = 980). IBS was classified according to both Rome and Manning criteria, using self-reported symptom data obtained at age 26 yr. Childhood social class was used as a proxy measure of the quality of the childhood socioeconomic environment and was assigned according to the highest average socioeconomic (SES) level of either parent from interviews across the first 15 yr of life. RESULTS: Childhood social class was significantly associated with IBS according to Manning Criteria (p= 0.05) and Rome II Criteria (p= 0.05). The prevailing trend was identical for both measures of IBS in the sex-adjusted models: this trend can be characterized as a general, and near-linear decrease in the odds of IBS across decreasing levels of social class. Contrasts with the reference group were significant on all comparisons for Manning Criteria IBS (high vs upper middle, p= 0.04; lower middle, p= 0.04; low, p= 0.01), and on comparisons involving the two lower social class groups for Rome II Criteria IBS (high vs lower middle, p= 0.03; low, p= 0.03). The associations were attenuated, but not eliminated by further adjustment for adult social class. CONCLUSIONS: An affluent childhood environment is an independent risk factor for adult IBS.
« Hide abstract

Socio-economic inequalities in oral health in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort | 2004
Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Caspi, A., Broughton, J.R., Ayers, K.M.S. « Hide
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2004, 32(32), 345-353.
Our ref: RO468
Show abstract » Objectives: To determine whether adult oral health is predicted by (a) childhood socioeconomic advantage or disadvantage (controlling for childhood oral health), or (b) oral health in childhood (controlling for childhood socioeconomic advantage or disadvantage), and whether oral health in adulthood is affected by changes in socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Participants in a longstanding cohort study underwent systematic dental examination for dental caries and tooth loss at ages 5 and 26 years. The examination at age 26 years included the collection of data on periodontal attachment loss and plaque level. Childhood SES was determined using parental occupation, and adult SES was determined from each study member's occupation at age 26 years. Regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Results: Complete data were available for 789 individuals (47.4% female). After controlling for childhood oral health, those who were of low SES at age 5 years had substantially greater mean DFS and DS scores by age 26 years, were more likely to have lost a tooth in adulthood because of caries, and had greater prevalence and extent of periodontitis. A largely similar pattern was observed (after controlling for childhood SES) among those with greater caries experience at age 5 years. For almost all oral health indicators examined, a clear gradient was observed of greater disease at age 26 years across socioeconomic trajectory groups, in the following order of ascending disease severity and prevalence: 'high-high', 'low-high' (upwardly mobile), 'high-low' (downwardly mobile) and 'low-low'. Conclusion: Adult oral health is predicted by not only childhood socioeconomic advantage or disadvantage, but also by oral health in childhood. Changes in socioeconomic advantage or disadvantage are associated with differing levels of oral health in adulthood. The life-course approach appears to be a useful paradigm for understanding oral health disparities.
« Hide abstract

Identifying predictors of persistent non-alcohol or drug related risky driving behaviours among a cohort of young adults. | 2004
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2004, 36(36), 1067-1071.
Our ref: RO467
Show abstract » This study sought to identify adolescent risk factors that predicted persistent risky driving behaviours among young adults. It was part of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort (474 males and 459 females). The potential predictors were self-reported data obtained at ages 15, 18, 21 years (academic qualifications, personality, mental health, anti-social behaviour and driving behaviour). The risky driving behaviour outcomes were obtained at ages 21 and 26 years and included driving fast for thrills, taking deliberate risks for fun, excessive speed, dangerous overtaking, and close following (tailgating). Persistent risky drivers were defined as those who often, or fairly often engaged in a behaviour at both ages. A minority of males and very few females were classified as persistent risky drivers. Among the males, the factors that predicted at least one, or more of the outcomes were the personality trait of low constraint (i.e. low scores for control, harm avoidance, and traditionalism), aggressive behaviour, and cannabis dependence. These are characteristics to be borne in mind when developing programmes for young drivers that aim to deter the development of persistent risky driving behaviour.
« Hide abstract

Association between C-reactive protein, metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, obesity and oral contraceptive use in young adults | 2004
Williams, M.J.A., Williams, S.M., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Hancox, R.J., Poulton, R. « Hide
International Journal of Obesity, 2004, 28(28), 998-1003.
Our ref: RO466
Show abstract » Objective: This study sought to determine the relationship between levels of the inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiovascular risk factors and oral contraceptive use in young adults. Design: Cross-sectional study of a community cohort. Subjects: 822 men and women aged 26 years. Measurements: CRP, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels, smoking status, socioeconomic status, health status, and hormonal contraceptive use in women. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed obesity was independently related to CRP with an increase in ratio CRP of 1.03 (95% CI; 1.01, 1.05) for men and 1.07 (1.05, 1.09) for women associated with a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI. In women combined oral contraceptive use was associated with a ratio change in CRP of 1.52 (1.27, 1.82) compared with non users. Other independent determinants of CRP in men and women were apolipoprotein B level, systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein A in men. Univariate analysis showed the relationship between CRP and BMI, systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B was significantly stronger in women than men. Conclusion: These findings suggest obesity is associated with inflammation independent of other cardiovascular risk factors which may contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in men and women. Elevated CRP related to combined oral contraceptive use may influence the rate of cardiovascular events in young women.
« Hide abstract

Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study | 2004
Hancox, R.J., Milne, B.J., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Lancet, 2004, 364(364), 257-262.
Our ref: RO465
Show abstract » Background: Watching television in childhood and adolescence has been linked to a number of adverse health indicators including obesity, poor fitness, smoking and raised cholesterol. However, there have been no longitudinal studies of childhood viewing and adult health. We explored these associations in a birth cohort followed to age 26. Methods: Approximately 1000 unselected individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-1973 have been assessed at regular intervals up to age 26. The associations between earlier television viewing and Body Mass Index (BMI), cardio-respiratory fitness (maximum aerobic power assessed by a submaximal cycling test), serum cholesterol, smoking status and blood pressure at age 26 were examined using regression analyses. Findings: Average weeknight viewing hours between age 5 and 15 were associated with increased BMI, lower cardio-respiratory fitness, increased cigarette smoking and raised serum cholesterol (P values <005). There was no significant association with blood pressure. Except for cholesterol, these associations persisted after adjustment for potential confounding factors including childhood socio-economic status, age 5 BMI, parental BMI, parental smoking, and age 15 physical activity and dietary indicators. Population attributable fractions indicate that 17% of overweight, 15% of raised serum cholesterol, 16% of smoking and 15% of poor fitness at age 26 could be attributed to watching television for more than 2 hours a day during childhood and adolescence. Interpretation: Television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with overweight, poor fitness, smoking and raised cholesterol in adulthood. Excessive viewing may have long-lasting adverse effects on health.
« Hide abstract

Self-harm and psychiatric disorder: A population-based study | 2004
Skegg, K.M., Nada-Raja, S., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. « Hide
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 2004, 34(34), 187-196.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO464
Show abstract » Abstract: Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as self-battery, as well as traditional methods of suicide (ICD [International Classification of Diseases] self-harm). All with ICD self-harm and most with other self-harmful behavior met the criteria for DSM-IV disorder. Suicidal/self-harmful thoughts increased the odds for self-harm, even in men without psychiatric disorder (odds ratio 4.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 - 17.9). Young adults engaging in even minor self-harm warrant screening for psychiatric disorder.
« Hide abstract

Self-harmful behaviours in a population-based sample of young adults | 2004
Nada-Raja, S., Skegg, K.M., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Morrison, D.N., Sowerby, P. « Hide
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 2004, 34(34), 177-186.
Our ref: RO463
Show abstract » A birth cohort of 472 women and 494 men aged 26 years was inter-viewed about a range of self-harmful behaviors first and then asked about suicidal intent. Lifetime prevalence of self-harm using traditional methods of suicide (ICD [International Classification of Diseases] self-harm) was 13%, with 9% of the sample describing at least one such episode as attempted suicide. Other self-harmful behaviors were common; 14% of women and 33% of men reported self-battery. ICD self-harm over the past year was reported by 3%, mostly without suicidal intent. ICD self-harm and even lesser behaviors were associated with high odds of reporting suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that studies of self-harm should include behaviors not necessarily associated with suicidal intent.
« Hide abstract

Influences during adolescence on perceptions and behaviour related to alcohol use and unsafe driving as young adults | 2004
Gulliver, P., Begg, D.J.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2004, 36(36), 773-781.
Our ref: RO462
Show abstract » Objective: To investigate whether aggression, parent and peer influences, and previous traffic-related experiences at ages 15 and 18 impacted on (a) differences between the perceived safe and estimated legal alcohol consumption limit, and (b) driving while impaired (DWI) behaviour at age 21. Method: The study population was a birth cohort involved in a longitudinal investigation of health and development. At the ages of 15 and 18, study members completed questionnaires assessing parent and peer attachment, experience travelling with an alcohol impaired adult or youth, aggression, and previous crash experience. At age 21, study members were questioned about how much alcohol they perceived they could drink and still drive safely, and whether they had driven after perhaps consuming too much alcohol. For each participant their legal alcohol consumption limit was estimated using their height and weight. Path analysis was used to determine whether variables measured at ages 15 and 18 predicted differences between the perceived safe and estimated legal alcohol consumption limit and driving while impaired, both measured at age 21. Results: Insufficient females drove while impaired at age 21, who also had complete data on all other variables, to conduct path analysis for this outcome. For males, aggression at ages 15 and 18, travelling with an impaired youth at age 18, and previous crash experience at age 18 predicted DWI behaviour at age 21. Only aggression at age 15 predicted the difference between perceived safe and estimated legal alcohol consumption limit for the males. For females, aggression at ages 15 and 18, and travelling with an impaired adult at age 15 predicted the difference between perceived safe and estimated legal alcohol consumption limit. Conclusion: The results show that aggressive behaviours and adult and/or youth modelling of drink driving behaviours in mid- to late-adolescence are related to differences between perceived safe and estimated legal alcohol consumption limit for both genders and driving while impaired for males.
« Hide abstract

Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence | 2004
Arseneault, L. , Cannon, M. , Witton, ... Show all » J. , Murray, R. M. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2004, 184(184), 110-117.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO461
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Controversy remains as to whether cannabis acts as a causal risk factor for schizophrenia or other functional psychotic illnesses. AIMS: To examine critically the evidence that cannabis causes psychosis using established criteria of causality. METHOD: We identified five studies that included a well-defined sample drawn from population-based registers or cohorts and used prospective measures of cannabis use and adult psychosis. RESULTS: On an individual level, cannabis use confers an overall twofold increase in the relative risk for later schizophrenia. At the population level, elimination of cannabis use would reduce the incidence of schizophrenia by approximately 8%, assuming a causal relationship. Cannabis use appears to be neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause for psychosis. It is a component cause, part of a complex constellation of factors leading to psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which cannabis causes psychosis.
« Hide abstract

Relationship between socioeconomic status and asthma: a longitudinal cohort study | 2004
Hancox, R. J. , Milne, B. J. , Taylor, ... Show all » D. R. , Greene, J. M. , Cowan, J. O. , Flannery, E. M. , Herbison, G. P. , McLachlan, C. R. , Poulton, R. , Sears, M. R. « Hide
Thorax, 2004, 59(59), 376-80.
Our ref: RO460
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: There is conflicting information about the relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status, with different studies reporting no, positive, or inverse associations. Most of these studies have been cross sectional in design and have relied on subjective markers of asthma such as symptoms of wheeze. Many have been unable to control adequately for potential confounding factors. METHODS: We report a prospective cohort study of approximately 1000 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-3. This sample has been assessed regularly throughout childhood and into adulthood, with detailed information collected on asthma symptoms, lung function, airway responsiveness, and atopy. The prevalence of these in relation to measures of socioeconomic status were analysed with and without controls for potential confounding influences including parental history of asthma, smoking, breast feeding, and birth order using cross sectional time series models. RESULTS: No consistent association was found between childhood or adult socioeconomic status and asthma prevalence, lung function, or airway responsiveness at any age. Having asthma made no difference to educational attainment or socioeconomic status by age 26. There were trends to increased atopy in children from higher socioeconomic status families consistent with previous reports. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status in childhood had no significant impact on the prevalence of asthma in this New Zealand born cohort. Generalisation of these results to other societies should be done with caution, but our results suggest that the previously reported associations may be due to confounding.
« Hide abstract

Sex differences in developmental reading disability: New findings from four epidemiological studies | 2004
Rutter, M., Caspi, A., Fergusson, ... Show all » D.M., Horwood, L.J., Goodman, R., Maughan, B., Moffitt, T. E. , Melzer, H., Carroll, J. « Hide
JAMA , 2004, 291(291), 1007-2012.
Our ref: RO459
Show abstract » Context An influential article published in 1990 claimed that the increased rate of reading disability in boys was a consequence of referral bias. Objectives To summarize the history of research on sex differences in reading disability and to provide new evidence from 4 independent epidemiological studies about the nature, extent, and significance of sex differences in reading disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study comprised 989 individuals (52.1% male) in a cohort born between April 1972 and March 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand, and followed up from age 3 years; reading performance and IQ were assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11 years using the Burt Word Reading Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R), respectively. The Christchurch Health and Development Study comprised 895 individuals (50% male) in a prospectively studied cohort born in the Christchurch, New Zealand, region during a 4-month period in 1977; reading performance and IQ were assessed at ages 8 to 10 years using the Burt Word Reading Test and the WISC-R. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) Study comprised a UK nationally representative sample of 5752 children (50.1% male) aged 9 to 15 years in 1999; reading was assessed on the British Ability Scales II and IQ on the British Picture Vocabulary Scales II. The Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study (E-Risk) comprised 2163 twin children from England and Wales (49.1% male) identified at birth in 1994 and 1995 and included administration of the Test of Word Reading Efficiency at age 7 years and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised as a test of IQ at age 5 years. Main Outcome Measure Reading performance by sex in the lowest 15% of the distribution for all 4 studies, with and without taking IQ into account. Results In all 4 studies, the rates of reading disability were significantly higher in boys. For non IQ-referenced reading disability: Dunedin study, 21.6% in boys vs 7.9% in girls (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15-4.17); Christchurch study, 20.6% in boys vs 9.8% in girls (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.62-3.50); ONS study, 17.6% in boys vs 13.0% in girls (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65); and E-Risk, 18.0% in boys vs 13.0% in girls (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.86). The rates for IQ-referenced reading disabilities were similar. Conclusion Reading disabilities are clearly more frequent in boys than in girls.
« Hide abstract

Clinically abusive relationships in an unselected birth cohort: men's and women's participation and developmental antecedents | 2004
Ehrensaft, M. K. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2004, 113(113), 258-70.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO458
Show abstract » In an unselected birth cohort (N=980, age 24-26 years), individuals in abusive relationships causing injury and/or official intervention (9% prevalence) were compared with participants reporting physical abuse without clinical consequences and with control participants who reported no abuse, on current characteristics and prospective developmental risks. In nonclinically abusive relationships, perpetrators were primarily women. In clinically abusive relationships, men and women used physical abuse, although more women needed medical treatment for injury. Women in clinically abusive relationships had childhood family adversity, adolescent conduct problems, and aggressive personality; men had disinhibitory psychopathology since childhood and extensive personality deviance. These findings counter the hibitory assumption that if clinical abuse was ascertained in epidemiological samples, it would be primarily man-to-woman, explained by patriarchy rather than psychopathology.
« Hide abstract

The utility of the zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated Negative Binomial models: a case study of cross-sectional and longitudinal DMF data examining the effect of socio-economic status | 2004
Lewsey, J.D., Thomson, W.M.
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2004, 32(32), 183-189.
Our ref: RO457
Show abstract » Objectives. To examine the utility of the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) modelling approaches for modelling four sets of dental caries data from the same cohort study (with particular attention to the influence of childhood socio-economic status, SES): cross-sectional data on the deciduous dentition at age 5; cross-sectional data on the permanent dentition at age 18 and age 26; and longitudinal data on caries increment between ages 18 and 26. Methods. Data on dental caries occurrence at ages 5, 18 and 26 were obtained from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS). ZIP and ZINB models were fitted to the cross-sectional (n = 745) and longitudinal (n = 809) data sets using Stata (Intercooled Stata 7.0, Stata Corporation, College Station TX 77840, USA, 2001). The dependent variables for the three cross-sectional analyses were the DMFS indices at age 5, 18, and 26, and net DFS increment (NETDFS) was the dependent variable for the longitudinal analysis. Results. The empty ZIP model was a poor fit for all four data-sets, whereas the empty ZINB model showed good fit; consequently both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using ZINB modelling. Being in the high-SES group during childhood was associated with a greater probability of being caries-free by age 18, over and above that which would be expected from the negative binomial process. Low childhood SES also had the largest coefficient in the modelling of the negative binomial process, but at age 5, where the adjusted mean dmfs score in the low-SES group was 6.8 (compared to 4.7 and 2.9 in the medium- and high-SES groups respectively). The substantial SES differences which existed at age 5 (in the deciduous dentition) had reduced somewhat by age 18, and had widened again by age 26. In the longitudinal analysis, baseline caries experience (age-18 DMFS) was a predictor both of being an extra zero and of caries severity. Conclusion. This investigation of the utility of the zero-inflated approach for modelling both cross-sectional and longitudinal caries data has shown that ZIP/ZINB models can provide new insight into disease patterns. It is anticipated that they will become increasingly used in epidemiological studies that use the DMF index as the outcome measure.
« Hide abstract

Does the perceived risk of punishment deter criminally-prone individuals? Rational choice, self-control, and crime | 2004
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Paternoster, R. « Hide
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 2004, 41(41), 180-213.
download pdf Our ref: RO456
Show abstract » Society's efforts to deter crime with punishment may be ineffective because those individuals most prone to commit crime often act impulsively, with little thought for the future, and so they may be unmoved by the threat of later punishment. Deterrence messages they receive, therefore, may fall on deaf ears. This article examines this issue by testing the relationship between criminal propensity, perceived risks and costs of punishment, and criminal behavior. The authors analyzed data from the Dunedin (New Zealand) Study, a longitudinal study of individuals from birth through age26 (N = 1,002). They found that in fact, deterrence perceptions had their greatest impact on criminally prone study members.
« Hide abstract

Children who avoid drinking cow's milk are at increased risk for prepubertal bone fractures | 2004
Goulding, A. , Rockell, J.E.P., Black, ... Show all » R.E., Grant, A.M., Jones, I.E., Williams, S.M. « Hide
Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2004, 104(104), 250-253.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822303015384
Our ref: RO455.2
Show abstract » The full fracture histories of 50 children (30 girls and 20 boys, age range 3 to 13 years) who had avoided drinking cows milk for prolonged periods were compared with those in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 children from the same city. Children who avoided milk did not use calcium-rich food substitutes appropriately and had low dietary calcium intakes and low bone mineral density values. Many were overweight (22 of 50). Significantly more of the children who avoided milk reported fractures (16 observed vs 6 expected, 2=31.0, P<.001, df=5). They also experienced more total fractures than the birth cohort population (22 observed vs 8 expected, 2=33.6, P<.001, df=5). All of the fractures occurred before puberty, the majority (18 of 22) being associated with only slight trauma. Forearm fractures were especially common (12 fractures). We conclude that young children avoiding milk are prone to fracture.
« Hide abstract

« Prev | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | Next »