The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 20 of 23.

Zinc, copper, selenium and glutathione peroxidaze in blood of 11-year-old Dunedin, New Zealand, children | 1987
McKenzie-Parnell, J.M., Thomson, C.D.
Biological Trace Element Research, 1987, 14(14), 53-63.
Our ref: RO94
Show abstract » Blood was obtained from 564 11-yr-old children who had participated since birth in a multidisciplinary health and development study. Serum zinc concentration did not differ between the boys and the girls (mean _+ SD: 91 + 17 µg/100 mL, n = 453). Five-6% of serum zinc values were low; although there was a weak correlation with height, none of the boys with low values were below the 10th percentile for height for this group. Serum copper concentration (112 _+ 24 µg/100 mL, n = 454) was unrelated to sex, height, weight, body mass index, socioeconomic status (SES), or iron status. Blood selenium concentration (49 + 10 ng/mL, n = 564) was lower than previously reported for Dunedin children; it was higher in children in the lower SES categories. The data represent normal values for healthy, 11-yr-old NZ children.
« Hide abstract

Lack of bias from missing cases: Results from a psychosocial study of unintentional childhood injury | 1987
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Safety Research, 1987, 18(18), 27-32.
Our ref: RO93
Show abstract » This study examined the characteristics of children for whom there was missing injury history data compared with those with complete data. With two minor exceptions, the groups did not differ in psychosocial characteristics. This finding was in marked contrast to the findings of other studies.
« Hide abstract

WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an unselected cohort: clinical significance and longitudinal stability | 1987
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1987, 55(55), 768-774.
Our ref: RO92
Show abstract » This study examined some characteristics of children with verbal-performance IQ discrepancies. The results suggested that verbal- performance discrepancies in IQ are of doubtful diagnostic value given the differential base rates of brain disorder and verbal-performance discrepancy in the population.
« Hide abstract

Language deficits and reading retardation: cause or effect | 1987
Share, D.L., Silva, P.A.
European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1987, 22(22), 219-226.
Our ref: RO91
Show abstract » This paper examined the language development of boys divided into three groups - reading disabled at ages 9 and 11, non-reading disabled at ages 9 and 11 but matched in language scores at age 3 and the remainder of the boys. The results showed a significant decline in language skills of the reading disabled group between ages 3 and 11. This was consistent with the view that general language deficits in this group may be partly the consequence of their reading difficulties.
« Hide abstract

Childhood asthma in New Zealand | 1987
Jones, D.T., Sears, M.R., Holdaway, ... Show all » M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Diseases of the Chest, 1987, 81(81), 332-340.
Our ref: RO90
Show abstract » To determine the prevalence and severity of childhood asthma in New Zealand we studied 815 children from a birth cohort by questionnaire, clinical examination and pulmonary physiological measurements at age 9 years. More than 19% of the sample had experienced wheezing in the previous year, and 11% had wheezed in the month before assessment. In all, 220 of 815 children (27.1%) had had wheezing episodes by age 9; in 34 (4.2%) episodes had been of sufficient frequency to warrant regular anti-asthma treatment. Only 32% of all wheezing children were reported by their parents to suffer from asthma, and, in groups matched for frequency of symptoms, treatment given for wheezing was influenced strongly by whether or not the label of 'asthma' had been given. The detailed history provided most information useful in diagnosing asthma; clinical examination, peak flow records, spirometry and bronchial provocation testing provided only limited additional information. A wide spectrum of frequency and severity of recurrent wheezing disorders was evident in New Zealand children. Throughout all degrees of severity, prevalence rates appeared higher than those reported in studies from the United Kingdom.
« Hide abstract

A longitudinal study of children with developmental language delay at age three: Intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems at ages seven, nine and eleven | 1987
Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1987, 29(29), 630-640.
download pdf Our ref: RO89
Show abstract » A large sample of Dunedin (New Zealand) children were assessed at age three to identify those with language delay. 2.6 per cent were defined as delayed in verbal comprehension only, 2.3 per cent as delayed in verbal expression only, and 2.3 per cent as delayed in both ('general language delay'). Most of these children, and the remainder of the sample, were assessed for intelligence, reading and behaviour problems at ages seven, nine and 11. Those in every language-delay group had significantly lower mean IQs and lower mean reading scores than the remainder of the sample. They also more often had a low IQ or a lower reading score at ages seven and nine and a lower Verbal and Full-scale IQ at 11. The groups with delayed verbal comprehension and general language delay had significantly more behaviour problems than the remainder of the sample. The group with general language delay was consistently the most disadvantaged in later intelligence, reading and behaviour. Two of the language-delay groups (comprehension and general language) had significantly higher scores on a family disadvantage index. The results of this study confirm the importance of early language delay as a predictor of lower than average intelligence and reading ability and increased behaviour problems.
« Hide abstract

The assessment and stability of obesity during the first seven years of life | 1987
Storlein, L.H., Bird, L., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1987, 23(23), 131-135.
Our ref: RO88
Show abstract » Measures of physical development were gathered at birth and at ages 3, 5 and 7 years on a sample of over 800 children as part of a multidisciplinary development study. Direct measures of obesity (skinfolds, visual estimate and calculated fat body mass) were correlated with a range of indices based on height and weight (Eid, Ponderal, Quetelet's or Body Mass Index [BMI] and a modified BMI) to determine a valid and reliable index of obesity. Quetelet's or BMI (weight divided by height squared) was found to be the best index of obesity, correlating between 0.88 and 0.96 with percentage fat body mass at ages 5 and 7 years. The BMI also correlated consistently higher indices with all direct measures of body fat than did the other indices. The results indicate that in children, as in adults, BMI can be used to assess obesity simply. It has several advantages, being easy to collect, non-invasive, objective, and requires no special equipment or highly trained personnel. Finally, the BMI, involving as it does only height and weight, can be used to assess obesity retrospectively in the numerous populations which have records of height and weight.
« Hide abstract

Stereoscopic vision and motor ability in a large sample of seven year old children | 1987
McGee R., Williams S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1987, 13(13), 343-351.
download pdf Our ref: RO86
Show abstract » Relationships between results on the TNO test of stereoscopic vision and motor development tests at age 5 and 7 were studied. Those with poor levels of stereoscopic vision were found to gain lower scores on certain tests of motor ability.
« Hide abstract

Injuries in the tenth and eleventh years of life | 1987
Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1987, 23(23), 35-39.
Our ref: RO85
Show abstract » From a sample of 803 children, 307 were involved in 413 separate incidents which resulted in injuries requiring medical attention. The most common injuries were lacerations, fractures, abrasions, and sprains. The majority of injuries were of minor severity. The most common incident resulting in an injury was a fall, followed by incidents where a child was struck by a person or object. A fifth of all falls was from bicycles. Sporting and playground equipment were associated with a large number of injuries, particularly at school. The study serves to highlight shortcomings in national injury data bases, in particular the absence of injury severity indices, codes for sports and recreation, and inadequate codes for falls. A case is made for integrating injury prevention within the school syllabus. The importance of bicycle injuries and the need for an injury surveillance based on accident and emergency centres is stressed.
« Hide abstract

Factors associated with reading plus spelling retardation and specific spelling retardation | 1987
Share, D.L., Silva, P.A., Adler, ... Show all » C.J. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1987, 29(29), 72-84.
Our ref: RO81
Show abstract » Factors associated with reading-plus-spelling retardation and specific spelling retardation were investigated in a large sample of Dunedin children who were studied longitudinally between the ages of three and 11 years. Those with reading-plus-spelling retardation showed poor performance on WISC-R Verbal subtests relative to non-retarded children, but superior performance on Picture Completion and Object Assembly subtests. The group with reading-plus-spelling retardation also had poor speech articulation but no significant language, motor or neurological dysfunction. Their educational attainment in reading, writing and mathematics was consistently poor. Specific spelling retardation was associated with deficits on WISC-R Arithmetic and Coding subtests, teacher ratings of low attentiveness and poor achievement in writing and mathematics. No language, motor or neurological deficits were apparent in this group.
« Hide abstract

Cycling experiences and knowledge of the road code by nine year olds | 1987
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1987, 19(19), 141-145.
Our ref: RO80
Show abstract » Sex differences in cycling experience and knowledge of the road code were examined in a sample of eight-hundred and fifteen nine-year-old children. The results showed that there were not significant sex differences for those who had ridden on the road or ridden to school in the week preceding the interview. However, males were more likely to have ridden at night. There were no significant sex differences in self reported unsafe acts or in knowledge of various dimensions of the road code. The results show a relatively high level of ignorance of the give-way rules for uncontrolled intersections and a disturbing number of children who reported they had ridden at night without tail or headlights.
« Hide abstract

Further evidence relating to the distinction between specific reading retardation and general reading backwardness | 1987
Share, D.L., McGee, R., McKenzie, ... Show all » D., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1987, 5(5), 35-44.
Our ref: RO79
Show abstract » This paper presented data in support of the view that there should be no distinction between specific reading retardation and general reading backwardness. It argues that under-achievement should be treated as a continuum.
« Hide abstract

DSM III disorders in preadolescent children: Prevalence in a large sample from the general population | 1987
Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1987, 44(44), 69-76.
Our ref: RO65
Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of previous DSM-III disorders in 792 children aged 11 years from the general population and found an overall prevalence of disorder of 17.6% with a sex ratio (boys-girls) of 1.7:1. The most prevalent disorders were attention deficit, oppositional, and separation anxiety disorders, and the least prevalent were depression and social phobia. Conduct disorder, overanxious disorder, and simple phobia had intermediate prevalences. Pervasive disorders, reported by more than one source, had an overall prevalence of 7.3%. Examination of background behavioral data disclosed that children identified at 11 years as having multiple disorders had a history of behavior problems since 5 years of age on parent and teacher reports. Fifty-five percent of the disorders occurred in combination with one or more other disorders, and 45% as a single disorder.
« Hide abstract

Relationships between airway responsiveness, atopy and childhood asthma; a longitudinal study [Abstract] | 1987
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, ... Show all » C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1987, 135(135), A380 .
Our ref: RO123
Show abstract » This paper reported relationships between airway responsive-ness following a methacholine inhalation, wheezing and asthma. The paper concluded that childhood asthma is not always associated with airway hyper-responsiveness, that hyper-responsiveness, if present, is not necessarily constant even if symptoms persist, but that persistent hyper-responsiveness is almost invariably associated with symptomatic asthma.
« Hide abstract

Etiological factors influencing the prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in nine-year-old New Zealand children participating in a health and development study | 1987
Suckling, G.W., Herbison, G.P., Brown, ... Show all » R.H. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 1987, 66(66), 1466-1469.
Our ref: RO104
Show abstract » Over 1000 children, participating in a longitudinal study of health and development, possess documented medical histories based on birth records and regular assessments starting at age 3. A dental examination at age 5 of 923 participants recorded their exposure to fluoride and evidence of trauma to the deciduous teeth. The prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in 696 of the children when aged 9 was reported as 56% (Suckling et al., 1985). For the present study, a number of illnesses, accidents, and other experiences were selected from the recorded information as possible etiological factors for any defect, demarcated and diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia. Despite extensive statistical testing, positive and strong associations were few. The prevalence of hypoplasia, seen in 15% of the sample, was higher in those children who had chicken pox before age 3 and, as reported previously, in those children with a history of trauma to their deciduous incisors. This study illustrates the difficulty of establishing the etiology of enamel defects, even when medical and dental histories are available.
« Hide abstract

Frequency of injury events in New Zealand compared with the distribution of E codes | 1987
Langley, J.D.
Methods of Information in Medicine, 1987, 26(26), 89-92.
Our ref: RO102
Show abstract » This paper compares the frequency of injury events resulting in death or hospitalisation in New Zealand in 1982 compared with the distribution of the International Classification of Diseases E-codes. Recommendations are made suggesting how the E-code could be improved to more closely reflect the distribution of injury events and to provide information more relevant to injury prevention.
« Hide abstract

Patterns of sports participation of Dunedin eleven-year-olds: A descriptive study | 1986
Russell, D.G., Isaac, A.
New Zealand Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1986, 19(19), 8-10.
Our ref: NZ49
Show abstract » This paper describes 11-year-old boys' and girls' participation in sports and the age they began to play the sports.
« Hide abstract

Dental research in a health and development study | 1986
Brown, R.H.
New Zealand Dental Journal, 1986, 82(82), 102-105.
Our ref: NZ45
Show abstract » The discipline of epidemiology includes the study of patterns of disease and the association of disease with demographic, biological, sociological, and behavioural characteristics in a population. Within the discipline there are several distinct research designs which can be applied to determine the nature and extent of disease, to develop hypotheses about causation, and to test such hypotheses through experimentation. Some of the correlates of ill health are not, however, readily amenable to experimental or intervention study. Behind those factors contributing to the causation of disease on the one hand, and the prevention of disease and the promotion of health on the other, are a number of complex determinants which include socio-economic status and the factors contributing to that state, social influences on behaviour of particular groups within society, and personal and family beliefs about self-image and control over one's health'. These are factors which bear directly on life-style or life events, or affect the social structure of a community or nation, and are thus difficult to manipulate experimentally. In such circumstances, the cohort study can be of particular value for studying the influence of these variables on the prevalence and incidence of a wide variety of parameters. By following a group of subjects over a long period, it is possible to study the subjects in considerable depth, to examine associations, and to test hypotheses in a prospective manner. Cohort studies involving dental health are not common. Even more uncommon in dentistry are cohort studies of a multidisciplinary nature in which data from a variety of sources can be applied to problems in dental health or dental care. The Nymegen Growth Study, in which the dental input has been largely but not exclusively centred on craniofacial growth and orthodontic considerations, is a notable example of dental involvement in multidisciplinary longitudinal research. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a further research programme in which dental health has been integrated with an extensive range of investigations of a large cohort.
« Hide abstract

Preventing children's burns: Legislation and fabric flammability | 1986
McLoughlin, E., Langley, J.D., Laing, ... Show all » R.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1986, 99(99), 804-807.
Our ref: NZ44
Show abstract » This paper described a study of national figures on hospitalisation for treatment of clothing ignition burns. It also reported a study of children's nightwear and home sewing practices. A number of findings with regard to the prevention of children's burns were reported.
« Hide abstract

Blood Lead Levels in 579 Dunedin Eleven Year Old Children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Unit | 1986
Silva, P.A., Hughes, P., Faed, ... Show all » J.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1986, 99(99), 179-183.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: NZ43
Show abstract » Blood lead levels were determined for 579 eleven year old children. The range of blood lead levels was from 0.19 to 2.41 mumol/l with a geometric mean of 0.49 mumol/l (geometric SD 0.07) and an arithmetic mean of 0.54 mumol/l (arithmetic SD 0.24). Two children had levels above 1.45 mumol/l. There was no significant correlation between blood lead levels and socio-economic status. Ten children with elevated blood lead levels (greater than 1.11 mumol/l) were reassessed and the results from all but one child had returned to a lower level. In nine out of ten of these cases recent inside paint stripping activities had been carried out in the child's home.
« Hide abstract

The relationship between specific reading retardation, general reading backwardness and behavioural problems in a large sample of Dunedin boys: a longitudinal study from five to eleven years | 1986
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Share, ... Show all » D.L., Anderson, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1986, 27(27), 597-610.
Our ref: RO83
Show abstract » Parent and teacher reports of behaviour problems were obtained at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 years for three groups of boys: specific reading retarded (N = 18), general reading backward (N = 22), and those with no severe reading disability (N = 436). At school entry, both groups of reading disabled boys were reported as having more behaviour problems, and the level of problems increased during their early school years. The results suggest that behaviour problems pre-date reading disability, while reading failure further exacerbates the existing problem behaviour.
« Hide abstract

Cognitive correlates of depressive symptoms in eleven year old children | 1986
McGee, R., Anderson, J., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1986, 14(14), 517-524.
Our ref: RO82
Show abstract » Self-reports of depressive symptoms were obtained for 792 11-year-old New Zealand children using a structured interview. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology in children is associated with impairment on cognitive tasks. The results did not support this hypothesis. Depression was unrelated to performance on various subscales of the WISC-R, whereas self-reported inattention was associated with poor performance. Depressive symptoms, however, were significantly related to lower self-esteem and a poorer self-perception of scholastic ability.
« Hide abstract

Some audiological, psychological, educational, and behavioural characteristics of children with bilateral otitis media with effusion: A longitudinal study | 1986
Silva, P.A., Chalmers, D.J., Stewart, ... Show all » I.A. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1986, 19(19), 165-169.
Our ref: RO77
Show abstract » This is a longitudinal extension of the study described in RO19. It describes the development from age 3 to 11 of children with bilateral otitis media with effusion at age 5 in terms of intelligence, language development, speech articulation, reading and behaviour problems.
« Hide abstract

Swimming experiences and abilities of nine year olds | 1986
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A.
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1986, 20(20), 39-41.
Our ref: RO75
Show abstract » As part of a longitudinal study of children, 941 mothers were asked to report on their childrens' swimming experiences and abilities. At age nine, twenty-nine per cent of the children could swim only a few strokes or not at all. A disproportionate number of children who could swim more than a few strokes came from high socio-economic backgrounds, from families where one or more of the parents could swim, and which scored higher on an index of active recreational orientation. There were no significant sex differences in swimming ability. There were 97 incidents reported where a child had been in difficulties while in water and had to be rescued. The importance of collecting data on such incidents is discussed.
« Hide abstract

Non co-operation of preschoolers [Letter] | 1986
McGee, R., Silva, P.A.
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine , 1986, 140(140), 8-9.
Our ref: RO69
Show abstract » Letter in response to Schmitt, 1984 (Am J Dis Child, 138:443-446) describing some of the later characteristics of children who failed to co-operate in a neurological examination conducted when they were three years of age.
« Hide abstract

The stability and classification of specific reading retardation: a longitudinal study from age seven to eleven | 1986
Share, D.L., Silva, P.A.
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1986, 56(56), 32-39.
Our ref: RO67
Show abstract » SUMMARY: The concept of specific reading retardation assumes that there exists a stable group of under-achieving children whose classification is not simply age- or test-specific. This assumption was investigated longitudinally in a large sample of New Zealand children who were followed from age 7 to age 11 . Substantial overlap was found between groups classified as specific reading retarded at ages 7, 9, and 11 on the basis of Burt reading and WISC-R Performance 1Q scores. At age 11, there was also substantial agreement between classifications based on three separate measures of reading achievement, although there was evidence of test-specific factors unique to comprehension- versus word recognition-based classifications. Agreement between classifications at age I1 based on WISC-R Performance 1Q and Fullscale IQ was high. The data indicated the existence of a fairly stable group of children characterised by enduring under-achievement in reading throughout the primary years of schooling.
« Hide abstract

An evaluation of the Malaise Inventory | 1986
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1986, 30(30), 147-152.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO64
Show abstract » This paper reports some psychometric properties of the Malaise Inventory of Rutter and colleagues from a longitudinal study of a large sample of New Zealand mothers. Malaise scores were relatively stable over time and the scale showed good psychometric properties. The measure was also sensitive to potential sources of adversity in the backgrounds of the women. Some recommendations regarding a number of the questionnaire items are made.
« Hide abstract

Reference interval for alkaline phosphatase, angiotensin converting enzyme, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and 8-glutamyl transferase in eleven year old children | 1985
Hurst, P.L., Lovell-Smith, C.J.
New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Technology, 1985, 39(39), 103-108.
Our ref: NZ42
Show abstract » This paper presents the reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase, angiotensin converting enzyme, asparate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and 8-glutamyl transferase in 11 year old children.
« Hide abstract

The prevalence and treatment of retained testes | 1985
Simpson, A., Laugesen, M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Walton, J.K. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1985, 98(98), 758-768.
Our ref: NZ41
Show abstract » A cohort of approximately 500 boys was screened for retained testes at ages five and seven years and when the boys were aged three, five, seven and nine years, their parents were questioned about hospitalisation for surgery. Orchidopexy for retained testes had been performed on 15 of the 536 boys (2.8%) while one other had orchidopexy for high retractile testes (0.2%). Eighty-one percent of this surgery was performed between the seventh and ninth years of age.
« Hide abstract

Research Notice: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit Bibliography of Publications and Reports, 1975-1983 | 1985
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1985, 19(19), 188-189.
Our ref: NZ40
Show abstract » This research note describes the research unit's Annotated Bibliography of Publications and Reports 1975-1983 (see MO8) and provides an analysis of the first 160 publications and reports from the Research Unit. It is now superseded by this publication.
« Hide abstract

Reading disability and middle ear disease | 1985
Share, D.L., Chalmers, D.J., Stewart, ... Show all » I.A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1985, 61(61), 400-401.
Our ref: RO78
Show abstract » The association between specific reading disability and middle ear disease was investigated in a longitudinal study of 962 children followed from age 5 to 11. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of middle ear abnormalities between the reading disabled group (n = 49) and the remainder.
« Hide abstract

Motor function in dyslexic children with and without attentional disorders | 1985
Share, D.L., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1985, 12(12), 313-320.
Our ref: RO76
Show abstract » This study investigated whether motor function may have diagnostic or aetiological significance in the identification of a subgroup of dyslexics characterized by attention deficits. Data from an epidemiological study of 480 New Zealand boys failed to support this suggestion. High-Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) dyslexics were not found to differ from low-ADD dyslexics on 26 out of 27 measures of motor function.
« Hide abstract

Periodontal health in 12-year-old children [Abstract] | 1985
Yunus, N.N.N.
Journal of Dental Research, 1985, 65(65), 478.
Our ref: RO74
Show abstract » This abstract describes the results from examining the periodontal health (health of the gums) of 12 year old children.
« Hide abstract

Pattern of caries in permanent incisors and first molars in 9-year-old children [Abstract] | 1985
Brown, R.H., Suckling, G.W.
Journal of Dental Research, 1985, 64(64), 650.
Our ref: RO73
Show abstract » In 1981-82, 697 children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study had dental examinations at age 9. The examinations, by one investigator (GWS), occurred in school dental clinics using the same light source and standardised probes. The mean DMF-T score was 0.98, and mean DMF-S score was 1.21. The permanent dentitions of 54% of children were caries-free; 99% had all permanent incisors unaffected by caries, and 55% had all first permanent molars unaffected by caries. The percentages of surfaces of upper first permanent molars affected by caries were: occlusal 21%, mesial 1.2%, distal 0.9%, palatal 3.7%, buccal 1.0%. The corresponding figures for lower first permanent molars were: occlusal 17.9%, mesial 1.2%, distal 0.2%, lingual 0.2%, and buccal 10.9%. Prevention of fissure caries in this age group is a priority if further reduction in DMF is to be achieved.
« Hide abstract

The prevalence of bronchial reactivity to inhaled methacholine in New Zealand children | 1985
Sears, M.R., Jones, D.T., Holdaway, ... Show all » M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Thorax, 1985, 41(41), 283-289.
Our ref: RO72
Show abstract » The prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine and of a clinical history of symptoms of asthma was determined in a birth cohort of 9 year old New Zealand children. A history of current or previous recurrent wheezing was obtained in 220 of 815 children. Of 800 who had spirometric tests, 27 (3.4%) had resting airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 75%). Methacholine challenge was undertaken without problem in 766 children, the abbreviated protocol being based on five breaths and four concentrations. A fall in FEV1 of more than 20% was observed in 176 children (23% of challenges, 22% of the full cohort) after inhalation of methacholine in concentrations of up to 25 mg/ml. The prevalence of bronchial reactivity in children with symptoms was related to the frequency of wheezing episodes in the last year, and the degree of reactivity to the interval since the last episode. Sixty four children (8.0%) with no history of wheeze or recurrent dry cough were, however, also responsive to methacholine 25 mg/ml or less, while 35% of children with current or previous wheezing did not respond to any dose of methacholine. Bronchial challenge by methacholine inhalation was not sufficiently sensitive or specific to be useful as a major criterion for the diagnosis of asthma in epidemiological studies. The occurrence of airway reactivity in children without symptoms of asthma, however, raises the possibility that adult onset asthma and the development of airways obstruction in some subjects with chronic bronchitis could have origins in childhood.
« Hide abstract

A comparison of the predictive validity of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale | 1985
Silva, P.A.
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1985, 56(56), 201-204.
Our ref: RO71
Show abstract » This paper describes the predictive validity of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale administered to preschool children. The dependent variables were intelligence and reading at ages 7, 9 and 11.
« Hide abstract

The growth and development of twins compared with singletons at ages nine and eleven | 1985
Silva, P.A., Crosado, B.
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 21(21), 27-30.
Our ref: RO70
Show abstract » The growth and development of 9 and 11-year old twins who have been studied at birth, and at ages 3, 5, and 7 years was compared with that of a large group of singletons. The twins were not significantly different to the singletons in language development, reading, spelling or Performance IQ. They remained significantly shorter, lighter and had smaller head circumferences. This difference was shown to have been fairly consistent from age 3. The twins had significantly lower Verbal and Full Scale IQ, but in view of a lack of disadvantage in educational progress this was not considered to be of any practical importance.
« Hide abstract

The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in 696 nine year old New Zealand children participating in a health and development study | 1985
Suckling, G.W., Brown, R.H., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P. « Hide
Community Dental Health, 1985, 2(2), 303-320.
Our ref: RO68
Show abstract » This paper describes the nature and prevalence of enamel defects in 9 year old children.
« Hide abstract

Mothers' knowledge of first aid - an exploratory study | 1985
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A.
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 56(56), 32-39.
Our ref: RO66
Show abstract » This paper assesses mother's knowledge of first aid and recommends some ways of improving the knowledge.
« Hide abstract

Sleep in middle childhood - a longitudinal study of sleep problems in a large sample of Dunedin children aged 5 to 9 years | 1985
Clarkson, S.E., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 22(22), 31-35.
Our ref: RO63
Show abstract » Complaints of sleeping difficulties in a large group of New Zealand children were studied prospectively over four years from 5 to 9 years of age. No association was found between sleeping difficulties and the sex, intelligence, or educational attainments of the child. Mothers who described their child as anxious or who were poor sleepers themselves tended to report sleeping problems in their child more frequently. There was no association between sleeping problems and teacher ratings of behaviour problems. Children who reported sleep problems also tended to report other problems. There was low agreement between parents and children. Only 0.3% of the total sample had a problem which persisted over the whole period.
« Hide abstract

« Prev | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | Next »