The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 18 of 23.

Hot water temperature in Dunedin homes with pre-school children | 1990
Dickson, N., Martin, M., Waller, ... Show all » A.E. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 452-454.
Our ref: NZ61
Show abstract » This paper described a study of hot water temperatures in Dunedin homes. Temperatures were often found to be too high for safety. Strategies to overcome this problem were suggested.
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Road crash experiences during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life: An overview | 1990
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 174-176.
Our ref: NZ59
Show abstract » This paper describes a study of road crash experiences. From a sample of 848 15 year olds, 113 subjects had experienced 121 road traffic crashes. Details relating to the type of crash by nature of outcome, place of treatment and the number reported to the Ministry of Transport are given. Problems of under-reporting and biases in reporting are discussed.
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Serious unintentional injuries associated with architectural glass | 1990
Johnston, S.E., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 117-119.
Our ref: NZ58
Show abstract » This paper reported on national data relating to serious injuries associated with architectural glass. Outcomes assessed were mortality and morbidity, including hospitalisation. Recommendations for preventing this type of injury were made.
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Medication use in nine year olds: Types of medicines used and recall of advice given | 1990
Sinclair, B.L., Clark, D.W.J., Facoory, ... Show all » B.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 13(13), 263-265.
Our ref: NZ57
Show abstract » Use of medications was investigated in 819 nine year old children living in Dunedin. Twenty-four percent of the cohort (199 children) were given medications during the week prior to interview, mainly on prescription (68%). The majority of medicines used were said to be for respiratory illnesses and oral antibiotics represented a high proportion of prescribed medicines. Most medicines were obtained through a pharmacy (91%), and side effects were noted by nine percent of those taking medications. Some counselling was recalled with 70% of items although, as recalled by the parent, less than 25% of medicines obtained from pharmacies were dispensed or sold with any advice or instruction. The prescriber must ensure that adequate information is provided for the patient. Pharmacists may reinforce this information and provide additional advice on optimum methods of administration. It is debatable whether antibiotics should be used to the extent indicated by this study.
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The stability of high blood pressure in Dunedin children: An eight year longitudinal study | 1990
St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 115-117.
Our ref: NZ56
Show abstract » Resting blood pressures were recorded for children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at two year intervals five times from age seven to fifteen. Correlations between pairs of readings were modest but significant, and higher for systolic (0.39 to 0.62) than for diastolic blood pressure. However, although children with normal blood pressure were likely to continue to have normal blood pressure, high blood pressures at age seven, nine, eleven and thirteen were not stable--only 28% of those whose systolic blood pressure at age seven was in the highest 5% had two subsequent readings in the highest 5%. On the other hand 56% of those in the highest 20% had two subsequent readings in the highest 20%, and 9% had all subsequent readings in the highest 20%. We do not believe that adult essential hypertensives can be recognised early by annual blood pressure measurement in childhood and the assignation of blood pressure rank according to a set of normal values.
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Weight control practices of fifteen year old New Zealanders | 1990
Worsley, A., Worsley, A.J., McConnon, ... Show all » S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 41-45.
Our ref: RO197
Show abstract » More than 800 15 year old members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development study cohort completed a questionnaire designed to provide descriptive data concerning the weight control behaviours of this sample of New Zealand adolescents. The results showed that approximately 75% of the adolescents were within acceptable body mass index ranges. However 68% of the girls (but only 19% of the boys) wanted to weigh less than their present weight. Generally, girls were more concerned about their body weight than boys: 26% of girls weighed themselves fortnightly or more often, compared with 12% of boys; 45% of girls reported that they were trying to lose weight at present, compared with 9.5% of boys. The main methods of weight reduction included weight reduction diets (21% of girls, 4% of boys in the previous year); exercise such as jogging, walking, swimming and cycling (60% of girls, 34% of boys); and participation in dieting and fitness clubs (35% of girls, 16% of boys). In addition, 20% of girls reported using techniques such as slimming tablets (3%), cigarette smoking (5%) and self-induced vomiting (5%) to control weight. The results show that weight control is a major preoccupation of many girls and some boys. Results are discussed in relation to differential social influences on the sexes, and health consequences.
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Serious unintentional injuries to students at school | 1990
Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J., Collins, ... Show all » B. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 323-328.
Our ref: RO171
Show abstract » Unintentional injuries at school have been identified as a significant public health problem. A major barrier to the development of injury prevention policy has been the absence of national data on the circumstances of injuries to students which occur at school. This study sought to determine the incidence, nature, and circumstances of injuries which resulted in death or hospitalization. Fatalities were identified from national mortality data for 1977-86 inclusive. Coroners' files were then examined to obtain details of the circumstances of injury. Hospitalization cases were identified from the national hospital discharge summary for 1986. Fifteen fatalities were identified. The circumstances of the deaths were diverse with the most frequent event being a fall (n = 4). A total of 1013 first admissions to hospital were identified, giving an overall incidence rate of 152/100 000 students/year. Injury rates declined with increasing age, and males had higher rates than females for all ages. Fractures of the upper and lower limbs and intracranial injury represented more than three-quarters of all injury. The two leading causes of injury, falls, and incidents involving striking against or being struck by a person or object, represented 89% of all incidents. The use of playground equipment and involvement in sporting activity were two of the more common aspects of many injury events. The results suggest that prevention policy should place emphasis on those in their first 2 years of schooling, falls from playground equipment, provision of protective equipment for sporting activities, sporting activities designed to minimize physical contact, establishment of standardized injury referral procedures, first-aid training, and a standardized injury reporting system.
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Acoustic reflectometry for assessment of hearing loss in children with middle ear effusion | 1990
Teele, D.W., Stewart, I.A., Teele, ... Show all » J.H., Smith, D.K., Tregonning, S.J. « Hide
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 1990, 9(9), 870-873.
Our ref: RO166
Show abstract » This paper reports on associations between acoustic reflectometry and hearing loss in ears with and without middle ear effusion in 137 Dunedin children aged 3 to 16 years. Reflectometry was significantly associated with conductive hearing loss. It was recommended that the techniques be further explored and extended to permit rational decisions about management of middle ear problems.
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How early can we tell? Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency | 1990
White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Earls, ... Show all » F., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 1990, 28(28), 507-533.
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Our ref: RO157
Show abstract » This study examined the power of a variety of characteristics of the preschool child to predict antisocial behaviour at ages 11 and 15 years. After screening preschool measures for their predictive power, a discriminant function analysis was performed with the five most promising preschool predictors. This function correctly classified 81% of subjects as antisocial at age 11 and 66% as delinquent at age 15. Having preschool behaviour problems was the best predictor of antisocial outcome.
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Parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence | 1990
Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Community Health Studies, 1990, 14(14), 303-309.
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Our ref: RO156
Show abstract » Previous publications from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit have reported the prevalence of DSM-III disorders through its longitudinal examination of a New Zealand birth cohort. The present study describes the help-seeking practices of each sample member's parents for their child's behavioural or emotional problems exhibited in childhood (ages 5-11) or adolescence (ages 12-15). Increased help-seeking for boys was evident in childhood. However, this sex difference was not present at adolescence. There was a decline in the frequency with which medically oriented agencies were contacted between childhood and adolescence, and teachers were found to be the most frequently used source of assistance in adolescence. Although there was a strong association between help-seeking and mental health disorder, approximately half of those with disorder had parents who had not sought help for their child's problems. In addition, family characteristics of low SES, low family social support and poorer maternal mental health predicted help-seeking. The results are discussed in terms of service provision for these age groups, within the present restructuring of the public health system in New Zealand.
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Blood pressure level, trend, and variability in Dunedin children. An 8-year study of a single birth cohort | 1990
St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Circulation, 1990, 82(82), 1675-1680.
Our ref: RO152
Show abstract » In a birth cohort of children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study in New Zealand, resting blood pressures were recorded biennially five times from age 7 to 15 years. Using previously described methods, we examined the level, trend, and variability of blood pressures in those children with at least three readings. The level, trend, and variability of height, weight, and body mass index were compared among six separate groups of children. Two groups were categorized on the basis of high systolic pressure levels, one with low variability and the other with high variability, which was thought to resemble adult labile hypertension. Two additional groups were categorized on the basis of increasing and decreasing blood pressure trends; the fifth group had consistently low blood pressures, and the sixth group consisted of the remaining children. There were significant differences among the groups for the level of all the physical measurements and for the trend of body mass index. No significant differences were found among the groups for gender or socioeconomic status. A parental history of high blood pressure, stroke, or heart attack was significantly more common in the first two groups.
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Injuries in the 14th and 15th Years of Life | 1990
Lodge, J.F., Langley, J.D., Begg, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 316-322.
Our ref: RO151
Show abstract » From a sample of 849 adolescents studied at age 15, 429 had been involved in 657 separate incidents, which resulted in 705 acute injuries requiring medical attention during their 14th and 15th years of life. The most common injuries were sprains, strains, fractures and lacerations, and the most common body site was the finger. The majority of injuries were of minor severity. Striking against an object or person was the most common incident resulting in injury, followed by being struck by an object or person, and overexertion or strenuous movement. Approximately half of the injuries were incurred during sport or a similar physical activity. Sporting injuries are examined in detail and preventive measures discussed.
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Purposely self-inflicted injuries resulting in death and hospitalisation | 1990
Langley, J.D., Johnston, S.E.
Community Health Studies, 1990, 14(14), 190-199.
Our ref: RO150
Show abstract » This study reported national data on morbidity and mortality relating to self inflicted injuries. Incidence rates for various groups in the population for fatalities and hospitalisations are reported. Personal factors, methods used to inflict injury and place of occurrence are described, together with a discussion of implications for prevention. Limiting the availability and lethality of agents in self inflicted injuries is recommended.
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Epidemiology of playground equipment injuries resulting in hospitalisation | 1990
Chalmers, D.J., Langley, J.D.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 329-334.
Our ref: RO149
Show abstract » This study reported national data relating to discharges from hospitals in 1984 as a result of injuries relating to mainly falls from playground equipment. Incidence rates, ages of children, type of injuries and the implications of the findings are reported.
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DSM-III disorders in a large sample of adolescents | 1990
McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Partridge, F., Silva, P.A., Kelly, J.L. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990, 29(29), 611-619.
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Our ref: RO147
Show abstract » The prevalence of DSM-III disorders was studied in 943 adolescents aged 15 years from a general population. Prevalence rates of disorder of 25.9% for girls and 18.2% for boys were found. The most prevalent disorders were overanxious disorder, nonaggressive conduct disorder, and simple phobia. Marked differences were noted among the disorders in terms of associated social competence, with multiple disorders and primarily externalizing disorders being related to poorer competence. A model of parental confirmation of disorder was developed suggesting that confirmation was more likely where the mother was depressed, the family low in social support, and the adolescent less socially competent. (Abstracted in the Psychiatry Digest, 1991.)
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Antecedents of academic self concept: a longitudinal study | 1990
Chapman, J.W., Lambourne, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1990, 60(60), 142-159.
Our ref: RO144
Show abstract » The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.
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Hyperactivity and serum and hair zinc levels in eleven year old children from the general population | 1990
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Anderson, ... Show all » J., McKenzie-Parnell, J.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Biological Psychiatry, 1990, 28(28), 165-168.
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Our ref: RO143
Show abstract » This study examined associations between blood and hair zinc levels and inattentiveness, hyperactivity and antisocial behaviour. No significant associations were found.
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Risk factors for behavioural and emotional disorder in pre-adolescent children | 1990
Williams, S.M., Anderson, J., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990, 29(29), 413-419.
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Our ref: RO142
Show abstract » The relationship between risk factors and behavioral and emotional disorder was examined in 792 11-year-old children. Background characteristics such as sex, maternal depression, marital status of the parents, and reading problems distinguished between children with and without disorder. It also appeared that disorder was related to the number of risk factors experienced. This study, like others, failed to provide strong support for differences in background characteristics among children with different diagnoses. This may reflect the degree of overlap among disorders, because even children with only a single disorder may not be entirely free of the symptomatology of other disorders. For this reason it is important to assess children for multiple disorders or at least consider impaired functioning in other dimensions.
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Parent reports of disability among 13 year olds with DSM-III disorder | 1990
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1990, 31(31), 793-801.
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Our ref: RO141
Show abstract » This study examined physical and psychological dimensions of disability associated with different DSM-III disorders in a large sample of 13-year old adolescents. The measure of disability was based upon the World Health Organization (1980) classification. We found that adolescents with multiple DSM-III disorders and those with attention deficit and anxiety disorders showed the highest levels of parent perceived disablement; depression and conduct disorder showed the least. In addition, adolescents with any kind of DSM-III disorder showed a rate of parent-reported hospitalization twice that of the remainder of the sample. They also had poorer perceived health, as suggested by lower parent and self health ratings than those without disorder.
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Is there an association between lateral preference and delinquent behaviour | 1990
Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1990, 99(99), 198-201.
download pdf Our ref: RO140
Show abstract » Results of recent research suggests an association between left lateral preference and delinquent behavior. In this study the lateral preferences of 881 seven-year-old children were determined using behavioral indicators of hand and foot use. Mixed-handedness was associated with parent-reported problem behavior scores and self-reported delinquency scores at ages 13 and 15. However, preference for left hand and foot use was found to be unrelated to the delinquency measures. The distribution of lateral preferences in an identified delinquent group was not significantly different from the distribution in the sample remainder. The lack of an association between left preference and delinquency may be accounted for by an increased cultural acceptance of individual preference.
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A 6 year follow-up of childhood enuresis: prevalence in adolescence and consequences for mental health | 1990
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 75-79.
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Our ref: RO139
Show abstract » Recent studies have shown an association between enuresis and behavioural or emotional problems. The direction or causality of the association and its duration, however, remain unclear. This study followed a large group of children from ages 11 to 15 years and reported the prevalence of enuresis to age 13 years. The enuretic status of the sample at age 11 years was established relative to the history of enuresis at age 9 years. At age 11 years a significant association was found between enuresis and measures of psychopathology. This association was particularly evident for those children with secondary enuresis, and those who had a history of enuresis but had ceased to wet the bed. Current primary enuresis was not significantly associated with disorder. Similar associations were found between enuresis at age 11 and later disorder at age 13. At age 15 years no significant associations between enuresis and disorder were found. These findings have implications for parents of children with enuresis and for clinicians dealing with the disorder.
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Should family doctors screen asymptomatic children for high blood pressure | 1990
St. George, I.M.
Family Practice, 1990, 7(7), 219-226.
Our ref: RO138
Show abstract » Literature and research evidence relating to the value of screening asymptomatic children for high blood pressure was reviewed. It was concluded that on epidemiological and ethical grounds, screening for hypertension cannot at present be justified.
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Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: boys' developmental trajectories from age 3 to age 15 | 1990
Moffitt, T.E.
Child Development, 1990, 61(61), 893-910.
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Our ref: RO137
Show abstract » This study described factors related to delinquency and attention deficit disorder over time. Those with both attention deficit disorder and delinquency fared worst in all analyses. Their delinquency tended to begin early and persist to adolescence. Those who were delinquent but did not have attention deficit disorder showed less risk factors. The comorbidity of attention deficit disorder and delinquency was considered to be a likely predictor of criminal offending beyond adolescence.
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The relative value of reading ability and IQ as predictors of teacher reported behaviour problems | 1990
Stanton, W.R., Feehan, M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1990, 23(23), 514-518.
Our ref: RO136
Show abstract » Measures of early family adversity, pre-school-age IQ, school-age IQ, and reading ability were obtained from 779 Dunedin children. The data were used to examine the role of reading ability in the relationship between intellectual performance and teacher-reported behavior problems. Results of regression analyses showed that family adversity and pre-school-age IQ predicted problem behavior during the first year at school. However, reading scores accounted for a larger proportion of the variance in the later behavior problem scores than did school-age IQ scores, and when reading ability was entered in the regression equation before IQ, then reading but not IQ significantly predicted change in problem behavior during the primary school years. The results indicated that the association between IQ scores and problem behavior was mediated by reading ability and that a measure of school-age IQ has limited usefulness for models of primary school-age problem behavior.
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The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: A 15 year longitudinal study | 1990
Silva, P.A.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 1990, 4(4), 76-107.
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Our ref: RO135
Show abstract » This article describes the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of 1037 children studied at birth and followed-up at age 3, with the majority being followed-up every 2 years thereafter, to age 15. The paper includes a description of the setting for the study, the historical background, establishment of the study, the sample, follow-up rates, changes in sample characteristics over time, the procedures, the data gathered at each phase and the investigators responsible. Some of the topics studied over the years are set out in a table of descriptors which includes references to refereed journal articles that include results relating to the topics. Plans for the future are also described. Reflections on some of the reasons why the study has been successful are noted.
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Smoking behaviour in nine year old children: a replication and extension study | 1990
Oei, T.P.S., Fae, A., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Addictive Diseases (fmr Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse), 1990, 8(8), 85-96.
Our ref: RO133
Show abstract » This paper reported on children's smoking experience and the attitudes of those who had and had not puffed on a cigarette. Those who had experience of smoking had a more positive attitude towards smoking than those who had never puffed on a cigarette.
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What do New Zealand adolescents know about nutrition | 1990
Worsley, A., Worsley, A.J., McConnon, ... Show all » S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Nutrition and Dietetics, 1990, 47(47), 47-51.
Our ref: RO132
Show abstract » This study assessed adolescents' knowledge about nutrition. It was concluded that the level of general nutrition knowledge was poor.
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Parenting perspectives among adolescents: findings from a study of 846 Dunedin fifteen year olds in 1987-88 | 1989
Calvert, B.
Delta, 1989, 42(42), 53-60.
Our ref: NZ60
Show abstract » This article reported a study of adolescents' self reports about their expectations about being parents, their experience and knowledge of parenting, the information they believed they needed, and their attitudes to parenting issues. Gender differences and some differences relating to socio-economic status, reading ability and family characteristics were noted. The results showed that there is likely to be a continuing move towards greater participation by both parents in nurturing roles. Implications for preparation for parenting for both boys for both boys and girls was discussed. See also NZ63 and MO 22 for the full report.
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Prevalence of smoking in a Dunedin sample followed from age 9 to 15 years | 1989
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Oei, ... Show all » T.P.S. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1989, 102(102), 637-639.
Our ref: NZ55
Show abstract » A longitudinal study of a Dunedin cohort through to adolescence showed that by age 15 years, 80 percent of the adolescents had tried smoking. There was a steep rise in the prevalence of smoking from age 13 to age 15 years. At age 13 years 1% of the adolescents smoked every day, compared with 15% of them at age 15 years. At age 15 years this group of daily smokers consisted of 18% of the girls and 11% of the boys. The majority of adolescents who had never smoked by 13 years of age, but had smoked by 15 years of age were girls. Prevalence rates from the present study (1987-88) are similar to those reported in the 1960s and 1970s. A large decrease in the number of boys who smoke every day has been offset by a large increase in the number of girls who smoke every day.
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Diet and behaviour | 1989
Williams, S.M., McGee, R.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1989, 102(102), 499-500.
Our ref: NZ54
Show abstract » This paper reviewed some recent evidence concerning the association between diet and behaviour. It was concluded that the evidence suggested that the link between food and problem behaviour such as hyperactivity and aggression is not as strong as many believe.
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A prospective replication of the protective effect of IQ in subjects at high risk of juvenile delinquency | 1989
White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1989, 57(57), 719-724.
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Our ref: RO134
Show abstract » The purpose of the study was to test the replicability of a protective effect of high IQ against criminality. Support has been found in prior studies for the hypotheses that Ss at high risk would have an elevated risk of serious criminal involvement, that seriously criminal Ss would have a lower mean IQ score than noncriminal Ss, and that Ss at high risk who had not become involved in serious criminal behavior would have the highest IQs. This report tests these hypotheses in a prospective design. Subjects were 1,037 members of a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. IQs were examined for male and female Ss who were divided into 4 groups formed on the basis of risk status at age 5 years and delinquency outcome at ages 13 and 15. Analyses were conducted with and without mild delinquents excluded from the nondelinquent groups. We found that male and female delinquents showed significantly lower IQ scores than nondelinquents. By varying S selection procedures, we also found that a very high IQ may help boys, even those at risk, to stay free of delinquency altogether.
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Parents' reports of disability among thirteen year olds. Preliminary experiences with WHO's ICIDH | 1989
Langley, J.D.
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 220-225.
Our ref: RO131
Show abstract » This paper reports the results of use of a questionnaire to parents, based on the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH). The most common disabilities were those of writing/spelling (26%), coping with dust/pollens or chemicals (15%) and coping with school work (15%). A total of 81 parents reported some situational dependency, especially dependence on medication associated with asthma. The questionnaire was judged to provide a useful means by which to study disability in adolescents.
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A longitudinal study of the interactive effects of perinatal complications and early family adversity on cognitive ability | 1989
Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 130-133.
Our ref: RO130
Show abstract » The effects of high, medium and low levels of perinatal complications and family adversity on intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were examined in a large sample of Dunedin children tested every second year in the age group 3-13 years. The aim was to test the hypothesis that favourable environmental circumstances attenuate the effects of perinatal complications on later cognitive ability. The results did not support this hypothesis but rather suggested that perinatal complications and family adversity have independent adverse effects on the development of children's cognitive ability.
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The relative risks of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma | 1989
Sears, M.R., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, ... Show all » M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1989, 19(19), 419-424 .
Our ref: RO129
Show abstract » The associations between skin sensitivity to various common allergens and the development of childhood asthma were ascertained in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children up to the age of 13 years. Of 714 children skin-tested, 45.8% were sensitive to at least one of 11 allergens, the most common responses being to rye grass pollen (32.5%), house dust mite (30.1%) and cat dander (13.3%). Allergen-specific relative risk analysis, controlled for the effect of sensitivity to other allergens, demonstrated that sensitivity to house dust mite and to cat dander were highly significant independent risk factors associated with the development of asthma (whether defined as recurrent typical respiratory symptoms, increased airway responsiveness, or the concurrent presence of both), whereas grass sensitivity was not a significant independent risk factor for asthma. (Reproduced in the 1991 Year Book of Paediatrics, Chicago, Mosby Year Book Inc.)
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Neuropsychological assessment of executive function deficits in self-reported delinquents | 1989
Moffitt, T.E., Henry, B.
Development and Psychopathology, 1989, 1(1), 105-118.
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Our ref: RO128
Show abstract » Deficits in executive neuropsychological functions have been proposed to underlie the development of antisocial behavior such as juvenile delinquency. Results of research into the executive functions of delinquents have been mixed, and studies have been hampered by reliance on small samples of adjudicated subjects and questionable validity of the tests administered. This research examined the performance of a large unselected birth cohort of adolescent boys and girls on five tests of executive function that have documented reliability and validity. It is the first such study to use self-reports of antisocial behavior. Executive deficits were shown only by a subgroup of delinquent subjects with childhood comorbidity of antisocial behavior and attention deficit disorder; that subgroup's behavior was also rated as more aggressive and impulsive than comparison groups'. Group differences on executive measures remained significant after the effects of overall IQ were statistically controlled. Also, delinquents who had been detected by police did not show poorer executive functions than subjects with equivalent self-reports of delinquent behavior who had evaded official detection, suggesting that executive deficits are related to the development of antisocial behavior itself, and not simply to risk of detection.
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Neuropsychological correlates of psychopathology in an unselected cohort of young adolescents | 1989
Frost, L.A., Moffitt T.E., McGee, R.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1989, 98(98), 307-313.
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Our ref: RO127
Show abstract » Members of a birth cohort were assessed for psychopathology and neuropsychological dysfunction at age 13. Ss who met DSM-III criteria for a single disorder, multiple disorders, and no disorder were compared on 5 composite neuropsychological measures. The multiple disorders group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal, Visuospatial, Verbal Memory, and Visual-Motor Integration factors. They also showed the highest rate of neuropsychological impairment. The attention-deficit disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal Memory and Visual-Motor Integration factors, and the anxiety disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Visual-Motor Integration factor. Results suggest that neuropsychological dysfunction is more often associated with multiple rather than single, psychiatric disorders in adolescents. The problem of comorbidity in studies of neuropsychological function in childhood and adolescent psychopathology is highlighted.
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Cognitive and social correlates of DSM-III disorders in pre-adolescent children | 1989
Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1989, 28(28), 842-846.
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Our ref: RO126
Show abstract » The relationships between some cognitive and social measures and the major syndromes found in a large preadolescent sample of children from the general population are described. The measures discriminated between disorder-no disorder for most variables examined and between the broad groups of externalizing and internalizing disorders, but not between individual diagnostic categories. An important exception was that ADDH and conduct disorder occurring as single disorders could be distinguished, but the frequent comorbidity of these and other disorders complicated many between-group comparisons.
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Place of occurrence of injury events in New Zealand compared with the available ICD codes | 1989
Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J.
Methods of Information in Medicine, 1989, 28(28), 109-113.
Our ref: RO122
Show abstract » This paper reviews national data on injury mortality and morbidity with an emphasis on the place of occurrence of injury events in New Zealand compared with the available ICD codes. Several problems in the classification of the existing codes were identified and several modifications to the codes proposed.
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Injury mortality and morbidity in New Zealand | 1989
Langley, J.D., McLoughlin, E.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1989, 21(21), 243-254.
Our ref: RO121
Show abstract » This paper presents and reviews data on injury mortality, morbidity, hospitalisation and costs from the National Health Statistics Centre's mortality and demographic data files, the hospital and selected morbidity files, the ACC claims file and other sources. The results demonstrate that relative to other diseases, injuries represent a significant community health problem.
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Recall of injury events by thirteen year olds | 1989
Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Methods of Information in Medicine, 1989, 28(28), 24-27.
Our ref: RO120
Show abstract » This paper describes the recall of injury events over up to a two year period and a comparison between those events remembered and the actual visits to an accident and emergency service that took place over that period. Thirty-nine per cent of all visits to the accident and emergency department were not remembered. Factors related to the recall of the injury events were described.
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