The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 16 of 21.

Chapman, J.W., Lambourne, R., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Antecedents of academic self concept: a longitudinal study

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1990, 60(60), 142-159.
Our ref: RO144

Show abstract » The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Anderson, J., McKenzie-Parnell, J.M., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Hyperactivity and serum and hair zinc levels in eleven year old children from the general population

Biological Psychiatry, 1990, 28(28), 165-168.
Our ref: RO143

Show abstract » This study examined associations between blood and hair zinc levels and inattentiveness, hyperactivity and antisocial behaviour. No significant associations were found.
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Williams, S.M., Anderson, J., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Risk factors for behavioural and emotional disorder in pre-adolescent children

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990, 29(29), 413-419.
Our ref: RO142

Show abstract » The relationship between risk factors and behavioral and emotional disorder was examined in 792 11-year-old children. Background characteristics such as sex, maternal depression, marital status of the parents, and reading problems distinguished between children with and without disorder. It also appeared that disorder was related to the number of risk factors experienced. This study, like others, failed to provide strong support for differences in background characteristics among children with different diagnoses. This may reflect the degree of overlap among disorders, because even children with only a single disorder may not be entirely free of the symptomatology of other disorders. For this reason it is important to assess children for multiple disorders or at least consider impaired functioning in other dimensions.
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McGee, R., Stanton, W.R. | 1990
Parent reports of disability among 13 year olds with DSM-III disorder

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1990, 31(31), 793-801.
Our ref: RO141

Show abstract » This study examined physical and psychological dimensions of disability associated with different DSM-III disorders in a large sample of 13-year old adolescents. The measure of disability was based upon the World Health Organization (1980) classification. We found that adolescents with multiple DSM-III disorders and those with attention deficit and anxiety disorders showed the highest levels of parent perceived disablement; depression and conduct disorder showed the least. In addition, adolescents with any kind of DSM-III disorder showed a rate of parent-reported hospitalization twice that of the remainder of the sample. They also had poorer perceived health, as suggested by lower parent and self health ratings than those without disorder.
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Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Moffitt, T.E. | 1990
Is there an association between lateral preference and delinquent behaviour

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1990, 99(99), 198-201.
Our ref: RO140

Show abstract » Results of recent research suggests an association between left lateral preference and delinquent behavior. In this study the lateral preferences of 881 seven-year-old children were determined using behavioral indicators of hand and foot use. Mixed-handedness was associated with parent-reported problem behavior scores and self-reported delinquency scores at ages 13 and 15. However, preference for left hand and foot use was found to be unrelated to the delinquency measures. The distribution of lateral preferences in an identified delinquent group was not significantly different from the distribution in the sample remainder. The lack of an association between left preference and delinquency may be accounted for by an increased cultural acceptance of individual preference.
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Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1990
A 6 year follow-up of childhood enuresis: prevalence in adolescence and consequences for mental health

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 75-79.
Our ref: RO139

Show abstract » Recent studies have shown an association between enuresis and behavioural or emotional problems. The direction or causality of the association and its duration, however, remain unclear. This study followed a large group of children from ages 11 to 15 years and reported the prevalence of enuresis to age 13 years. The enuretic status of the sample at age 11 years was established relative to the history of enuresis at age 9 years. At age 11 years a significant association was found between enuresis and measures of psychopathology. This association was particularly evident for those children with secondary enuresis, and those who had a history of enuresis but had ceased to wet the bed. Current primary enuresis was not significantly associated with disorder. Similar associations were found between enuresis at age 11 and later disorder at age 13. At age 15 years no significant associations between enuresis and disorder were found. These findings have implications for parents of children with enuresis and for clinicians dealing with the disorder.
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St. George, I.M. | 1990
Should family doctors screen asymptomatic children for high blood pressure

Family Practice, 1990, 7(7), 219-226.
Our ref: RO138

Show abstract » Literature and research evidence relating to the value of screening asymptomatic children for high blood pressure was reviewed. It was concluded that on epidemiological and ethical grounds, screening for hypertension cannot at present be justified.
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Moffitt, T.E. | 1990
Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: boys' developmental trajectories from age 3 to age 15

Child Development, 1990, 61(61), 893-910.
Our ref: RO137

Show abstract » This study described factors related to delinquency and attention deficit disorder over time. Those with both attention deficit disorder and delinquency fared worst in all analyses. Their delinquency tended to begin early and persist to adolescence. Those who were delinquent but did not have attention deficit disorder showed less risk factors. The comorbidity of attention deficit disorder and delinquency was considered to be a likely predictor of criminal offending beyond adolescence.
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Stanton, W.R., Feehan, M., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1990
The relative value of reading ability and IQ as predictors of teacher reported behaviour problems

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1990, 23(23), 514-518.
Our ref: RO136

Show abstract » Measures of early family adversity, pre-school-age IQ, school-age IQ, and reading ability were obtained from 779 Dunedin children. The data were used to examine the role of reading ability in the relationship between intellectual performance and teacher-reported behavior problems. Results of regression analyses showed that family adversity and pre-school-age IQ predicted problem behavior during the first year at school. However, reading scores accounted for a larger proportion of the variance in the later behavior problem scores than did school-age IQ scores, and when reading ability was entered in the regression equation before IQ, then reading but not IQ significantly predicted change in problem behavior during the primary school years. The results indicated that the association between IQ scores and problem behavior was mediated by reading ability and that a measure of school-age IQ has limited usefulness for models of primary school-age problem behavior.
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Silva, P.A. | 1990
The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: A 15 year longitudinal study

Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 1990, 4(4), 76-107.
Our ref: RO135

Show abstract » This article describes the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of 1037 children studied at birth and followed-up at age 3, with the majority being followed-up every 2 years thereafter, to age 15. The paper includes a description of the setting for the study, the historical background, establishment of the study, the sample, follow-up rates, changes in sample characteristics over time, the procedures, the data gathered at each phase and the investigators responsible. Some of the topics studied over the years are set out in a table of descriptors which includes references to refereed journal articles that include results relating to the topics. Plans for the future are also described. Reflections on some of the reasons why the study has been successful are noted.
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Oei, T.P.S., Fae, A., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Smoking behaviour in nine year old children: a replication and extension study

Journal of Addictive Diseases (fmr Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse), 1990, 8(8), 85-96.
Our ref: RO133

Show abstract » This paper reported on children's smoking experience and the attitudes of those who had and had not puffed on a cigarette. Those who had experience of smoking had a more positive attitude towards smoking than those who had never puffed on a cigarette.
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Worsley, A., Worsley, A.J., McConnon, S., Silva, P.A. | 1990
What do New Zealand adolescents know about nutrition

Nutrition and Dietetics, 1990, 47(47), 47-51.
Our ref: RO132

Show abstract » This study assessed adolescents' knowledge about nutrition. It was concluded that the level of general nutrition knowledge was poor.
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Calvert, B. | 1989
Parenting perspectives among adolescents: findings from a study of 846 Dunedin fifteen year olds in 1987-88

Delta, 1989, 42(42), 53-60.
Our ref: NZ60

Show abstract » This article reported a study of adolescents' self reports about their expectations about being parents, their experience and knowledge of parenting, the information they believed they needed, and their attitudes to parenting issues. Gender differences and some differences relating to socio-economic status, reading ability and family characteristics were noted. The results showed that there is likely to be a continuing move towards greater participation by both parents in nurturing roles. Implications for preparation for parenting for both boys for both boys and girls was discussed. See also NZ63 and MO 22 for the full report.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Oei, T.P.S. | 1989
Prevalence of smoking in a Dunedin sample followed from age 9 to 15 years

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1989, 102(102), 637-639.
Our ref: NZ55

Show abstract » A longitudinal study of a Dunedin cohort through to adolescence showed that by age 15 years, 80 percent of the adolescents had tried smoking. There was a steep rise in the prevalence of smoking from age 13 to age 15 years. At age 13 years 1% of the adolescents smoked every day, compared with 15% of them at age 15 years. At age 15 years this group of daily smokers consisted of 18% of the girls and 11% of the boys. The majority of adolescents who had never smoked by 13 years of age, but had smoked by 15 years of age were girls. Prevalence rates from the present study (1987-88) are similar to those reported in the 1960s and 1970s. A large decrease in the number of boys who smoke every day has been offset by a large increase in the number of girls who smoke every day.
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Williams, S.M., McGee, R. | 1989
Diet and behaviour

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1989, 102(102), 499-500.
Our ref: NZ54

Show abstract » This paper reviewed some recent evidence concerning the association between diet and behaviour. It was concluded that the evidence suggested that the link between food and problem behaviour such as hyperactivity and aggression is not as strong as many believe.
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White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1989
A prospective replication of the protective effect of IQ in subjects at high risk of juvenile delinquency

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1989, 57(57), 719-724.
Our ref: RO134

Show abstract » The purpose of the study was to test the replicability of a protective effect of high IQ against criminality. Support has been found in prior studies for the hypotheses that Ss at high risk would have an elevated risk of serious criminal involvement, that seriously criminal Ss would have a lower mean IQ score than noncriminal Ss, and that Ss at high risk who had not become involved in serious criminal behavior would have the highest IQs. This report tests these hypotheses in a prospective design. Subjects were 1,037 members of a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. IQs were examined for male and female Ss who were divided into 4 groups formed on the basis of risk status at age 5 years and delinquency outcome at ages 13 and 15. Analyses were conducted with and without mild delinquents excluded from the nondelinquent groups. We found that male and female delinquents showed significantly lower IQ scores than nondelinquents. By varying S selection procedures, we also found that a very high IQ may help boys, even those at risk, to stay free of delinquency altogether.
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Langley, J.D. | 1989
Parents' reports of disability among thirteen year olds. Preliminary experiences with WHO's ICIDH

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 220-225.
Our ref: RO131

Show abstract » This paper reports the results of use of a questionnaire to parents, based on the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH). The most common disabilities were those of writing/spelling (26%), coping with dust/pollens or chemicals (15%) and coping with school work (15%). A total of 81 parents reported some situational dependency, especially dependence on medication associated with asthma. The questionnaire was judged to provide a useful means by which to study disability in adolescents.
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Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1989
A longitudinal study of the interactive effects of perinatal complications and early family adversity on cognitive ability

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 130-133.
Our ref: RO130

Show abstract » The effects of high, medium and low levels of perinatal complications and family adversity on intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were examined in a large sample of Dunedin children tested every second year in the age group 3-13 years. The aim was to test the hypothesis that favourable environmental circumstances attenuate the effects of perinatal complications on later cognitive ability. The results did not support this hypothesis but rather suggested that perinatal complications and family adversity have independent adverse effects on the development of children's cognitive ability.
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Sears, M.R., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. | 1989
The relative risks of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma

Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1989, 19(19), 419-424 .
Our ref: RO129

Show abstract » The associations between skin sensitivity to various common allergens and the development of childhood asthma were ascertained in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children up to the age of 13 years. Of 714 children skin-tested, 45.8% were sensitive to at least one of 11 allergens, the most common responses being to rye grass pollen (32.5%), house dust mite (30.1%) and cat dander (13.3%). Allergen-specific relative risk analysis, controlled for the effect of sensitivity to other allergens, demonstrated that sensitivity to house dust mite and to cat dander were highly significant independent risk factors associated with the development of asthma (whether defined as recurrent typical respiratory symptoms, increased airway responsiveness, or the concurrent presence of both), whereas grass sensitivity was not a significant independent risk factor for asthma. (Reproduced in the 1991 Year Book of Paediatrics, Chicago, Mosby Year Book Inc.)
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Moffitt, T.E., Henry, B. | 1989
Neuropsychological assessment of executive function deficits in self-reported delinquents

Development and Psychopathology, 1989, 1(1), 105-118.
Our ref: RO128

Show abstract » Deficits in executive neuropsychological functions have been proposed to underlie the development of antisocial behavior such as juvenile delinquency. Results of research into the executive functions of delinquents have been mixed, and studies have been hampered by reliance on small samples of adjudicated subjects and questionable validity of the tests administered. This research examined the performance of a large unselected birth cohort of adolescent boys and girls on five tests of executive function that have documented reliability and validity. It is the first such study to use self-reports of antisocial behavior. Executive deficits were shown only by a subgroup of delinquent subjects with childhood comorbidity of antisocial behavior and attention deficit disorder; that subgroup's behavior was also rated as more aggressive and impulsive than comparison groups'. Group differences on executive measures remained significant after the effects of overall IQ were statistically controlled. Also, delinquents who had been detected by police did not show poorer executive functions than subjects with equivalent self-reports of delinquent behavior who had evaded official detection, suggesting that executive deficits are related to the development of antisocial behavior itself, and not simply to risk of detection.
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Frost, L.A., Moffitt T.E., McGee, R. | 1989
Neuropsychological correlates of psychopathology in an unselected cohort of young adolescents

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1989, 98(98), 307-313.
Our ref: RO127

Show abstract » Members of a birth cohort were assessed for psychopathology and neuropsychological dysfunction at age 13. Ss who met DSM-III criteria for a single disorder, multiple disorders, and no disorder were compared on 5 composite neuropsychological measures. The multiple disorders group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal, Visuospatial, Verbal Memory, and Visual-Motor Integration factors. They also showed the highest rate of neuropsychological impairment. The attention-deficit disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal Memory and Visual-Motor Integration factors, and the anxiety disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Visual-Motor Integration factor. Results suggest that neuropsychological dysfunction is more often associated with multiple rather than single, psychiatric disorders in adolescents. The problem of comorbidity in studies of neuropsychological function in childhood and adolescent psychopathology is highlighted.
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Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1989
Cognitive and social correlates of DSM-III disorders in pre-adolescent children

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1989, 28(28), 842-846.
Our ref: RO126

Show abstract » The relationships between some cognitive and social measures and the major syndromes found in a large preadolescent sample of children from the general population are described. The measures discriminated between disorder-no disorder for most variables examined and between the broad groups of externalizing and internalizing disorders, but not between individual diagnostic categories. An important exception was that ADDH and conduct disorder occurring as single disorders could be distinguished, but the frequent comorbidity of these and other disorders complicated many between-group comparisons.
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Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1989
Place of occurrence of injury events in New Zealand compared with the available ICD codes

Methods of Information in Medicine, 1989, 28(28), 109-113.
Our ref: RO122

Show abstract » This paper reviews national data on injury mortality and morbidity with an emphasis on the place of occurrence of injury events in New Zealand compared with the available ICD codes. Several problems in the classification of the existing codes were identified and several modifications to the codes proposed.
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Langley, J.D., McLoughlin, E. | 1989
Injury mortality and morbidity in New Zealand

Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1989, 21(21), 243-254.
Our ref: RO121

Show abstract » This paper presents and reviews data on injury mortality, morbidity, hospitalisation and costs from the National Health Statistics Centre's mortality and demographic data files, the hospital and selected morbidity files, the ACC claims file and other sources. The results demonstrate that relative to other diseases, injuries represent a significant community health problem.
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Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Williams, S.M. | 1989
Recall of injury events by thirteen year olds

Methods of Information in Medicine, 1989, 28(28), 24-27.
Our ref: RO120

Show abstract » This paper describes the recall of injury events over up to a two year period and a comparison between those events remembered and the actual visits to an accident and emergency service that took place over that period. Thirty-nine per cent of all visits to the accident and emergency department were not remembered. Factors related to the recall of the injury events were described.
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Chalmers, D.J., Cecchi, J., Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1989
Injuries in the twelfth and thirteenth years of life

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 14-20.
Our ref: RO119

Show abstract » From a sample of 850 adolescents, 377 were involved in 550 separate incidents which resulted in 636 injuries requiring medical attention. The most common injuries were sprains or strains, followed by fractures and lacerations. Most injuries were of minor severity. The most common incident resulting in injury was striking against an object or person, followed by being struck by an object or person, and overexertion or strenuous movement. Almost 40% of the incidents occurred during sporting or similar physical activities. Disabilities arising from injury are described. The most common of these were recreational. The implications of long-term and permanent disability are examined. Traditional attitudes toward injury prevention were found to be held by the majority of the sample. Barriers to injury prevention are identified and the Prevention of Injury Programme contained in the Health Education Syllabus for primary school children is described.
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Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Anderson, J., Silva, P.A. | 1989
The structure and correlates of self-reported symptoms in 11-year-old children

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1989, 17(17), 55-71.
Our ref: RO118

Show abstract » Self-reports of previous DSM-III symptomatology were obtained from 792 11-year-old children using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). We report results concerning 13 subscales derived from the DISC. Factor analysis of the subscales suggested a broad distinction between externalizing and internalizing disorder for boys' self-report. For girls, two separate internalizing factors representing anxiety and depression emerged. We also found sex differences in correlates of self-reported disorder. Finally, we examined agreement between child and parent and teacher reports. Overall, agreement was relatively low, although somewhat higher for child-parent than for child-teacher.
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Silva, P.A. | 1988
Health in Adolescence: research challenges for the next decade

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 689-692.
Our ref: NZ52

Show abstract » This paper briefly describes some recent publications on adolescent health, one of which advocates the establishment of a database on adolescent health, and then discusses what the author considers to be the three most important adolescent health problems, namely unintentional injuries, asthma and mental health disorders. While considerable research into injuries and asthma are already being planned or carried out, this is not the case for adolescent mental health disorders. Adolescent physical and sensory disabilities, health risks and health promotion are briefly discussed in terms of research needs. The nature and prevalence of adolescent mental health problems are then discussed as well as some influences on adolescent development and mental health. Finally, it is argued that two types of research into adolescent mental health disorders are needed (basic and programme development and evaluation). It is recommended that the Medical Research Council sponsor a seminar on mental health research needs and consider the possibility of adopting more active strategies to promote research into mental health, including the mental health of adolescents.
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Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Silva, P.A., Appleton, I. | 1988
Parents' and children's attitudes to seat belt usage and knowledge of seat belts

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 119-121.
Our ref: NZ51

Show abstract » Knowledge of and attitudes to seat belt laws and the perception of risk were examined in a cohort of 1139 children and their parents. Seven hundred and thirty questionnaires were obtained from interviewing a sample of 13-year-olds and 805 questionnaires were obtained by mail from the parents. Most children (98%) and parents (99%) had correct knowledge of the law relating to the front seat. Fewer children (77%) and parents (80%) gave the correct response for the rear seat. Nearly all children (96%) and parents (99%) correctly identified the front seat unbelted as the most dangerous combination, but only 72% of children and 70% of parents identified the safest place to travel. There was parental support for a law requiring owners to fit rear seat belts and for a law requiring children of all ages to be restrained.
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Casswell, S., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, P.A., Brasch, P.E. | 1988
What children know about alcohol and how they know it

British Journal of Addiction, 1988, 83(83), 223-227.
Our ref: RO99

Show abstract » This report described children's knowledge, attitudes and concepts of alcohol, and where they acquired their information. Experience of alcohol related problems by the children was also described. The influence of television as an information source was emphasised.
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Share, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1988
Factors associated with arithmetic-and-reading disability and specific arithmetic disability

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1988, 21(21), 313-320.
Our ref: RO98

Show abstract » Characteristics of children with two types of arithmetic disabilities were described. The somewhat complex results including important sex differences and differences between arithmetic disability type were described.
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Clymer, P.E., Silva, P.A. | 1988
Gross and fine motor ability and anthropometric characteristics of children with high intelligence

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1988, 14(14), 19-29.
Our ref: RO97

Show abstract » This study examined the motor development of children with IQs of 130 or more in comparison with children with IQs less than 130. Those of high intelligence had slightly better fine but not gross motor ability. They also had higher mean birth weights but were not longer at birth or taller or heavier at other ages. They did, however, have larger head circumference measurements at birth and at ages 3, 5, 7 and 9 years.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1988
Absence of psychosocial bias in the under-reporting of unintentional childhood injuries

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1988, 42(42), 76-82.
Our ref: RO87

Show abstract » Bias resulting from under-reporting has been largely ignored by studies that have examined the relationships between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries. This study was part of a larger investigation that examined associations between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries in a sample of 781 children. Visits to an accident and emergency department and their general practitioners were used to determine whether the children or their mothers were under-reporters. Under-reporters were compared with reporters on a variety of family, behavioural, and development factors. The analyses showed that under-reporters did not differ significantly from the remainder of the sample in terms of psychosocial factors central to the main study.
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Langley, J.D. | 1988
The need to discontinue the use of the term accident when referring to unintentional injury events

Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1988, 20(20), 1-8.
Our ref: RO84

Show abstract » This paper argues the case for health professionals to discontinue the use of the term accident when referring to unintentional injury events. It is argued that use of the term accident is counter-productive to preventive measures.
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Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1988
Self-reported delinquency: results from an instrument in New Zealand

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1988, 21(21), 227-240.
Our ref: RO125

Show abstract » This article describes the Self-Report Early Delinquency Scale (SRED), a research instrument designed to capture self reports of illegal and norm violating behaviours from New Zealand adolescents. Reliability and validity are described and were considered adequate for recommending the instrument for use in social science research. Findings in the predicted directions were obtained from the relations between SRED scores and gender, family instability, history of behaviour disorder, social class and intelligence.
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Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1988
The relative risks of allergy to grass pollen, house dust, mite and cot dander in the development of childhood asthma [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1988, 137(137), 239.
Our ref: RO124

Show abstract » See RO129 (below) for reference to full paper and comment.
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Williams, S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, P.A. | 1988
Stereoacuity levels and vision problems in children 7 to 11 years

Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 1988, 8(8), 386-389.
Our ref: RO117

Show abstract » A longitudinal study of stereoacuity levels of 859 children at 7 years, 811 children at 9 years and 796 children at 11 years was conducted using the TNO random dot stereotest. The prevalence of defective stereoscopic vision was found to be between 2.1 and 3.2 per cent. A further 10-16 per cent of children had only moderate stereoacuity levels when compared with their peers. The stereoacuity levels achieved by most of the children improved with age, but the rank order correlations for the stereoacuity levels between ages 7 and 9, and ages 9 and 11, were small. Defective stereopsis and poor stereoacuity levels were clearly associated with manifest strabismus and problems of visual acuity, and if failure to pass the quantitative plates was a cut-off point for screening purposes most of the children with visual problems would have been identified.
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Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1988
Self reported delinquency, neuropsychological deficit and history of attention deficit disorder

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 16(16), 553-569.
Our ref: RO116

Show abstract » This study was designed to evaluate the possibility that a pattern of cognitive deficit is associated with delinquent behavior, while avoiding some of the methodological problems of previous research. The Self-Report Early Delinquency instrument and a research battery of neuropsychological tests were administered blindly to an unselected cohort of 678 13-year-olds. Because the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) was found at markedly elevated rates in the backgrounds of these delinquents, the possibility was examined that the neuropsychological deficits of delinquents might be limited to delinquents with histories of ADD. Although delinquents with past ADD were more cognitively impaired than non-ADD delinquents, both groups scored significantly below nondelinquents on verbal, visuospatial, and visual-motor integration skills. In addition, ADD delinquents scored poorly on memory abilities. Subjects with ADD who had not developed delinquent behavior were not as cognitively impaired as ADD delinquents, suggesting that it is the specific comorbidity of ADD and delinquency that bears neuropsychological study.
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Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1988
IQ and delinquency: a direct test of the differential detection hypothesis

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 97(97), 330-333.
Our ref: RO115

Show abstract » This study examined the IQs of 13 year olds who were classified as officially delinquent, delinquent but with no police record and those without a history of delinquency. There was no significant difference in IQs between the two delinquent sub-groups but both these groups gained significantly lower mean IQs than non-delinquents. These findings did not support the differential detection hypothesis.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Moffitt, T.E., Anderson, J. | 1988
A comparison of 13 year old boys with attention deficit and/or reading disorder on neuropsychological measures

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 17(17), 37-53.
Our ref: RO114

Show abstract » This study compared 13 year old boys with attention deficit disorder and/or reading disability, and controls with neither disorder on a battery of verbal and non-verbal neuropsychological measures. None of the measures differentiated the boys with attention deficit disorder only from the controls; the only deficit associated with attention deficit disorder was slightly lower IQ. Reading disorder, on the other hand, was associated with deficits in memory and verbal skills.
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