The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 18 of 22.

Parenting perspectives among adolescents: findings from a study of 846 Dunedin fifteen year olds in 1987-88 | 1989
Calvert, B.
Delta, 1989, 42(42), 53-60.
Our ref: NZ60
Show abstract » This article reported a study of adolescents' self reports about their expectations about being parents, their experience and knowledge of parenting, the information they believed they needed, and their attitudes to parenting issues. Gender differences and some differences relating to socio-economic status, reading ability and family characteristics were noted. The results showed that there is likely to be a continuing move towards greater participation by both parents in nurturing roles. Implications for preparation for parenting for both boys for both boys and girls was discussed. See also NZ63 and MO 22 for the full report.
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Prevalence of smoking in a Dunedin sample followed from age 9 to 15 years | 1989
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Oei, ... Show all » T.P.S. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1989, 102(102), 637-639.
Our ref: NZ55
Show abstract » A longitudinal study of a Dunedin cohort through to adolescence showed that by age 15 years, 80 percent of the adolescents had tried smoking. There was a steep rise in the prevalence of smoking from age 13 to age 15 years. At age 13 years 1% of the adolescents smoked every day, compared with 15% of them at age 15 years. At age 15 years this group of daily smokers consisted of 18% of the girls and 11% of the boys. The majority of adolescents who had never smoked by 13 years of age, but had smoked by 15 years of age were girls. Prevalence rates from the present study (1987-88) are similar to those reported in the 1960s and 1970s. A large decrease in the number of boys who smoke every day has been offset by a large increase in the number of girls who smoke every day.
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Diet and behaviour | 1989
Williams, S.M., McGee, R.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1989, 102(102), 499-500.
Our ref: NZ54
Show abstract » This paper reviewed some recent evidence concerning the association between diet and behaviour. It was concluded that the evidence suggested that the link between food and problem behaviour such as hyperactivity and aggression is not as strong as many believe.
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A prospective replication of the protective effect of IQ in subjects at high risk of juvenile delinquency | 1989
White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1989, 57(57), 719-724.
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Our ref: RO134
Show abstract » The purpose of the study was to test the replicability of a protective effect of high IQ against criminality. Support has been found in prior studies for the hypotheses that Ss at high risk would have an elevated risk of serious criminal involvement, that seriously criminal Ss would have a lower mean IQ score than noncriminal Ss, and that Ss at high risk who had not become involved in serious criminal behavior would have the highest IQs. This report tests these hypotheses in a prospective design. Subjects were 1,037 members of a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. IQs were examined for male and female Ss who were divided into 4 groups formed on the basis of risk status at age 5 years and delinquency outcome at ages 13 and 15. Analyses were conducted with and without mild delinquents excluded from the nondelinquent groups. We found that male and female delinquents showed significantly lower IQ scores than nondelinquents. By varying S selection procedures, we also found that a very high IQ may help boys, even those at risk, to stay free of delinquency altogether.
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Parents' reports of disability among thirteen year olds. Preliminary experiences with WHO's ICIDH | 1989
Langley, J.D.
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 220-225.
Our ref: RO131
Show abstract » This paper reports the results of use of a questionnaire to parents, based on the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH). The most common disabilities were those of writing/spelling (26%), coping with dust/pollens or chemicals (15%) and coping with school work (15%). A total of 81 parents reported some situational dependency, especially dependence on medication associated with asthma. The questionnaire was judged to provide a useful means by which to study disability in adolescents.
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A longitudinal study of the interactive effects of perinatal complications and early family adversity on cognitive ability | 1989
Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 130-133.
Our ref: RO130
Show abstract » The effects of high, medium and low levels of perinatal complications and family adversity on intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were examined in a large sample of Dunedin children tested every second year in the age group 3-13 years. The aim was to test the hypothesis that favourable environmental circumstances attenuate the effects of perinatal complications on later cognitive ability. The results did not support this hypothesis but rather suggested that perinatal complications and family adversity have independent adverse effects on the development of children's cognitive ability.
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The relative risks of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma | 1989
Sears, M.R., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, ... Show all » M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1989, 19(19), 419-424 .
Our ref: RO129
Show abstract » The associations between skin sensitivity to various common allergens and the development of childhood asthma were ascertained in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children up to the age of 13 years. Of 714 children skin-tested, 45.8% were sensitive to at least one of 11 allergens, the most common responses being to rye grass pollen (32.5%), house dust mite (30.1%) and cat dander (13.3%). Allergen-specific relative risk analysis, controlled for the effect of sensitivity to other allergens, demonstrated that sensitivity to house dust mite and to cat dander were highly significant independent risk factors associated with the development of asthma (whether defined as recurrent typical respiratory symptoms, increased airway responsiveness, or the concurrent presence of both), whereas grass sensitivity was not a significant independent risk factor for asthma. (Reproduced in the 1991 Year Book of Paediatrics, Chicago, Mosby Year Book Inc.)
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Neuropsychological assessment of executive function deficits in self-reported delinquents | 1989
Moffitt, T.E., Henry, B.
Development and Psychopathology, 1989, 1(1), 105-118.
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Our ref: RO128
Show abstract » Deficits in executive neuropsychological functions have been proposed to underlie the development of antisocial behavior such as juvenile delinquency. Results of research into the executive functions of delinquents have been mixed, and studies have been hampered by reliance on small samples of adjudicated subjects and questionable validity of the tests administered. This research examined the performance of a large unselected birth cohort of adolescent boys and girls on five tests of executive function that have documented reliability and validity. It is the first such study to use self-reports of antisocial behavior. Executive deficits were shown only by a subgroup of delinquent subjects with childhood comorbidity of antisocial behavior and attention deficit disorder; that subgroup's behavior was also rated as more aggressive and impulsive than comparison groups'. Group differences on executive measures remained significant after the effects of overall IQ were statistically controlled. Also, delinquents who had been detected by police did not show poorer executive functions than subjects with equivalent self-reports of delinquent behavior who had evaded official detection, suggesting that executive deficits are related to the development of antisocial behavior itself, and not simply to risk of detection.
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Neuropsychological correlates of psychopathology in an unselected cohort of young adolescents | 1989
Frost, L.A., Moffitt T.E., McGee, R.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1989, 98(98), 307-313.
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Our ref: RO127
Show abstract » Members of a birth cohort were assessed for psychopathology and neuropsychological dysfunction at age 13. Ss who met DSM-III criteria for a single disorder, multiple disorders, and no disorder were compared on 5 composite neuropsychological measures. The multiple disorders group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal, Visuospatial, Verbal Memory, and Visual-Motor Integration factors. They also showed the highest rate of neuropsychological impairment. The attention-deficit disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal Memory and Visual-Motor Integration factors, and the anxiety disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Visual-Motor Integration factor. Results suggest that neuropsychological dysfunction is more often associated with multiple rather than single, psychiatric disorders in adolescents. The problem of comorbidity in studies of neuropsychological function in childhood and adolescent psychopathology is highlighted.
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Cognitive and social correlates of DSM-III disorders in pre-adolescent children | 1989
Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1989, 28(28), 842-846.
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Our ref: RO126
Show abstract » The relationships between some cognitive and social measures and the major syndromes found in a large preadolescent sample of children from the general population are described. The measures discriminated between disorder-no disorder for most variables examined and between the broad groups of externalizing and internalizing disorders, but not between individual diagnostic categories. An important exception was that ADDH and conduct disorder occurring as single disorders could be distinguished, but the frequent comorbidity of these and other disorders complicated many between-group comparisons.
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Place of occurrence of injury events in New Zealand compared with the available ICD codes | 1989
Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J.
Methods of Information in Medicine, 1989, 28(28), 109-113.
Our ref: RO122
Show abstract » This paper reviews national data on injury mortality and morbidity with an emphasis on the place of occurrence of injury events in New Zealand compared with the available ICD codes. Several problems in the classification of the existing codes were identified and several modifications to the codes proposed.
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Injury mortality and morbidity in New Zealand | 1989
Langley, J.D., McLoughlin, E.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1989, 21(21), 243-254.
Our ref: RO121
Show abstract » This paper presents and reviews data on injury mortality, morbidity, hospitalisation and costs from the National Health Statistics Centre's mortality and demographic data files, the hospital and selected morbidity files, the ACC claims file and other sources. The results demonstrate that relative to other diseases, injuries represent a significant community health problem.
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Recall of injury events by thirteen year olds | 1989
Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Methods of Information in Medicine, 1989, 28(28), 24-27.
Our ref: RO120
Show abstract » This paper describes the recall of injury events over up to a two year period and a comparison between those events remembered and the actual visits to an accident and emergency service that took place over that period. Thirty-nine per cent of all visits to the accident and emergency department were not remembered. Factors related to the recall of the injury events were described.
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Injuries in the twelfth and thirteenth years of life | 1989
Chalmers, D.J., Cecchi, J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 14-20.
Our ref: RO119
Show abstract » From a sample of 850 adolescents, 377 were involved in 550 separate incidents which resulted in 636 injuries requiring medical attention. The most common injuries were sprains or strains, followed by fractures and lacerations. Most injuries were of minor severity. The most common incident resulting in injury was striking against an object or person, followed by being struck by an object or person, and overexertion or strenuous movement. Almost 40% of the incidents occurred during sporting or similar physical activities. Disabilities arising from injury are described. The most common of these were recreational. The implications of long-term and permanent disability are examined. Traditional attitudes toward injury prevention were found to be held by the majority of the sample. Barriers to injury prevention are identified and the Prevention of Injury Programme contained in the Health Education Syllabus for primary school children is described.
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The structure and correlates of self-reported symptoms in 11-year-old children | 1989
Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Anderson, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1989, 17(17), 55-71.
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Our ref: RO118
Show abstract » Self-reports of previous DSM-III symptomatology were obtained from 792 11-year-old children using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). We report results concerning 13 subscales derived from the DISC. Factor analysis of the subscales suggested a broad distinction between externalizing and internalizing disorder for boys' self-report. For girls, two separate internalizing factors representing anxiety and depression emerged. We also found sex differences in correlates of self-reported disorder. Finally, we examined agreement between child and parent and teacher reports. Overall, agreement was relatively low, although somewhat higher for child-parent than for child-teacher.
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Health in Adolescence: research challenges for the next decade | 1988
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 689-692.
Our ref: NZ52
Show abstract » This paper briefly describes some recent publications on adolescent health, one of which advocates the establishment of a database on adolescent health, and then discusses what the author considers to be the three most important adolescent health problems, namely unintentional injuries, asthma and mental health disorders. While considerable research into injuries and asthma are already being planned or carried out, this is not the case for adolescent mental health disorders. Adolescent physical and sensory disabilities, health risks and health promotion are briefly discussed in terms of research needs. The nature and prevalence of adolescent mental health problems are then discussed as well as some influences on adolescent development and mental health. Finally, it is argued that two types of research into adolescent mental health disorders are needed (basic and programme development and evaluation). It is recommended that the Medical Research Council sponsor a seminar on mental health research needs and consider the possibility of adopting more active strategies to promote research into mental health, including the mental health of adolescents.
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Parents' and children's attitudes to seat belt usage and knowledge of seat belts | 1988
Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Appleton, I. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 119-121.
Our ref: NZ51
Show abstract » Knowledge of and attitudes to seat belt laws and the perception of risk were examined in a cohort of 1139 children and their parents. Seven hundred and thirty questionnaires were obtained from interviewing a sample of 13-year-olds and 805 questionnaires were obtained by mail from the parents. Most children (98%) and parents (99%) had correct knowledge of the law relating to the front seat. Fewer children (77%) and parents (80%) gave the correct response for the rear seat. Nearly all children (96%) and parents (99%) correctly identified the front seat unbelted as the most dangerous combination, but only 72% of children and 70% of parents identified the safest place to travel. There was parental support for a law requiring owners to fit rear seat belts and for a law requiring children of all ages to be restrained.
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What children know about alcohol and how they know it | 1988
Casswell, S., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brasch, P.E. « Hide
British Journal of Addiction, 1988, 83(83), 223-227.
Our ref: RO99
Show abstract » This report described children's knowledge, attitudes and concepts of alcohol, and where they acquired their information. Experience of alcohol related problems by the children was also described. The influence of television as an information source was emphasised.
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Factors associated with arithmetic-and-reading disability and specific arithmetic disability | 1988
Share, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1988, 21(21), 313-320.
Our ref: RO98
Show abstract » Characteristics of children with two types of arithmetic disabilities were described. The somewhat complex results including important sex differences and differences between arithmetic disability type were described.
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Gross and fine motor ability and anthropometric characteristics of children with high intelligence | 1988
Clymer, P.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1988, 14(14), 19-29.
Our ref: RO97
Show abstract » This study examined the motor development of children with IQs of 130 or more in comparison with children with IQs less than 130. Those of high intelligence had slightly better fine but not gross motor ability. They also had higher mean birth weights but were not longer at birth or taller or heavier at other ages. They did, however, have larger head circumference measurements at birth and at ages 3, 5, 7 and 9 years.
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Absence of psychosocial bias in the under-reporting of unintentional childhood injuries | 1988
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1988, 42(42), 76-82.
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Our ref: RO87
Show abstract » Bias resulting from under-reporting has been largely ignored by studies that have examined the relationships between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries. This study was part of a larger investigation that examined associations between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries in a sample of 781 children. Visits to an accident and emergency department and their general practitioners were used to determine whether the children or their mothers were under-reporters. Under-reporters were compared with reporters on a variety of family, behavioural, and development factors. The analyses showed that under-reporters did not differ significantly from the remainder of the sample in terms of psychosocial factors central to the main study.
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The need to discontinue the use of the term accident when referring to unintentional injury events | 1988
Langley, J.D.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1988, 20(20), 1-8.
Our ref: RO84
Show abstract » This paper argues the case for health professionals to discontinue the use of the term accident when referring to unintentional injury events. It is argued that use of the term accident is counter-productive to preventive measures.
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Self-reported delinquency: results from an instrument in New Zealand | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1988, 21(21), 227-240.
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Our ref: RO125
Show abstract » This article describes the Self-Report Early Delinquency Scale (SRED), a research instrument designed to capture self reports of illegal and norm violating behaviours from New Zealand adolescents. Reliability and validity are described and were considered adequate for recommending the instrument for use in social science research. Findings in the predicted directions were obtained from the relations between SRED scores and gender, family instability, history of behaviour disorder, social class and intelligence.
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The relative risks of allergy to grass pollen, house dust, mite and cot dander in the development of childhood asthma [Abstract] | 1988
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, ... Show all » C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1988, 137(137), 239.
Our ref: RO124
Show abstract » See RO129 (below) for reference to full paper and comment.
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Stereoacuity levels and vision problems in children 7 to 11 years | 1988
Williams, S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 1988, 8(8), 386-389.
Our ref: RO117
Show abstract » A longitudinal study of stereoacuity levels of 859 children at 7 years, 811 children at 9 years and 796 children at 11 years was conducted using the TNO random dot stereotest. The prevalence of defective stereoscopic vision was found to be between 2.1 and 3.2 per cent. A further 10-16 per cent of children had only moderate stereoacuity levels when compared with their peers. The stereoacuity levels achieved by most of the children improved with age, but the rank order correlations for the stereoacuity levels between ages 7 and 9, and ages 9 and 11, were small. Defective stereopsis and poor stereoacuity levels were clearly associated with manifest strabismus and problems of visual acuity, and if failure to pass the quantitative plates was a cut-off point for screening purposes most of the children with visual problems would have been identified.
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Self reported delinquency, neuropsychological deficit and history of attention deficit disorder | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 16(16), 553-569.
Our ref: RO116
Show abstract » This study was designed to evaluate the possibility that a pattern of cognitive deficit is associated with delinquent behavior, while avoiding some of the methodological problems of previous research. The Self-Report Early Delinquency instrument and a research battery of neuropsychological tests were administered blindly to an unselected cohort of 678 13-year-olds. Because the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) was found at markedly elevated rates in the backgrounds of these delinquents, the possibility was examined that the neuropsychological deficits of delinquents might be limited to delinquents with histories of ADD. Although delinquents with past ADD were more cognitively impaired than non-ADD delinquents, both groups scored significantly below nondelinquents on verbal, visuospatial, and visual-motor integration skills. In addition, ADD delinquents scored poorly on memory abilities. Subjects with ADD who had not developed delinquent behavior were not as cognitively impaired as ADD delinquents, suggesting that it is the specific comorbidity of ADD and delinquency that bears neuropsychological study.
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IQ and delinquency: a direct test of the differential detection hypothesis | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 97(97), 330-333.
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Our ref: RO115
Show abstract » This study examined the IQs of 13 year olds who were classified as officially delinquent, delinquent but with no police record and those without a history of delinquency. There was no significant difference in IQs between the two delinquent sub-groups but both these groups gained significantly lower mean IQs than non-delinquents. These findings did not support the differential detection hypothesis.
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A comparison of 13 year old boys with attention deficit and/or reading disorder on neuropsychological measures | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Anderson, J. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 17(17), 37-53.
Our ref: RO114
Show abstract » This study compared 13 year old boys with attention deficit disorder and/or reading disability, and controls with neither disorder on a battery of verbal and non-verbal neuropsychological measures. None of the measures differentiated the boys with attention deficit disorder only from the controls; the only deficit associated with attention deficit disorder was slightly lower IQ. Reading disorder, on the other hand, was associated with deficits in memory and verbal skills.
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Neuropsychological deficit and self-reported delinquency in an unselected birth cohort | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 27(27), 233-240.
Our ref: RO113
Show abstract » Associations between results from a self report early delinquency instrument and results from a research battery of neuropsychological tests were reported. A pattern of verbal, visuospatial-motor integration and memory deficits explained a small proportion of the variance of delinquency, in addition to that explained by social disadvantage.
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Neuropsychological correlates of early adolescent psychopathology [Abstract] | 1988
Frost, L.A., Moffitt, T.E., McGee, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 1988, 11(11), 272.
Our ref: RO112
Show abstract » This study reported a principal components analysis of a neuropsychological test battery and a discriminant function analysis on groups of pre-adolescents designated as attention deficient, conduct disordered, depressed, anxious or multiple psychiatric disorder. The results suggested that neuropsychological impairment is associated with multiple rather than single psychiatric disorder.
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Height and weight comparisons of children in New Zealand and the United States | 1988
Jordan, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1988, 108(108), 166-172.
Our ref: RO111
Show abstract » This paper compared the height, weight and growth measurements from the Dunedin Health and Development Study sample and the St Louis Baby Study sample. Both samples were similar in height, weight and growth measurements.
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Slow starters and long-term backward readers: a replication and extension | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1988, 58(58), 330-337.
Our ref: RO110
Show abstract » Three groups of children were compared, those who had long term reading problems and those who were slow readers at age 7 but who showed good reading progress by age 13, and those without any history of reading problems. The three groups were contrasted on various measures of cognitive ability, behaviour and family background measures. Only maternal reading ability differentiated between the groups.
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Childhood depression and reading ability: is there a relationship | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Journal of School Psychology, 1988, 26(26), 391-394.
Our ref: RO109
Show abstract » This paper criticises a report in the literature that suggested an association between childhood depression and reading ability. It argues that a clear association had yet to be demonstrated.
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A longitudinal study of depression in 9 year old children | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 27(27), 342-348.
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Our ref: RO108
Show abstract » Three groups of 9 year old children defined as having a current depressive disorder, past depressive disorder or no depressive disorder were studied at ages 11 and 13. Significantly more depressive symptoms were found at age 11 and 13 in those who had depressive symptoms at age 9 or previously. There was also a long-term association between depression and antisocial behaviour in boys (but not girls).The results from this study highlighted the differences between child and adult forms of depression.
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Attention deficit disorder - hyperactivity and academic failure: which comes first and what should be treated | 1988
McGee, R., Share, D.L.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 27(27), 318-325.
Our ref: RO107
Show abstract » This paper reviews the evidence relating to the association between attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity and learning difficulties and implications for treatment. The paper suggests the type of research needed to clarify the issues.
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Difficulties and bonuses of evaluation: Evaluating New Zealand's Children's Nightclothes Act 1977 | 1988
Langley, J.D., McLoughlin E.
Burns, 1988, 14(14), 435-439.
Our ref: RO106
Show abstract » Difficulties and bonuses of evaluating injury prevention programmes are illustrated by reference to an evaluation of New Zealand's Children's Nightclothes Act 1977. It is demonstrated that despite the difficulties encountered in that evaluation and the equivocal results, there were significant bonuses which more than justified the resources devoted to the evaluation.
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Refractive error, IQ and reading ability: A longitudinal study from age 7 to 11 | 1988
Williams, S.M., Sanderson, G.F., Share, ... Show all » D.L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1988, 30(30), 735-742.
Our ref: RO105
Show abstract » Children from a population sample whose cycloplegic refractive errors included myopia, pre-myopia and hypermetropia were compared on measures of IQ and reading with a group of children without significance refractive errors. At age 11 both those with myopia and with pre-myopia had increased verbal and performance IQ, while those with hypermetropia had slightly reduced verbal and performance IQ, in comparison with the children without refractive errors. The differences in verbal IQ were not attributable simply to earlier differences, but the differences in performance IQ were attributable to earlier differences. No significant differences in reading scores were found at either age. It is concluded that differing abilities of myopic and other children at age 11 are not fully explained by differences in family background or in pre-existing ability.
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IQ and reading progress: A test of the capacity notion of IQ | 1988
Share, D.L., McGee R., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 28(28), 97-100.
Our ref: RO103
Show abstract » Concepts such as developmental reading disorder and dyslexia have been used to refer to children whose actual reading achievement is substantially below that predicted by performance on IQ tests. Such diagnostic concepts assume that IQ sets a limit on either the level of achievement or the rate of progress of which a child is capable. This assumption was investigated in a longitudinal study of an unselected cohort of 741 children whose reading achievement was assessed at ages 7, 9, 11, and 13 years. Findings on rates of progress and levels of achievement clearly indicate that IQ does not set a limit on reading progress, even in extreme low IQ children. Thus, the use of IQ tests to determine achievement potential in reading appears unwarranted.
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Psychological factors in unintentional childhood injuries: results from a longitudinal study | 1988
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Safety Research, 1988, 18(18), 73-89.
Our ref: RO101
Show abstract » Relationships between several family, behavioural and developmental factors and injuries in mid-childhood were investigated. The results showed that none of the variables studied had a significant association with the number of injuries the child had received. There were, however, significant sex differences with boys experiencing more injuries than girls.
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Blood lead, intelligence, reading attainment and behaviour problems in eleven-year-old children in Dunedin, New Zealand | 1988
Silva, P.A., Hughes, P., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Faed, J.A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1988, 29(29), 43-53.
download pdf Our ref: RO100
Show abstract » A study of blood lead levels and intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems was carried out using a sample of 579 Dunedin 11-yr-old children. The results suggested that when account was taken of social, environmental, and background factors, raised blood lead is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in children's general behaviour problems as reported by both parents and teachers. These results applied especially to the more specific problems of inattention and hyperactivity.
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