The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 16 of 23.

When do individual differences matter? A paradoxical theory of personality coherence | 1993
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E.
Psychological Inquiry, 1993, 4(4), 247-271.
Our ref: RO235
Show abstract » This paper proposed that individual differences in personality should be studied during periods of environmental change because these periods provide an opportunity to discern the general mechanisms that govern the functions and processes of personality. The authors delineate the circumstances wherein personality differences are accentuated and then specific the conditions whereby change is produced. Personality differences are likely to be revealed during transitions into unpredictable new situations, when there is a press to behave but no information about how to behave adaptively. Dispositional differences are thus accentuated as each person seeks to transform novel, ambiguous and uncertain circumstances into familiar, clear, and expectable social encounters. The authors' theory also accounts for turning points in behavioural development: systematic change is likely to occur during transitions into new situations, when there is a press to behave and when previous responses are actively discouraged while clear information is provided about how to behave adaptively.
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The definition and diagnosis of asthma | 1993
Sears, M.R.
Allergy, 1993, 48(48), 12-16.
Our ref: RO234
Show abstract » Asthma defies precise definition, despite several carefully worded statements. Perhaps the most concise and useful description of asthma is variable airflow obstruction. The diagnosis is made by recognition of a patterns of one or more characteristic symptoms including wheeze, cough, chest tightness and dyspnoea, and is best confirmed by evidence of variable or reversible airflow obstruction accompanying symptoms.
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Atopy in childhood. III. Relationship with pulmonary function and airway responsiveness | 1993
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1993, 23(23), 957-963.
Our ref: RO233
Show abstract » The relationship between atopy and pulmonary function in children, and how these relate directly or indirectly to airway hyperresponsiveness, is uncertain. We have examined these relationships in a sample of 13-year-old children. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, skin-prick tests to 11 common allergens, spirometry and an abbreviated methacholine challenge test were completed by 662 members (341 boys) of a birth cohort of New Zealand children followed longitudinally to age 13. There was a significant relationship between the presence and degree of atopy, and baseline pulmonary function. Low FEV1/VC ratios were associated with a greater likelihood of airway responsiveness, not only in subjects with diagnosed asthma, but also in the full cohort and in the sub-group of 426 children who denied asthma or current wheeze. The relationships between baseline FEV1/VC and airway responsiveness were stronger in atopic than in non-atopic children, with the strongest relationships in children sensitive to house dust mite and/or cat dander. In the presence of atopy, progressively lower levels of lung function were strongly associated with a higher prevalence of airway responsiveness (P<0.001). In non-atopic subjects, only those with the most impaired lung function (FEV1/VC <75%) showed any substantive prevalence of airway responsiveness. The relationship between the degree of atopy and the FEV1/VC ratio, although significant in univariate analysis, became completely non-significant after accounting for airway responsiveness. In 13-year-old children, atopy, especially to house dust mite and cat dander, was correlated with pulmonary function expressed as FEV1/VC ratio. Airway responsiveness likewise correlated with impaired baseline lung function. The apparent relationship of lung function to atopy occurred primarily as a result of the relationship between atopy and airway responsiveness. Atopy and impaired lung function were additive factors predicting airway responsiveness.
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Atopy in childhood. II. Relationship to airway responsiveness, hayfever and asthma | 1993
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery E.M. « Hide
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1993, 23(23), 949-956.
Our ref: RO232
Show abstract » While airway hyperresponsiveness is usually associated with a diagnosis of asthma or symptoms of wheezing, some individuals with rhinitis show airway hyperresponsiveness as do some with no symptoms whatsoever. We have studied the correlations between symptoms, airway hyperresponsiveness and atopy as determined by skin-prick tests in a cohort of New Zealand children. A total of 662 members of a birth cohort were studied at age 13 years using a respiratory questionnaire, skin-prick tests to 11 common allergens, and an abbreviated validated methacholine challenge test to determine airway responsiveness. Airway hyperresponsiveness (methacholine PC20 FEV1 less-than-or-equal-to 8 mg/ml) was strongly correlated with reported asthma and current wheezing (P<0.0001) and also with atopy, especially to house dust mite and cat (P<0.0001). As weal size for both house dust mite and cat increased, so did the proportion of children with airway hyperresponsiveness. All children with diagnosed asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness were atopic. Skin-test reactions to house dust mite and cat were strongly correlated with any degree of measurable airway responsiveness (PC20 FEV1 less-than-or-equal-to 25 mg/ml) in children with rhinitis (P < 0.0001), and remained significantly correlated even in children without current asthma, without asthma ever and without rhinitis (P < 0.001). Atopy is a major determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness in children, not only in those with reported histories of asthma and wheezing, but also in the absence of any history suggesting asthma and rhinitis.
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Atopy in childhood. I. Gender and allergen related risks for development of hayfever and asthma | 1993
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1993, 23(23), 941-948.
Our ref: RO231
Show abstract » Reasons for the gender differences in prevalence rates for asthma remain unclear. We have examined the relationships between allergen skin-test reactions and diagnoses of hay fever and asthma in New Zealand boys and girls examined at the age of 13 years. Information on current and past wheezing, diagnosed asthma, and hay fever was obtained for 662 subjects (341 boys) of a birth cohort followed longitudinally to the age of 13 years, using a physician-administered questionnaire. Atopic status was determined by skin-prick tests to 11 common allergens. The proportion of 13-year-old boys with current asthma was 1.6 times higher and of ever-diagnosed asthma 1.4 times higher than in girls, but the prevalence of recurrent wheeze (greater-than-or-equal-to three episodes per year) not diagnosed as asthma, or of hay fever, was not significantly different between the sexes. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma increased with increasing numbers of positive skin tests, but hay fever without asthma was little affected above one positive skin-test. Boys had a greater prevalence of any positive skin-test (50.1 % vs 37.1%), two or more positive tests (29.3% vs 21.8%), and responses to house dust mite (34.0% vs 23.1%) and cat (14.7% vs 11.2%). Gender differences for asthma became insignificant when adjusted for skin-test responsiveness to house dust mite and/or cat. The proportion of children with diagnosed asthma increased with increasing size of weals to house dust mite and cat dan er. Gender differences in allergen sensitivities partly explain the gender differences in diagnosed asthma in children. In both sexes, risk of asthma was primarily associated with sensitization to indoor allergens (house dust mite and cat), and was related to the magnitude of the skin-test response, while the risk of hay fever was primarily associated with grass pollen sensitivity.
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An alternative method for comparing and describing methacholine response curves | 1993
Sherrill, D.L., Martinez, F.D., Sears, ... Show all » M.R., Lebowitz, M.D. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1993, 148(148), 116-122.
Our ref: RO230
Show abstract » Tests of nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness are frequently used in the study of asthma both in the clinical settings and in epidemiologic studies. However, standard methods for characterizing individual tests and comparing results between subgroups have not been established. The most frequently used method of characterizing response curves is to report the dose that results in a 20% fall in FEV1 from the initial or baseline FEV1 value (PD20FEV1). Other investigators have suggested using the response slopes. In this study we demonstrate an alternative method of analysis that uses all of each subject's response data, makes comparisons between subgroups, and can include explanatory covariables. This approach is demonstrated using methacholine challenge data obtained in New Zealand children at 9 and 11 yr of age. The results showed significant differences between the mean dose-response curves of wheezers and nonwheezers, that responsiveness increased with the frequency of reported wheeze, and that initial pulmonary function and serum IgE are significantly related to responsiveness. These factors were not always significant using more traditional methods of analysis, indicating an increased sensitivity with this method of analysis.
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Additive effects of reduced pulmonary function and atopy in predicting airway responsiveness in childhood [Abstract] | 1993
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1993, 147(147), A381.
Our ref: RO229
Show abstract » This abstract describes results of methacholine tests to airway responsiveness. See RO233 for full report.
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Asthma and asthma-like symptoms, airway responsiveness and treatment: a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children [Abstract] | 1993
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1993, 147(147), A374.
Our ref: RO228
Show abstract » This study describes some of the respiratory research results from the Study.
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Airway responsiveness related to allergen skin test reactivity [Abstract] | 1993
Lebowitz, M.D., O'Rourke, M.K., Paoletti, ... Show all » P., Sears, M.R., Burrows, B. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1993, 91(91), 163.
Our ref: RO227
Show abstract » This study found that even the smallest reaction to skin allergy testing was related to airway responsiveness.
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Atopy and airway responsiveness in hayfever and asthma | 1993
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, E.M. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1993, 91(91), 351.
Our ref: RO226
Show abstract » This study showed that atopy is a major determinant of airway responsiveness in children.
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Adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy | 1993
Moffitt, T.E.
Psychological Review, 1993, 100(100), 674-701.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO221
Show abstract » A dual taxonomy is presented to reconcile 2 incongruous facts about antisocial behavior (a) It shows impressive continuity over age, but (b) its prevalence changes dramatically over age, increasing almost 10-fold temporarily during adolescence. This article suggests that delinquency conceals 2 distinct categories of individuals, each with a unique natural history and etiology: A small group engages in antisocial behavior of 1 sort or another at every life stage, whereas a larger group is antisocial only during adolescence. According to the theory of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior, children's neuropsychological problems interact cumulatively with their criminogenic environments across development, culminating in a pathological personality. According to the theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behavior, a contemporary maturity gap encourages teens to mimic antisocial behavior in ways that are normative and adjustive.
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Mental health disorders from age 15 to age 18 years | 1993
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1993, 32(32), 1118-1126.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO217
Show abstract » Objective: To determine the strength of association between mental health disorders in adolescence and disorder in early adulthood. Method: The study used mental health data from a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. Of the 943 with prevalence data for DSM-III disorder at age 15, 890 had prevalence data for DSM-III-R disorder when aged 18 years. Results: Two-thirds of those with disorder at age 15 had disorder at age 18. The residual form of attention deficit disorder, simple phobias, and oppositional disorders (with no other accompanying disorders) were associated with the lowest risk of later disorder and conduct disorder with the highest. With the exception of the overall symptom level, a variety of characteristics examined (e.g., social competence and adversity) could not differentiate between those with transient disorder and those with disorder at both ages. Comparisons of those with recurring disorder and those with new disorder at age 18 showed that in addition to characteristics of the disorder, disadvantage was strongly associated with recurrent disorder. Conclusions: The risk of later disorder for those with disorder in adolescence was high and differed across type of disorder. Findings suggest that to reduce the risk of disorder in early adulthood, clinicians could play a more active role in community interventions with direct social outcomes.
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Consistency in children's recall of age of initiating smoking | 1993
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1993, 22(22), 1064-1069.
Our ref: RO216
Show abstract » Studies of the accuracy of long-term recall for information about smoking status have tended to conclude that this information is consistent and reliable. Estimation of consumption levels have been found to be less reliable and can be influenced by current consumption levels. Results of this longitudinal study indicated that children's and adolescents' 2-year recall of smoking status was inconsistent and that children's reports of age of initiating smoking showed an unacceptably high level of misclassification, particularly if they had not smoked in the last 2 years. Children's and adolescents' 2-year recall for the age at which they first smoked were imprecise and suggested that those who had smoked in the last 2 years retained a perspective as they grew older of having started in the last few years. It is recommended that the period of recall for children and adolescents be restricted to no more than 1 year.
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Reasons for smoking or not smoking in early adolescence | 1993
Stanton, W.R., Mahalski, P.A., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Addictive Behaviors, 1993, 18(18), 321-329.
Our ref: RO215
Show abstract » Previous studies of smokers' and nonsmokers' reasons have not compared their reasons for smoking and their reasons for not smoking, or examined the extent of change or stability in these reasons over time. We examined reasons for smoking and not smoking in a large sample of 13-year-olds from the general population. Factor structures of reasons differed according to whether adolescents were smokers or nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were found to be less discriminating than smokers about the reasons for smoking. Smokers and nonsmokers tended to show more agreement about the reasons for not smoking. Recency of smoking was differentially related to the factors for smoking and the factors for not smoking, ''Image'' was a more important reason for smoking at age 11 than at age 13. ''Friends'' as a reason for smoking showed a small degree of consistency across age, whereas reasons involving relaxation and pleasure showed a relatively higher degree of consistency: Health, as a reason not to smoke, showed only a small degree of consistency, while social context, effects and access were moderately consistent as reasons not to smoke at ages 11 and 13.
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The importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in predicting adolescent substance use | 1993
Henry, B., Feehan, M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Stanton, W.R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1993, 21(21), 469-480.
download pdf Our ref: RO213
Show abstract » The current study assessed the relative importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms, measured at two ages (11 and 15), for predicting substance use at age 15 in an unselected birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents. Among males, when the relative predictive utility of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms was assessed, only pre-adolescent depressive symptoms were found to predict multiple drug use 4 years later. No predictive relation was found between early symptomatology and later substance use among females. The strongest association between predictors and substance use emerged between age 15 multiple drug use and concurrent conduct problems for both males and females. Finally, both conduct problems and depressive symptoms at age 15 were also found to be associated with concurrent ''self-medication'' among females.
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The effect of parents' alcohol problems on children's behaviour as reported by parents and by teachers | 1993
Connolly, G.M., Casswell, S., Stewart, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A., O'Brien, M.K. « Hide
Addiction, 1993, 88(88), 1383-1390.
Our ref: RO211
Show abstract » Associations between parents' alcohol problems when children were aged 9 and children's behaviour at ages 9 and 13 as reported by parents and teachers were investigated. The sample consisted of participants in a multidisciplinary longitudinal study, data were collected by face-to-face interview. When compared to children with no or mild parental alcohol problems, children classified as having severe parental alcohol problems were more likely to display high levels of problem behaviour at age 9 as reported by teachers and at age 13 as reported by parents. Poorer family relationships, lower verbal and reading proficiency and being male were also associated with high levels of behaviour problems.
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Adolescents, sexual behaviour and implications for an epidemic of HIV/AIDS among the young | 1993
Dickson, N., Paul, C., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P. « Hide
Genitourinary Medicine, 1993, 69(69), 133-140.
Our ref: RO207
Show abstract » Objective-To determine the patterns of sexual behaviour, condom use and sexually transmitted diseases among young New Zealanders, and the characteristics of those with many sexual partners. Subjects-A cohort of young people enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study, and followed up since age three. Methods-Subjects were interviewed at age 18 years as part of a multidisciplinary health and development study. Questions about sexual behaviour were presented by computer. Results-Overall 862/1027 (83.9%) surviving in the cohort was interviewed. Only 1.4% declined to answer the section on sexual behaviour. Sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months was reported by 57.6% of the young men and 67.9% of the young women. Amongst those who were sexually active more of the young men reported multiple partners than the young women (59.8% v 46.5% p < 0.001). There was a trend for increasing number of partners with indices of lower school achievement but no significant association with socio-economic status. Condom use decreased with increasing number of partners for the young women, and for the young men there was no association. Sexually transmitted diseases were reported more commonly with increasing number of sexual partners for both men and women. The rates of sexual activity were substantially higher than reported in a comparable survey 20 years ago. Conclusions-The pattern of sexual behaviour and condom use, and the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases in this sample give cause for concern about the spread of sexually transmitted diseases including the possibility of an epidemic of HIV among heterosexual young people in New Zealand. The findings should help in targeting health promotional activities within this age group.
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Allergic disorders and attention deficit disorder in children | 1993
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Sears, ... Show all » M.R. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1993, 21(21), 79-88.
Our ref: RO205
Show abstract » No relationship was found between attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic disorder in a longitudinal study of 1,037 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. At ages nine and 13, behavior problems in children with zero to three or more allergic disorders were analyzed using a 4 x 2 analysis of variance, with no significant relationships between ADHD and allergic disorders found. Atopic responsiveness by skin test and serum immunoglobulin E levels were also examined.
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A longitudinal study of reasons for smoking in adolescence | 1993
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R.
Addiction, 1993, 88(88), 265-271.
Our ref: RO203
Show abstract » This longitudinal study examined factors related to smoking at age 13 and to persistence of smoking from ages 13 to 15 years in a sample (n = 719) of New Zealand adolescents. History of smoking at 9 and 11 years predicted smoking at 13 (odds ratio = 2.8), persistence of smoking from age 13 to 15 (OR = 2.4) and smoking at 15 among those not smoking at age 13 (OR = 2.4). While there were no significant sex differences in pre-adolescent and early adolescent smoking, by age 15 more girls than boys reported smoking. A concern with the immediate negative effects of smoking (taste, smell, feeling ill and feeling silly) as a reason for not smoking at age 13 was inversely related to smoking at age 15 (OR = 0.4). Reasons for smoking at age 13 were not associated with later smoking. Family disadvantage and use of alcohol and other drugs were also associated with later adolescent smoking.
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The natural history of change in intellectual performance: Who changes? How much? Is it meaningful? | 1993
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Harkness, ... Show all » A.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1993, 34(34), 455-506.
Our ref: RO199
Show abstract » A prerequisite step for studying the magnitude and meaning of IQ change is to distinguish between true IQ change that is a researchable phenomenon and IQ ''change'' that can be accounted for by measurement error. We studied the reliability, magnitude and meaning of IQ change using scores on the WISC-R obtained from a representative sample of 794 children at ages 7, 9, 11 and 13. The findings suggest that, in the majority of children, IQ change is either negligible in amount, unreliably measured or both. In a nontrivial minority of children, naturalistic IQ change is marked and real, but this change is variable in its timing, idiosyncratic in its source and transient in its course. We discuss the implications of these findings for interventions that aspire to improve IQ scores.
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Early family predictors of child and adolescent antisocial behaviour: who are the mothers of delinquents | 1993
Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Robins, ... Show all » L., Earls, F., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 1993, 3(3), 97-100.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO198
Show abstract » Examined whether familial characteristics (FCs) are associated with antisocial outcomes (AOs), as opposed to other behavioral or mental health problems that children have. The utility of 29 maternal and FCs to identify children who are at high risk for AOs and delinquent outcomes were tested. Three groups of 11-yr-old children were compared on family variables (FVs): 50 antisocial children, 37 with other disorders, and 220 with no disorder. Nine FVs differentiated the antisocial Ss from the non-disordered Ss. The most important FVs were parental disagreement about how to discipline the 5-yr-old child and many changes of the child's primary caretaker during childhood. Among children who were known to police by age 15, prospective FVs accounted for significant amounts of the variance in number of police contacts and age at 1st contact. FCs were associated with AOs in childhood and early adolescence.
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Helping agency contact for emotional problems in childhood and early adolescence and the risk of later disorder | 1993
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1993, 27(27), 270-274.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO193
Show abstract » Despite waning enthusiasm for labelling theories in the development of psychopathology, it has been claimed that contact with professional agencies in childhood can be associated with increased levels of later problem behaviour. In this study, help-seeking by parents for children with behaviour problems was examined using a birth cohort followed longitudinally to age 15 years. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that agency contact increased the risk of later mental health disorder, either in childhood or adolescence. Rather, the results suggested that help-seeking was associated with a reduction in both the risk of DSM-III disorder and problem behaviour scores, up to five years after agency contact.
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Inequities in oral health: implications for the delivery of care and health promotion | 1992
Brown, R.H. , Treasure, E.T.
New Zealand Dental Journal, 1992, 88(88), 132-138.
Our ref: NZ68
Show abstract » This paper has summarised data showing that inequities in oral health and the receipt of oral health care exist in New Zealand. We submit that these inequities, and the consequences of oral ill-health, are of such seriousness that they cannot be ignored. Overcoming barriers to oral ill health and barriers to dental care will be a complex task. Although much can be done by the dental providers and their organisations, there is need for oral ill health to be viewed within the overall context of inequity and disadvantage within society.
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Motor vehicle road crashes during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life | 1992
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1992, 105(105), 150-151.
Our ref: NZ65
Show abstract » From a sample of 848 teenagers, 50 individuals reported a total of 52 motor vehicle road crash events: 42 involved a car, six a motorcycle, and four a bus, over a two year period. Males and females were equally represented in each type of crash. Twenty-one of the car crashes, four of the motorcycle crashes and three of the bus crashes involved injury. The injuries sustained in the motorcycle crashes were predominantly to the extremities and in the other crashes they were mainly to the head or face. On average drivers less than 25 years of age had more passengers in their cars and were involved in more nighttime crashes. A seat belt was worn in only 18 (44%) of the car crashes. A motorcycle helmet was worn in four of the six motorcycle crashes. Six (15%) crashes were reported to have involved alcohol. The main areas of risk associated with motor vehicle road crashes involving teenagers and young adults have been addressed by legislation or the graduated drivers licensing system. An evaluation of these measures is required to establish whether they are effective.
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Smokefree medical students | 1992
Stanton, W.R., Ferry, D.G.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1992, 105(105), 292-293.
Our ref: NZ64
Show abstract » This paper describes a small study of the smoking behaviour of medical students.
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Relationships of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to serum IgE, lung function, systems and diagnoses in 11-year-old New Zealand children | 1992
Burrows, B., Sears, M.R., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1992, 90(90), 376-85.
Our ref: RO224
Show abstract » This study describes the relationship of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to serum IgE, lung function and diagnosis of respiratory disorder. The results supported the view that IgE is a critical factor in the development of bronchial responsiveness in childhood.
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An alternative method for describing methacholine challenge response curves [Abstract] | 1992
Sherrill, D.L., Martinez, F.D., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Sears, M.R. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), A706 .
Our ref: RO223
Show abstract » This abstract described a new approach to describing methacholine challenge response curves. See RO230 for a full account of this study.
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Gender differences in skin allergen sensitivities, and the risks for development of hayfever and asthma in childhood [Abstract] | 1992
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Holdaway, ... Show all » M.D., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), A658.
Our ref: RO222
Show abstract » This abstract described gender differences in allergies and the risks for the development of hayfever and asthma in childhood.
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Prevalence of wheezing, diagnosed asthma and cigarette smoking in a cohort of 18-year-old New Zealanders [Abstract] | 1992
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), A693.
Our ref: RO220
Show abstract » This study described the prevalence of respiratory ill-health symptoms in 18-year-olds and also examined the smoking behaviour of the sample.
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Intrauterine growth retardation and blood pressure at age seven and eighteen | 1992
Williams, S.M., St George, I.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1992, 45(45), 1257-1263.
Our ref: RO209
Show abstract » The association between intrauterine growth retardation and blood pressure in middle childhood and early adulthood was examined. At age 7, after adjusting for sex and weight, the differences between normal children and those who had experienced intrauterine growth delay were 0.9 mmHg (95% CI -0.1 to 2.2) for systolic and 0 mmHg (-1.7 to 2.0) for diastolic blood pressure respectively. The differences between the blood pressures of intrauterine growth retarded infants with an appropriate ponderal index and those with a low ponderal index were 4.4 mmHg (-0.9 to 7.9) for systolic, and 3.8 mmHg (0.2 to 7.3) for diastolic blood pressure respectively. At age 18 the differences were much less pronounced. The association between blood pressure and the placental weight was also examined. The evidence from this sample lends weak support to the findings of other studies which suggest that there is an association between factors occurring before or around the time of birth and blood pressure in later life.
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The neuropsychology of conduct disorder | 1992
Moffitt, T.E.
Development and Psychopathology, 1992, 5(5), 133-149.
doi: 10.1017/S0954579400004302
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO206
Show abstract » This article reviews evidence from neuropsychological tests that brain dysfunction is a correlate of conduct disorder. Most studies report consistent findings of differential neuropsychological deficits for antisocial samples in verbal and ''executive'' functions. Neuropsychological measures are related to some of the best indicators of poor outcome for children with conduct symptoms, such as early onset, stability across time, hyperactive symptoms, and aggressiveness. Neuropsychological tests statistically predict variance in antisocial behavior independently of appropriate control variables. This article argues that neuropsychological variables warrant further study as possible causal factors for conduct disorder and presents one developmental perspective on how neuropsychological problems might contribute risk for conduct disorder.
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Attention deficit disorder and age of onset of behaviour problems | 1992
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Feehan, ... Show all » M. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1992, 20(20), 487-502.
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Our ref: RO204
Show abstract » In the course of a prospective longitudinal study, we examined age of onset of behavior problems in a group of boys and girls identified with attention deficit disorder (ADD) at age 11. Onset occurred during the preschool years, by the first year of schooling, or by the end of the second year of school. Onset was strongly related to informant source at age 11, pattern of comorbidity of disorder at age 11, and developmental language, perceptual motor, and IQ measures. Onset by the first year of schooling was particularly related to poor reading skills. By age 15, nearly three-quarters of those with onset of problems before age 6 had one or more DSM-III disorders.
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Expected gain in body mass and the onset of menarche | 1992
Stanton, W.R., Kelly, J.L., Bunyan, ... Show all » D.A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1992, 32(32), 338-340.
Our ref: RO202
Show abstract » Fertility is dependent on sexual maturity, which is associated with a number of factors, including body mass. In this study the Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to estimate body fat in a large sample of 13-year-old New Zealand girls. Nearly half of the subjects (46%) had experienced the menarche. Expected gain in body mass was calculated from growth rates at earlier ages and used to examine whether deviation from the expected gain was associated with the onset of the menarche. In general, the results show an association between the menarche and gain in body mass. However, many girls who failed to achieve their expected gain had experienced the menarche (18%), indicating that the relationship between body weight and the menarche may not be causal or is mediated by other factors.
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Tracking changes in the patterns of parental smoking | 1992
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1992, 113(113), 12-16.
Our ref: RO201
Show abstract » This study examined the prevalence and predictors of parental smoking in a representative sample of mothers and fathers. The results showed that in this New Zealand sample approximately 38% of mothers and 43% of fathers were smokers, and that proportionally more fathers than mothers were ex-smokers. The pattern of maternal smoking was relatively less stable, showing a rate of increase over the first 2-year period and an equivalent rate over the second period for those who started or resumed smoking compared to those who stopped smoking. Predictors of maternal smoking groups included level of educational qualifications, number of changes of residence, personality (extraversion and neuroticism scores) and being a young mother. Predictors of paternal smoking groups from a smaller range of background variables included level of educational qualifications, socio-economic status and age. The measures did not satisfactorily differentiate smokers who decreased their level of smoking from those who increased their level of smoking and those who continued to smoke or not to smoke.
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Unravelling girls' delinquency: Biological dispositional and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehaviour | 1992
Caspi, A., Lynam, D.R., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 1992, 29(29), 19-30.
Our ref: RO200
Show abstract » Processes linking biological and behavioral changes in different contexts during adolescence were examined by studying an unselected cohort of New Zealand girls from childhood through adolescence when they entered either mixed-sex or all-girl secondary schools. The impact of menarcheal timing on female delinquency was moderated by the sex composition of schools; early-maturing girls in mixed-sex settings were at greatest risk for delinquency. Individual differences in delinquency were also significantly more stable among girls in mixed-sex schools than among those in all-girl schools. These contextual variations are interpreted in terms of the differential distribution of reinforcements and opportunities for delinquency.
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The effects of airway hyperresponsiveness, wheezing and atopy on longitudinal pulmonary function in children: a six year follow-up study | 1992
Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R., Lebowitz, ... Show all » M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Pediatric Pulmonology, 1992, 13(13), 78-85.
Our ref: RO196
Show abstract » We examined growth of spirometric lung function in 696 children of European ancestry who were followed from ages 9 to 15 years and stratified according to their degree of responsiveness to methacholine inhalation challenge, atopic status, and respiratory symptoms. Subjects were participants in the longitudinal Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study in Dunedin, New Zealand. Forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1), and vital capacity (VC) were measured at 9, 11, 13, and 15 years of age, concurrently with assessment of airway responsiveness determined by the concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20 FEV1). Atopic status was assessed at age 13 by skin-prick testing to 11 allergens. In children demonstrating airway hyperresponsiveness, FEV1 increased with age at a slower rate, and the FEV1/VC ratio had a faster rate of decline through childhood, compared to non-responsive children. Subjects with positive skin tests to house dust mite and cat dander also had lower mean FEV1/VC ratios than the control group. Any reported wheezing was associated with slower growth of FEV1 and VC in males. We conclude that in New Zealand children with airway responsiveness and/or previous atopy to house dust mite or cat growth of spirometric lung function is impaired.
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Prevalence and correlates of the premenstrual syndrome in adolescence | 1992
Nada-Raja, S., Feehan, M., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., McGee, R. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1992, 31(31), 783-789.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO195
Show abstract » In a longitudinal study of their health and development, 384 15-year-old females reported their experience of symptoms indicative of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The prevalence of these symptoms is reported and a group of adolescents is identified with the syndrome (14%). PMS was associated with current self-reported anxiety, inattention, and poor health. Preadolescent self-report and maternal ratings of physical and mental health did not significantly predict adolescent PMS. The results suggest that the experience of PMS in adolescence may be mediated by perceived health status; the roles of mental health and maternal influence in the development of adolescent PMS may be minimal.
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Drinking context and other influences on the drinking of 15 year old New Zealanders | 1992
Connolly, G.M., Casswell, S., Stewart, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Addiction, 1992, 87(87), 1029-1036.
Our ref: RO194
Show abstract » This study investigated the influence of the situational characteristics of the drinking setting and a number of parental, personal and demographic variables on adolescents' alcohol use. The sample were 15-year-old participants in a multidisciplinary longitudinal study carried out in New Zealand. Measures of alcohol consumption were self reported amount of alcohol consumed on the most recent drinking occasion and amount usually consumed. All of the situational variables investigated had an effect on the amount of alcohol consumed on the most recent occasion. Greater amounts of alcohol were consumed if the alcohol was obtained from peers or by the 15-year-olds themselves, if the drink was consumed away from their own home, in the presence of peers only, and during the evening. More money to spend each week and lower SES were also associated with reports of greater alcohol consumption on the most recent drinking occasion. Adolescents with female friends who approved of drinking reported greater amounts of alcohol, the effect of female friends was most marked in the lower amounts reported by males who had female friends that disapproved of drinking. For amount of alcohol usually consumed, reports of larger amounts of alcohol were associated with more money available to spend each week and with lower SES. Furthermore, both males and females reported greater usual amounts if their male friends approved of drinking; female friends' approval was associated with greater amounts of alcohol usually being consumed, this effect was strongest for males. Sixty-eight per cent of the 15-year-olds indicated that they thought they definitely or probably would get drunk in the future.
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Longitudinal effects of passive smoking on pulmonary function in New Zealand children | 1992
Sherrill, D.L., Martinez, F.D., Lebowitz, ... Show all » M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Sears, M.R. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), 1136-1141.
Our ref: RO192
Show abstract » In this study we examined the longitudinal effects of smoke exposure on lung function in a cohort of New Zealand children observed from 9 to 15 yr of age. Possible exposures included in utero exposure from mothers smoking during pregnancy, passive smoke from parents, and active smoking by the children. Lung function measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and vital capacity (VC) were measured biennially and ratios (FEV,IVC) were computed. The data were analyzed using longitudinal methodology, and all subjects with at least one pulmonary function test and responses to the questions concerning smoke exposures were included (n = 634). Subjects reporting wheeze or asthma were examined as a separate subgroup. In the whole cohort, no significant detrimental effects were detected for absolute FEV, or VC in either sex, related to active or passive smoke exposures. Parental smoking was, however, associated with persistent but mild and nonprogressive impairment of the FEV1/VC ratio in males, an effect that was present at the time lung function measurements were first made. This effect was not seen in females. In children with reported wheeze or asthma, parental smoking had progressive, more serious, and clinically significant effects on the FEV1/VC ratio among adolescents of both sexes, causing a mean reduction in FEV1/VC ratios by age 15 of 3.9% in males and 2.3% in females, in contrast to the observed increase in FEV1/VC ratios with age seen in nonexposed wheezing children. We conclude that passive smoking is a major contributing factor to the development and persistence of airflow limitation in wheezing children.
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A longitudinal study of the influence of parents and friends on children's initiation of smoking | 1992
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1992, 13(13), 423-434.
Our ref: RO191
Show abstract » The results of some cross-sectional studies have indicated that the influence of parents on their offspring's initiation of smoking may or may not decrease in adolescence, but that the influence of peers increases during adolescence. Results of a short-term longitudinal study provide evidence of a strong erect for parents and friends in childhood and adolescence. Arguments about the mechanism for this association are often expressed in terms of modeling behavior. The present study, which follows change in the smoking behavior of a large cohort of children through childhood and adolescence, led to the conclusion that friends have as early an influence as parents in terms of nonsmoking behavior. However, friends who smoke but not parents who smoke had an influence on children's initiation of smoking. Furthermore, children tended not to be influenced to desist from smoking by parents who were ex-smokers.
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