The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 5 of 22.

Intergenerational continuity in periodontal health: findings from the Dunedin Study | 2011
Shearer, D.M., Thomson, W. M. , Caspi, ... Show all » A., Moffitt, T.E., Broadbent, J. M. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2011, 38(38), 301-309.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01687.x
Our ref: RO604
Show abstract » Objective: To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Methods: Proband periodontal examination [combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26 to 32] and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents self-reported periodontal disease. Results: Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 11 sites with 41mm CAL [relative risk (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.111.88], 21 sites with 41mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.032.05), 11 sites with 51mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.022.50), and 11 sites with 31mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.012.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Conclusions: Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individuals periodontal status, and may help to predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need.
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Dental visiting trajectory patterns and their antecedents | 2011
Crocombe, L. A. , Broadbent, J. M. , Thomson, ... Show all » W. M. , Brennan, D. S. , Slade, G. D. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 2011, 71(71), 23-31.
Our ref: RO603
Show abstract » Objective: This study aimed to test whether socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood may affect dental visiting patterns between ages 18 and 32 years. Methods: Using data from a complete birth cohort, childhood SES status was measured (using the New Zealand Elley-Irving index) at each study stage between birth and 15 years. Longitudinal dental visiting data were available for 833 study participants from ages 15, 18, 26, and 32, and these were analyzed by trajectory analysis. Results: Three separate dental visiting trajectories were identified; these were categorized as opportunists (13.1%), decliners (55.9%),and routine attenders (30.9%). Bivariate analyses showed low SES in childhood, male sex, and dental anxiety to be associated with membership of the opportunist dental visiting trajectory. Multinomial logistic regression showed that low childhood SES and dental anxiety were statistically significant predictors for membership in the opportunist or decliner trajectories after accounting for potential confounding variables. Conclusion: Individuals who grew up experiencing low childhood SES were less likely to adopt a routine dental visiting trajectory in adulthood than those with a high childhood SES. Dental anxiety was also an important predictor of dental visiting patterns.
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A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety | 2011
Moffitt, T.E., Arseneault, L. , Belsky, ... Show all » D.W., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. , Harrington, H. L., Houts, R., Poulton, R. , Roberts, B.W., Ross, S., Sears, M.R., Thomson, W. M. , Caspi, A. « Hide
PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA), 2011, 108(108), 2693-2698.
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Our ref: RO602
Show abstract » Policy-makers are considering large-scale programs aimed at self-control to improve citizens' health and wealth and reduce crime. Experimental and economic studies suggest such programs could reap benefits. Yet, is self-control important for the health, wealth, and public safety of the population? Following a cohort of 1,000 children from birth to the age of 32 y, we show that childhood self-control predicts physical health, substance dependence, personal finances, and criminal offending outcomes, following a gradient of self-control. Effects of children's self-control could be disentangled from their intelligence and social class as well as from mistakes they made as adolescents. In another cohort of 500 sibling-pairs, the sibling with lower self-control had poorer outcomes, despite shared family background. Interventions addressing self-control might reduce a panoply of societal costs, save taxpayers money, and promote prosperity.
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Childhood hearing and its relationship with Tinnitus at thirty-two years of age | 2010
Dawes, P. J., Welch, D.
Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 2010, 119(119), 672-676.
Our ref: RO601.2
Show abstract » Objectives: Tinnitus is associated with hearing loss in adulthood, often resulting from noise or age, but it is not known whether children's hearing and/or middle ear health predispose them to tinnitus in adulthood. Methods: The participants were members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1972 and March 1973. The base sample consisted of 1,037 children. Otitis media was assessed at 5,7, and 9 years of age; audiometry and tympanometry findings were recorded at 11 years of age, and a detailed description of the tympanic membrane was made at 15 years of age. At 32 years of age, 970 of the 1,015 living study members (96%) answered questions about tinnitus. Results: Children who had otitis media and a raised audiometric threshold went on to experience more tinnitus in adulthood than did those without middle ear disease or those who had otitis media without a raised threshold. In those who had recovered from otitis media, audiometric threshold elevation at lower and higher frequencies was associated with experiencing tinnitus in adulthood. Neither childhood otitis media alone nor elevated thresholds alone predicted adult tinnitus. Conclusions: Childhood otitis media with an associated hearing loss in the low and high frequencies was associated with a greater probability of experiencing tinnitus in adulthood.
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The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: tips and traps from a 40-year longitudinal study | 2010
Poulton, R., Moffitt, T.E.
International Journal of Behavioural Development, 2010, 34(34), 18-21.
Our ref: RO601
Show abstract » Overview of DMHDS - research strategy, research findings, sample retention strategies, challenges for launching new longitudinal research.
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Breath holding predicts reduced smoking intake but not quitting | 2010
Welch, D., McGee, R.
Open Addiction, 2010, 3(3), 39-42.
Our ref: RO600
Show abstract » Introduction: Cigarette smokers who attempt to quit may or may not relapse. Previous research has shown that breath-holding ability predicts successful quitting, and it has been suggested that breath-holding ability may be a marker of tolerance for uncomfortable physiological symptoms. Methods: We measured breath-holding ability and smoking in a large general-population birth cohort from age 21 to age 32. Results: Cross-sectionally, at age 21, breath-holding ability was greater in males who had quit smoking than in either current or non-smokers, while no such differences were observed amongst females. On the other hand, no prospective associations were detected between breath-holding ability and quitting smoking by age 32. Pack years smoked was lower amongst male smokers with better breath-holding ability at age 32. Discussion: While the cross-sectional finding in males was consistent with the hypothesis that those with more tolerance for breath holding would be more successful at quitting, there was no long-term effect to age 32. On the other hand, breath-holding was associated with reduced intake over time in males. A behavioural mechanism whereby longer breath holders smoke less because of a greater tolerance for the physical discomfort associated with intervals between cigarettes is consistent with these findings.
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Perceived out of control sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study | 2010
Skegg, K. M., Nada-Raja, S. , Dickson, ... Show all » N. , Paul, C. « Hide
Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 2010, 39(39), 968-78.
Our ref: RO599
Show abstract » Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample.
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Consistency and reliability of self-reported lifetime number of heterosexual partners by gender and age in a cohort study | 2010
Bell, M.L., van Roode, T., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Jang, Z., Paul, C. « Hide
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2010, 37(37), 425-431.
DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181d13ed8
Our ref: RO598
Show abstract » BACKGROUND:: The reported number of sexual partners is a variable used extensively in sexual health research. However, the reliability and consistency of this measure, and the statistical assessment of these attributes, are not well understood. METHODS:: Using data at ages 21, 26, and 32 years from a New Zealand birth cohort, we compared responses on the lifetime number of heterosexual sex partners to assess reliability and consistency. Differences by gender and age were considered, and the effect of number of sexual partners. A variety of analytical methods were used to explore statistical challenges of these data including variance estimation, fractional polynomial transformations, and quantile regression. RESULTS:: We found some level of discrepancy between reports of the number of sexual partners when assessed at different times is common, driven by those reporting a high number of partners who were disproportionately men. Men reported a higher lifetime number of partners than women at each age, and there were statistically significant differences by gender in (a) consistency between reports at different ages, and (b) reliability of reports as measured by both the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and the Kappa statistic. CONCLUSIONS:: When considering reliability, multiple statistical approaches are necessary or conclusions can be misleading. Variance components should be examined when considering the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. When modelling, robust methods like fractional polynomials and quantile regression should be employed to accommodate nonlinearity. Sensitivity analyses excluding participants whose partner number is in the upper 5% to 25% are informative, as these were shown to have the highest discrepancies.
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Adolescent screen-time and attachment to parents and peers | 2010
Richards, R., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Welch, D. , Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2010, 164(164), 258-262.
Our ref: RO597
Show abstract » Objective: To examine associations between screen-time (television, video/DVD, gaming, computer use) and attachment to parents and peers in two cohorts of adolescents, 16 years apart. Design: Cross-sectional data regarding screen-time and attachment to parents and peers were collected for two cohorts of adolescents, one in 1987/88 (Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development cohort, DMHDS) and one in 2004 (Youth Lifestyle Study cohort, YLS). Setting: Members of the DMHDS cohort were interviewed as part of a full day of assessment and members of the YLS cohort completed a self-report questionnaire in a supervised classroom setting. Participants: The DMHDS cohort (n = 976 at age 15) was aged 15 years in 1987/88. The YLS cohort (n = 3043) was aged 14 and 15 years in 2004. Main outcome measures: Low attachment to parents and peers as measured by the Inventory of Parent and Peer attachment. Results: More time spent television viewing and less time reading and doing homework were associated with low parent attachment for both cohorts. Among the YLS cohort, more time playing on a computer was also associated with low parent attachment. Among the DMHDS cohort, greater television viewing was associated with low peer attachment. Conclusion: Screen-time was associated with poor attachment to parents and peers in two cohorts of adolescents, 16 years apart. Given the importance of parental and peer attachment to adolescent health and development, concern about high levels of screen-time among adolescents is warranted.
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Long-term dental visiting patterns and adult oral health | 2010
Thomson, W. M. , Williams, S.M., Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Poulton, R. , Locker, D. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 2010, 89(89), 307-311.
Our ref: RO596
Show abstract » To date, the evidence supporting the benefits of dental visiting comes from cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether long-term routine dental visiting was associated with lower experience of dental caries and missing teeth, and better self-rated oral health, by age 32. A prospective cohort study in New Zealand examined 932 participants' use of dentistry at ages 15, 18, 26, and 32. At each age, routine attenders (RAs) were identified as those who (a) usually visited for a check-up, and (b) had made a dental visit during the previous 12 months. Routine attending prevalence fell from 82% at age 15 to 28% by 32. At any given age, routine attenders had better-than-average oral health, fewer had teeth missing due to caries, and they had lower mean DS and DMFS scores. By age 32, routine attenders had better self-reported oral health and less tooth loss and caries. The longer routine attendance was maintained, the stronger the effect. Routine dental attendance is associated with better oral health.
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Static and dynamic cognitive deficits in childhood preceding adult schizophrenia: a 30-year study | 2010
Reichenberg, A., Caspi, A. , Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Houts, R., Keefe, R., Murray, R. M., Poulton, R. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2010, 167(167), 160-169.
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Our ref: RO595
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Premorbid cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are well documented and have been interpreted as supporting a neurodevelopmental etiological model. The authors investigated the following three unresolved questions about premorbid cognitive deficits: What is their developmental course? Do all premorbid cognitive deficits follow the same course? Are premorbid cognitive deficits specific to schizophrenia or shared by other psychiatric disorders? METHOD: Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 males and females born between 1972 and 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. Cohort members underwent follow-up evaluations at specific intervals from age 3 to 32 years, with a 96% retention rate. Cognitive development was analyzed and compared in children who later developed schizophrenia or recurrent depression as well as in healthy comparison subjects. RESULTS: Children who developed adult schizophrenia exhibited developmental deficits (i.e., static cognitive impairments that emerge early and remain stable) on tests indexing verbal and visual knowledge acquisition, reasoning, and conceptualization. In addition, these children exhibited developmental lags (i.e., growth that is slower relative to healthy comparison subjects) on tests indexing processing speed, attention, visual-spatial problem solving ability, and working memory. These two premorbid cognitive patterns were not observed in children who later developed recurrent depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the origins of schizophrenia include two interrelated developmental processes evident from childhood to early adolescence (ages 7-13 years). Children who will grow up to develop adult schizophrenia enter primary school struggling with verbal reasoning and lag further behind their peers in working memory, attention, and processing speed as they get older.
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Effects of cannabis on lung function: a population-based cohort study | 2010
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R., Ely, ... Show all » M., Welch, D., Taylor, D. R. , McLachlan, C. R. , Greene, J. M. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A., Sears, M.R. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 2010, 35(35), 42-47.
download pdf Our ref: RO594
Show abstract » The effects of cannabis on lung function remain unclear and may be different to tobacco. We compared the associations between use of these substances and lung function in a population-based cohort (n=1037). Cannabis and tobacco use were reported at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years. Spirometry, plethysmography, and carbon monoxide transfer factor were measured at age 32. Associations between lung function and exposure to each substance were adjusted for exposure to the other substance. Cumulative cannabis use was associated with higher forced vital capacity, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume. Cannabis was also associated with higher airways resistance but not with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory ratio, or transfer factor. These findings were similar amongst those who did not smoke tobacco. By contrast, tobacco use was associated with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second, lower forced expiratory ratio, lower transfer factor, and higher static lung volumes, but not with airways resistance. Cannabis appears to have different effects on lung function to those of tobacco. Cannabis use was associated with higher lung volumes suggesting hyperinflation and increased large-airways resistance, but there was little evidence for airflow obstruction or impairment of gas transfer.
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How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment | 2010
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Taylor, ... Show all » A., Kokaua, J./Milne, B.J., Polanczyk, G., Poulton, R. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2010, 40(40), 899-909.
download pdf Our ref: RO589
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Most information about the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders comes from retrospective surveys, but how much these surveys have undercounted due to recall failure is unknown. We compared results from a prospective study with those from retrospective studies.MethodThe representative 1972-1973 Dunedin New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) was followed to age 32 years with 96% retention, and compared to the national New Zealand Mental Health Survey (NZMHS) and two US National Comorbidity Surveys (NCS and NCS-R). Measures were research diagnoses of anxiety, depression, alcohol dependence and cannabis dependence from ages 18 to 32 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime disorder to age 32 was approximately doubled in prospective as compared to retrospective data for all four disorder types. Moreover, across disorders, prospective measurement yielded a mean past-year-to-lifetime ratio of 38% whereas retrospective measurement yielded higher mean past-year-to-lifetime ratios of 57% (NZMHS, NCS-R) and 65% (NCS). CONCLUSIONS: Prospective longitudinal studies complement retrospective surveys by providing unique information about lifetime prevalence. The experience of at least one episode of DSM-defined disorder during a lifetime may be far more common in the population than previously thought. Research should ask what this means for etiological theory, construct validity of the DSM approach, public perception of stigma, estimates of the burden of disease and public health policy.
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Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers | 2009
Danese, A. , Moffitt, T. E. , Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Milne, B. J. , Polanczyk, G., Pariante, C.M., Poulton, R. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2009, 163(163), 1135-1143.
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Our ref: RO593
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. DESIGN: A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. RESULTS: Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38-2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38-2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The promotion of healthy psychosocial experiences for children is a necessary and potentially cost-effective target for the prevention of age-related disease.
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Researching genetic versus nongenetic determinants of disease: A comparison and proposed unification | 2009
Ioannidis, J.P.A., Loy, E.Y., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Chia, K.S. « Hide
Science Translational Medicine, 2009, 1(1), 7ps8.
doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000247
Our ref: RO592.2
Show abstract » Research standards deviate in genetic versus nongenetic epidemiology. Besides some immutable differences, such as the correlation pattern between variables, these divergent research standards can converge considerably. Current research designs that dissociate genetic and nongenetic measurements are reaching their limits. Studies are needed that massively measure genotypes, nongenetic exposures, and outcomes concurrently.
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Accelerated decline in lung function in cigarette smokers is associated with TP53/MDM2 polymorphisms | 2009
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R. , Welch, ... Show all » D. , Olova, N. , McLachlan, C. R. , Greene, J. M. , Sears, M. R. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, T. E. , Robertson, S. P. , Braithwaite, A. W. « Hide
Human Genetics, 2009, 126(126), 559-565. (Electronic)
Our ref: RO592
Show abstract » In vitro studies have shown that p53 mediates a protective response against DNA damage by causing either cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair, or apoptosis. These responses have not yet been demonstrated in humans. A common source of DNA damage in humans is cigarette smoke, which should activate p53 repair mechanisms. As the level of p53 is regulated by MDM2, which targets p53 for degradation, the G-allele of a polymorphism in intron 1 of MDM2 (rs2279744:G/T), that results in higher MDM2 levels, should be associated with a reduced p53 response and hence more DNA damage and corresponding tissue destruction. Similarly, the alleles of rs1042522 in TP53 that encode arginine (G-allele) or proline (C-allele) at codon 72, which cause increased pro-apoptotic (G-allele) or cell-cycle arrest activities (C-allele), respectively, may moderate p53's ability to prevent DNA damage. To test these hypotheses, we examined lung function in relation to cumulative history of smoking in a population-based cohort. The G-alleles in MDM2 and TP53 were found to be associated with accelerated smoking-related decline in lung function. These data support the hypothesis that p53 protects from DNA damage in humans and provides a potential explanation for the variation in lung function impairment amongst smokers.
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Cats and dogs and the risk of atopy in childhood and adulthood | 2009
Mandhane, P. J. , Sears, M.R., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Greene, J. M. , Lou, W.Y., Taylor, D. R. , Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2009, 124(124), 745-750.e4.
Our ref: RO591
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Exposure to cats and dogs during childhood has been linked to a lower risk of developing allergies. It remains unclear whether this is due to selective avoidance of pets by families with a history of allergies. The effects of pet ownership in adulthood are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the association between cat and dog ownership in childhood and early adulthood and the development of atopy in a population-based birth cohort of 1037 subjects. METHODS: Ownership of cats or dogs between birth and age 9 years and between the ages of 18 and 32 years was reported. Skin prick tests to common allergens were performed at 13 and 32 years. RESULTS: There was no evidence that families with a history of atopy avoided owning pets. There were significant cat-by-dog interactions for the development of atopy in both childhood and adulthood. Children who had owned both a cat and a dog were less likely to be atopic at age 13 years. Living with only one of these animals was not protective against atopy. Among those who were not atopic by age 13 years, having both a cat and a dog in adulthood was associated with a lower risk of new atopy by age 32 years. This association was only significant among those with a parental history of atopy. These effects were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: There is a synergistic interaction between cat and dog exposure that is associated with a lower risk of developing atopy in childhood and young adulthood.
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Protective effect of CHHR1 gene variants on the development of adult depression following childhood maltreatment: Replication and extension | 2009
Polanczyk, G., Caspi, A., Williams, ... Show all » B.S., Price, T.S., Danese, A. , Sugden, K., Uher, R., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2009, 66(66), 978-985.
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Our ref: RO590
Show abstract » Context A previous study reported a genexenvironment interaction in which a haplotype in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) was associated with protection against adult depressive symptoms in individuals who were maltreated as children (as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [CTQ]). Objective To replicate the interaction between childhood maltreatment and a TAT haplotype formed by rs7209436, rs110402, and rs242924 in CRHR1, predicting adult depression. Design Two prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting England and New Zealand. Participants Participants in the first sample were women in the E-Risk Study (N=1116), followed up to age 40 years with 96% retention. Participants in the second sample were men and women in the Dunedin Study (N=1037), followed up to age 32 years with 96% retention. Main Outcome Measure Research diagnoses of past-year and recurrent major depressive disorder. Results In the E-Risk Study, the TAT haplotype was associated with a significant protective effect. In this effect, women who reported childhood maltreatment on the CTQ were protected against depression. In the Dunedin Study, which used a different type of measure of maltreatment, this finding was not replicated. Conclusions A haplotype in CRHR1 has been suggested to exert a protective effect against adult depression among research participants who reported maltreatment on the CTQ, a measure that elicits emotional memories. This suggests the hypothesis that CRHR1's protective effect may relate to its function in the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences.
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Childhood neuropsychological deficits associated with adult obsessive-compulsive disorder | 2009
Grisham, J. R. , Anderson, T. M. , Poulton, ... Show all » R. , Moffitt, T. E. , Andrews, G. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, 195(195), 138-141.
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Our ref: RO587
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Existing neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are cross-sectional and do not provide evidence of whether deficits are trait-related (antecedent and independent of symptomatology) or state-related (a consequence, dependent on symptomatology). AIMS: To investigate whether there are premorbid neuropsychological deficits associated with adult OCD. METHOD: Longitudinal data were collected from participants of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Developmental study. Neuropsychological data collected at age 13 were linked with age 32 diagnosis of OCD. RESULTS: The group who had OCD at age 32 differed significantly from the control group with no OCD on their performance at age 13 on neuropsychological tests of visuospatial, visuoconstructive and visuomotor skills, controlling for gender and socioeconomic status, but did not differ on tests of general IQ or verbal ability. Performance of the group with OCD on tests of executive functioning was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with OCD have premorbid impairment in visuospatial abilities and some forms of executive functioning, consistent with biological models of OCD.
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Leptin, adiponectin and asthma: findings from a population-based cohort study | 2009
Sutherland, T.J.T., Taylor, D.R. , Sears, ... Show all » M.R., McLachlan, C. R. , Greene, J.M., Poulton, R., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 2009, 103(103), 101-107.
Our ref: RO586
Show abstract » Background: Obesity is thought to increase the risk of asthma, especially in women. It has been proposed that this association could be due to the immune-modulating effect of adipokines secreted by adipose tissue. Objective: To investigate whether aspects of the asthma phenotype are associated with higher levels of the proinflammatory adipokine leptin and lower levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin in a cross-sectional analysis of a group of young adults. Methods: Associations between leptin and adiponectin and a diagnosis of asthma, symptoms of wheeze, bronchodilator response, airflow obstruction, and exhaled nitric oxide were evaluated by logistic or linear regression in a population-based birth cohort of approximately 1,000 men and women aged 32 years. Further analyses adjusted for smoking and body fat. Results: There were no significant associations between leptin and any of the markers of the asthma phenotype in either men or women. In men, higher levels of adiponectin were associated with lower levels of exhaled nitric oxide but an increased risk of bronchodilator responsiveness. The inverse association with exhaled nitric oxide remained significant after adjustment for body fat, but the association with bronchodilator responsiveness did not. Adiponectin levels were not associated with any markers of asthma in women. Conclusions: The inverse association between adiponectin and exhaled nitric oxide in men warrants further investigation. However, the findings indicate that levels of leptin and adiponectin are unlikely to mediate the previously observed association between obesity and asthma.
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Predictive value of family history on severity of illness: the case for depression, anxiety, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence | 2009
Milne, B. J. , Caspi, A. , Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Poulton, R. , Rutter, M. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2009, 66(66), 738-47.
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Our ref: RO585
Show abstract » CONTEXT: If family history is associated with clinical features that are thought to index seriousness of disorder, this could inform clinicians predicting patients' prognosis and researchers selecting cases for genetic studies. Although tests of associations between family history and clinical features are numerous for depression, such tests are relatively lacking for other disorders. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that family history is associated with 4 clinical indexes of disorder (recurrence, impairment, service use, and age at onset) in relation to 4 psychiatric disorders (major depressive episode, anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence). DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 981 members of the 1972 to 1973 Dunedin Study birth cohort (96% retention). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each disorder, family history scores were calculated as the proportion of affected family members from data on 3 generations of the participants' families. Data collected prospectively at the study's repeated assessments (ages 11-32 years) were used to assess recurrence, impairment, and age at onset; data collected by means of a life history calendar at age 32 years were used to assess service use. RESULTS: Family history was associated with the presence of all 4 disorder types. In addition, family history was associated with a more recurrent course for all 4 disorders (but not significantly for women with depression), worse impairment, and greater service use. Family history was not associated with younger age at onset for any disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between family history of a disorder and clinical features of that disorder in probands showed consistent direction of effects across depression, anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence. For these disorder types, family history is useful for determining patients' clinical prognosis and for selecting cases for genetic studies.
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Trajectories of dental anxiety in a birth cohort | 2009
Thomson, W. M. , Broadbent, J. M. , Locker, ... Show all » D., Poulton, R. « Hide
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2009, 37(37), 209-219.
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Our ref: RO584
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To examine predictors of dental anxiety trajectories in a longitudinal study of New Zealanders. METHODS: Prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand, with dental anxiety scale (DAS) scores and dental utilization determined at ages 15, 18, 26 and 32 years. Personality traits were assessed at a superfactor and (more fine-grained) subscale level via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire at age 18 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify dental anxiety trajectories. RESULTS: DAS scores from at least three assessments were available for 828 participants. Six dental anxiety trajectories were observed: stable nonanxious low (39.6%); stable nonanxious medium (37.9%); recovery (1.6%); adult-onset anxious (7.7%); stable anxious (7.2%) and adolescent-onset anxious (5.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that males and those with higher DMFS at age 15 years were more likely to be in the stable nonanxious low trajectory group. Membership of the stable nonanxious medium group was predicted by the dental caries experience at age 15 years. Participants who had lost one or more teeth between ages 26 and 32 years had almost twice the relative risk for membership of the adult-onset anxious group. Personality traits predicted group membership. Specifically, high scorers (via median split) on the 'stress reaction' subscale had over twice the risk of being in the stable anxious group; low scorers on the traditionalism subscale were more likely to be members of the recovery trajectory group; and high scorers on the 'social closeness' subscale had half the risk of being in the stable anxious group. Dental caries experience at age 5 years was also a predictor for the stable anxious group. Membership of the late-adolescent-onset anxious group was predicted by higher dental caries experience by age 15 years, but none of the other predictors was significant. CONCLUSION: Six discrete trajectories of dental anxiety have been observed. Some trajectories (totalling more than 90% of the cohort) had clear associations with external influences, but others were more strongly associated with characteristics such as personality traits. A mix of both influences was observed with only the stable anxious dental anxiety trajectory.
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Personality influences on change in smoking behaviour | 2009
Welch, D., Poulton, R.
Health Psychology, 2009, 28(28), 292-299.
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Our ref: RO583
Show abstract » Objective: To investigate associations between personality traits in early adulthood (and changes in them) and change in smoking status. Design: Prospective, longitudinal study of a general-population birth cohort. Main Outcome Measures: We measured smoking at ages 18, 26, and 32, and personality at ages 18 and 26 using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Tellegen & Waller, in press). We assessed personality's ability to predict future smoking, and assessed how changes in personality traits relate to change in smoking status. Results: Higher aggression and alienation at age 18 predicted smoking at 26; higher self-control and traditionalism at age 18 predicted nonsmoking at 26; and higher alienation at age 26 predicted persistence of smoking to age 32. Personality change between 18 and 26 was associated with change in smoking behavior; those who stopped smoking decreased more than others in negative emotionality and increased more in constraint. Conclusion: These findings suggest that interventions fostering personality change may be effective in reducing smoking and indicate appropriate targets for such antismoking interventions in young people. In particular, high alienation predicted smoking persistence, perhaps due to resistance to existing antismoking messages; we discuss approaches that may overcome this.
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Child sexual abuse and persistence of risky sexual behaviours and negative sexual outcomes over adulthood: findings from a birth cohort. | 2009
van Roode, T., Dickson, N., Herbison, ... Show all » G. P. , Paul, C. « Hide
Child Abuse and Neglect, 2009, 33(33), 161-172.
Our ref: RO582
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. METHODS: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were over the whole period from age 18 to 32, then for the three age periods from age 18 to 21, 21 to 26, and 26 to 32, adjusting for measures of family environment. RESULTS: Overall, 465 women and 471 men (91.9% of the surviving cohort) answered questions about CSA. Contact CSA was reported by 30.3% of women and 9.1% of men. For abused women, significantly increased rates were observed for number of sexual partners, unhappy pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted infections from age 18 to 21; with rates approaching those of nonabused over time. Conversely, for abused men rates were not significantly elevated in the youngest age period, but were for number of partners from age 26 to 32 and acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 from age 21 to 32. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and age are critical when considering the effect of CSA. While the profound early impact of CSA demonstrated for women appears to lessen with age, abused men appear to carry increased risks into adulthood. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: CSA is common and should be considered when young women present with unwanted conceptions or seek multiple terminations, and when men continue to have high risk sexual behavior into adulthood. Furthermore, if CSA is disclosed, sexual risks in adulthood need to be considered.
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Sleep problems in childhood predict neuropsychological functioning in adolescence | 2009
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Pediatrics, 2009, 123(123), 1171-1176.
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Our ref: RO581
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to examine the association between parent-rated sleep problems during childhood and neuropsychological functioning during adolescence. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Longitudinal prospective data on an entire birth cohort from Dunedin, New Zealand, were obtained. One thousand thirty-seven children were enrolled in the study (52% male). Parents reported on sleep problems when the study members were 5, 7, and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological functioning was assessed by using 7 tests when the participants were 13 years of age. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender and socioeconomic status, persistent sleep problems during childhood predicted scores on 2 neuropsychological tests: the copy score of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and 2 measures of performance on the Halstead Trail Making Test. These results were substantively replicated when sleep was assessed at the 5- and 9-year (but not 7-year) assessments separately. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems during childhood may be associated with certain aspects of neuropsychological functioning during adolescence. This adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that childhood sleep problems may be a risk indicator of later difficulties.
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An update on cardiovascular disease epidemiology in South East Asia. Rationale and design of the LIFE course study in CARdiovascular disease Epidemiology (LIFECARE) | 2009
Tai, E Shyong , Poulton, R. , Thumboo, ... Show all » J., Sy, R., Castillo-Carandang, N., Sritara, P., Adam, J.M.F., Sim, K.H., Fong, A., Wee, H.L., Woodward, M. « Hide
CVD Prevention & Control, 2009, 4(4), 93-102.
Our ref: RO580
Show abstract » The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is likely to increase dramatically in Asia over the next several decades. In this paper, we review the existing data on CVD epidemiology in Asia, with a focus on the INTERHEART study and the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Existing data suggest that much of CVD may be preventable through reduction in the levels of well-established CVD risk factors. Existing studies in Asia suggest that these findings are likely to be relevant to Asian populations. However, these studies have several important limitations. These include a lack of longitudinal studies with collection of repeated measures of CVD risk factors and the environmental factors that may result in the age-related increase in the levels of these risk factors. As such, the natural history of the development of CVD risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in Asia, and their relationship in terms of duration and timing of exposure to various environmental influences is currently unknown. In addition, there is a paucity of data related to psychosocial factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, either directly or through effects on other CVD risk factors. Finally, little data is available with regards the impact of CVD and its attendant risk factors on health related quality of life and health care utilization. This information is crucial for the design and evaluation of evidence based programs for primary prevention. We have designed a LIFE Course Study in CARdiovascular disease Epidemiology (LIFECARE) involving 12,000 individuals in four South East Asian countries to address these data needs.
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Links between anxiety and allergies: Psychobiological reality or methodological bias? | 2009
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Milne, B.J., Poulton, R. , Sears, M.R. « Hide
Journal of Personality, 2009, 77(77), 347-362.
download pdf Our ref: RO578
Show abstract » The objective of the study was to examine the link between anxiety and allergies to establish whether it reflects a psychobiological reality or a possible methodological bias. A cohort of 1,037 children enrolled in the study. Anxiety disorders were assessed between 11 and 21 years. Anxious personality was assessed at 18 years. Allergies were examined at 21 years by (a) self reports, (b) skin pricks, and (c) serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE). Self-reported allergies were predicted by recurrent anxiety disorders (OR [95% CI]51.56 [1.062.30], p5.023) and self-reports of anxious personality (OR [95% CI]51.67 [1.172.37], p5.004): Objectively verified allergies were not. These results suggest that the link between anxiety and allergies may reflect a methodological artifact rather than a psychobiological reality.
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Associations between birth weight, early childhood weight gain and adult lung function | 2009
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R., Greene, ... Show all » J. M. , McLachlan, C. R. , Pearce, M. S. , Sears, M.R. « Hide
Thorax, 2009, 64(64), 228-232.
Our ref: RO577
Show abstract » Background. Low birth weight is associated with lower values for spirometry in adults but it is unknown if birth weight influences other measures of pulmonary function. It is also unclear whether post-natal growth affects adult lung function. We assessed the associations between birth weight, post-natal growth and adult lung function in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 children. Methods. Birth weight, weight gain between birth and age 3 years, and lung function at age 32 years were measured. Analyses adjusted for adult height and sex and further adjusted for multiple other potential confounding factors. Results. Birth weight was positively correlated with spirometric (FEV1 and FVC) and plethysmographic (TLC and FRC) lung function and with lung diffusing capacity. These associations persisted after adjustment for confounding factors including adult weight, exposure to cigarette smoke in utero and during childhood, personal smoking, socio-economic status, asthma, and gestational age. Weight gain between birth and age 3 was also positively associated with lung diffusing capacity, and was associated with higher values of lung volumes in men after adjustment for covariates. Neither birth weight nor post-natal weight gain were associated with airflow obstruction. Conclusions. Low birth weight and lower weight gain in early childhood are associated with modest reductions in adult lung function across a broad range of measures of lung volumes and with lower diffusing capacity. These findings are independent of a number of potential confounding factors and support the hypothesis that foetal and infant growth is a determinant of adult lung function.
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Longitudinal study of self-reported sexually transmitted infection incidence by gender and age up to age thirty-two years | 2009
Paul, C., van Roode, T., Herbison, ... Show all » G. P. , Dickson, N. « Hide
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2009, 36(36), 63-69.
Our ref: RO576
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: To examine how incidence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) varies by gender and age, and the factors that influence this. METHODS: A longitudinal study of a cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973. They were questioned about STIs and sexual behavior at age 21, 26, and 32 years (1993-2005). Incidence rates were calculated over 3 age periods and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Of the 1037 members of the original cohort, 92% or more of survivors completed the computer questionnaire at each age. Incidence rates of STIs from first coitus to age 21, age 21 to 26, and age 26 to 32, were 2.0, 3.2, and 2.0 per 100 person-years, respectively for men and 4.4, 3.0, and 1.4 per 100 person-years, respectively for women. After adjustment for sexual behavior, rates for men were elevated from age 21 to 26 compared with first coitus to 21 years of age [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.8), but not from age 26 to 32 (IRR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.70-1.9). For women, adjusted rates decreased with age; from 21 to 26 compared with first coitus to 21 (IRR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.56-1.1) and further from 26 to 32 (IRR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.27-0.57). CONCLUSIONS: These unique data, comprising repeated assessment of reported behaviors and STIs in the same population, show that the period before age 21 is a time of special risk for STIs for women and of lower risk for men. The low risk among women aged 26 to 32 years after adjustment for sexual behavior warrants further investigation.
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Male circumcision and serologically determined human papillomavirus infection in a birth cohort | 2009
Dickson, N. P. , Ryding, J. , van Roode, ... Show all » T. , Paul, C. , Herbison, P. , Dillner, J. , Skegg, D. C. « Hide
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 2009, 18(18), 177-83.
Our ref: RO575
Show abstract » Circumcision has been reported to protect against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in men, but results have been inconsistent. We followed males in a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973 from age 3 to 32 years. Seropositivity at age 32 years for the oncogenic types HPV-16 and 18, and the nononcogenic types 6 and 11, was studied in relation to maternal reports of circumcision status at age 3 for 450 men. Seropositivity to any of these types was associated with lifetime number of sexual partners (P = 0.03), and lower moral-religious emphasis of the family of origin (P < 0.001). Circumcision was not found to be protective, with the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for HPV6/11/16/18 seropositivity among the circumcised compared with the uncircumcised being 1.4 (0.89-2.2).
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Obsessions and compulsions in the community: Prevalence, interference, help-seeking, developmental stability and co-occurring psychiatric conditions | 2009
Fullana, M. A. , Mataix-Cols, D. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. , Harrington, H. L., Grisham, J. R. , Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, R. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, 166(166), 329-336.
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Our ref: RO574
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: It is unclear how many people in the community have obsessions and compulsions and associated levels of interference. It is also unknown what variables predict help-seeking for these symptoms, whether they are developmentally stable, and whether they increase the risk of mental disorders. METHOD: The authors analyzed data from the prospective longitudinal Dunedin study of an unselected birth cohort. The presence of obsessions and compulsions and mental disorders was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) at ages 11, 26, and 32. Data on interference and help-seeking were obtained at ages 26 and 32. RESULTS: Obsessions and compulsions were frequent in individuals with mental disorders other than obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and among people without mental disorders. Even in the latter group, these symptoms caused significant interference. The presence of anxiety/depression and of obsessions (particularly aggressive and shameful thoughts), but not compulsions, was associated with help-seeking. Harm/checking was the most prevalent symptom dimension. Symptom dimensions were temporally stable and associated with increased comorbidity. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms at age 11 predicted a high risk of an adult OCD diagnosis as well as elevated adult symptom dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Obsessions and compulsions are common in the adult population, have their roots in childhood, and are associated with interference, risk for disorders, and help-seeking. Subclinical obsessions and compulsions should be taken into account in research, intervention, and DSM-V.
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Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent physical inactivity: a longitudinal study | 2009
Richards, R., Poulton, R., Reeder, ... Show all » A.I., Williams, S.M. « Hide
Journal of Adolescent Health, 2009, 44(44), 260-267.
Our ref: RO573
Show abstract » PURPOSE: Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. METHODS: Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family active-recreation orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and persistent inactivity, declining participation, or persistent activity during adolescence. RESULTS: In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.
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Patterns of Growth Associated With the Timing of Adiposity Rebound | 2009
Williams, S. M. , Goulding, A.
Obesity, 2009, 17(17), 335-341.
Our ref: RO572
Show abstract » This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of age of adiposity rebound (AR) on measures of fat mass between ages 7 and 11 years, maturity, and adiposity in 458 children from a birth cohort studied to age 26 years. Patterns of growth between ages 3 and 26 years and changes in fat mass index between 7 and 11 years in groups with early (<5.5 years for boys and <5 years for girls), average (between 5.5 and 7.5 years for boys and between 5 and 7 years for girls), and late AR (>/=7.5 years for boys and >/=7 years for girls) are described. The mean z-scores for BMI, height, and weight increased between age 3 years and adolescence in the early-rebound group and decreased in the late-rebound group. The differences were maintained until adulthood for BMI and weight. Disproportionately high increases in fat mass index during growth (7-11 years), more advanced bone age in boys at age 7 years, and earlier menarche in girls were evident in the early-rebound group. The relative risks at 26 years of being overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI >/=30 kg/m(2)) were 2.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55, 4.66) and 5.91 (95% CI: 3.03, 11.55) respectively, using the average group as the reference. The corresponding relative risks for adult waist girths exceeding international cut points were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.13) and 3.32 (95% CI: 1.46, 7.54). Thus, early rebound is associated with increased depositions of fat in middle childhood, and risks associated with early rebound persist at least until early adulthood.
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Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: A test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis | 2009
Koenen, K., Moffitt, T. E. , Roberts, ... Show all » A., Martin, L., Kubzansky, L., Harrington, H. L., Poulton, R., Caspi, A. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, 166(166), 50-57.
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Our ref: RO571
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. METHOD: Participants were members of a representative 1972'1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. RESULTS: Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. CONCLUSIONS: Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning.
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The validity of the Family History Screen for assessing family history of mental disorders | 2009
Milne, B. J. , Caspi, A. , Crump, ... Show all » R., Poulton, R., Rutter, M. , Sears, M.R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
American Journal Of Medical Genetics B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 2009, 150(150B), 41-49.
download pdf Our ref: RO570
Show abstract » There is a need to collect psychiatric family history information quickly and economically (e.g., for genome-wide studies and primary care practice). We sought to evaluate the validity of family history reports using a brief screening instrument, the Family History Screen (FHS). We assessed the validity of parents' reports of seven psychiatric disorders in their adult children probands from the Dunedin Study (n = 959, 52% male), using the proband's diagnosis as the criterion outcome. We also investigated whether there were informant characteristics that enhanced accuracy of reporting or were associated with reporting biases. Using reports from multiple informants, we obtained sensitivities ranging from 31.7% (alcohol dependence) to 60.0% (conduct disorder) and specificities ranging from 76.0% (major depressive episode) to 97.1% (suicide attempt). There was little evidence that any informant characteristics enhanced accuracy of reporting. However, three reporting biases were found: the probability of reporting disorder in the proband was greater for informants with versus without a disorder, for female versus male informants, and for younger versus older informants. We conclude that the FHS is as valid as other family history instruments (e.g., the FH-RDC, FISC), and its brief administration time makes it a cost-effective method for collecting family history data. To avoid biasing results, researchers who aim to compare groups in terms of their family history should ensure that the informants reporting on these groups do not differ in terms of age, sex or personal history of disorder.
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A longitudinal examination of the relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and traffic crash involvement during young adulthood | 2008
Begg, D. J. , Gulliver, P.
Traffic Injury Prevention, 2008, 9(9), 508-14.
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Our ref: RO579
Show abstract » Previous research examining the relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and young adult traffic outcomes (crashes, convictions, risky driving) has produced differing results. Possible reasons for this may be the heterogeneity of the crash outcomes (from minor fender-benders to fatal crashes), the gender of the driver, and/or the age of the driver. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and young adult crashes to determine the extent to which the above factors influenced this relationship. This study was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS), which is a longitudinal study of a cohort (n = 1,037) born in Dunedin, New Zealand, from April 1972 to March 1973. This cohort has been followed up regularly since birth, and the data for the present research were obtained at the 18-, 21-, and 26-year-old follow-up interviews. The problem behaviors examined were those identified by Jessor in the theory of problem behavior, namely, tobacco smoking, marijuana use, alcohol use, delinquent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior. Data for these measures were obtained in personal interviews when the cohort was aged 18 years. The self-reported crash data were obtained at the age 21 and age 26 follow-up interviews. Driving exposure, academic qualifications, employment, being a parent, and marital status were included as potential confounders. The results show that involvement in adolescent problem behaviors predicted crash involvement at age 21 for the females but not the males and at age 26 for the males but not the females. Possible explanations for these differences by age and gender are discussed.
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How should we construct psychiatric family history scores? A comparison of alternative approaches from the Dunedin Family Health History Study | 2008
Milne, B.J., Moffitt, T. E. , Crump, ... Show all » R., Poulton, R. , Rutter, M. , Sears, M.R., Taylor, A. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2008, 38(38), 1793-802.
download pdf Our ref: RO569
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: There is increased interest in assessing the family history of psychiatric disorders for both genetic research and public health screening. It is unclear how best to combine family history reports into an overall score. We compare the predictive validity of different family history scores. Method: Probands from the Dunedin Study (n=981, 51% male) had their family history assessed for nine different conditions. We computed four family history scores for each disorder: (1) a simple dichotomous categorization of whether or not probands had any disordered first-degree relatives; (2) the observed number of disordered first-degree relatives; (3) the proportion of first-degree relatives who are disordered; and (4) Reed's score, which expressed the observed number of disordered first-degree relatives in terms of the number expected given the age and sex of each relative. We compared the strength of association between each family history score and probands' disorder outcome. RESULTS: Each score produced significant family history associations for all disorders. The scores that took account of the number of disordered relatives within families (i.e. the observed, proportion, and Reed's scores) produced significantly stronger associations than the dichotomous score for conduct disorder, alcohol dependence and smoking. Taking account of family size (i.e. using the proportion or Reed's score) produced stronger family history associations depending on the prevalence of the disorder among family members. CONCLUSIONS: Dichotomous family history scores can be improved upon by considering the number of disordered relatives in a family and the population prevalence of the disorder.
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Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? | 2008
Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A., Nagin, ... Show all » D.S., Piquero, A.R., Slutske, W., Milne, B.J., Dickson, N., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Psychological Science, 2008, 19(19), 1037-1044.
download pdf Our ref: RO568
Show abstract » Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk.
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Childhood sleep-time and long-term risk for obesity: a 32-year prospective birth cohort study | 2008
Landhuis, C.E., Poulton, R., Welch, ... Show all » D., Hancox, R. J. « Hide
Pediatrics, 2008, 122(122), 955-960.
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-3521
Our ref: RO567
Show abstract » Context: Associations between short sleep duration and increased body mass index have been found in children and adults. However, it is unknown if short sleep-time during childhood has long-term consequences. We assessed the association between sleep-time in childhood and adult body mass index in a birth cohort. Methods: Study members were a general population birth cohort of 1037 participants (502 female) were born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1972 and March 1973. Parental reports of bed and rising times collected at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 years were used to estimate childhood sleep-time. Linear regression was used to analyse the association between childhood sleep-time and body mass index measured at age 32 years. Results: Lower childhood sleep-times were significantly associated with higher adult body mass indices (regression coefficient = -0.99, 95% confidence interval = -1.59 to -0.39, p = 0.001). This association remained after adjustment for adult sleep-time and the potential confounding effects of early childhood body mass index, childhood socioeconomic status, parental body mass indices, child and adult television viewing, adult physical activity and adult smoking (coefficient = -0.93, 95% CI = -1.54 to -0.31, p = 0.003. By logistic regression, more sleep-time during childhood was associated with a lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.53 to 1.00, p = 0.051) at age 32 years. This association was significant after adjusting for multiple potential confounding factors (OR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.43 to 0.97, p = 0.034). Conclusions: These findings suggest that sleep restriction in childhood increases the long-term risk for obesity. Ensuring that children get adequate sleep may be a useful strategy for stemming the current obesity epidemic.
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Gene-environment interactions: A review of epidemiological findings and future directions | 2008
Van Os, J., Rutten, B.P.F., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2008, 34(34), 1066-82 .
download pdf Our ref: RO566
Show abstract » Concern is building about high rates of schizophrenia in large cities, and among immigrants, cannabis users, and traumatized individuals, some of which likely reflects the causal influence of environmental exposures. This, in combination with very slow progress in the area of molecular genetics, has generated interest in more complicated models of schizophrenia etiology that explicitly posit gene-environment interactions (EU-GEI. European Network of Schizophrenia Networks for the Study of Gene Environment Interactions. Schizophrenia aetiology: do gene-environment interactions hold the key? [published online ahead of print April 25, 2008] Schizophr Res; S0920-9964(08) 00170-9). Although findings of epidemiological gene-environment interaction (G x E) studies are suggestive of widespread gene-environment interactions in the etiology of schizophrenia, numerous challenges remain. For example, attempts to identify gene-environment interactions cannot be equated with molecular genetic studies with a few putative environmental variables thrown in: G x E is a multidisciplinary exercise involving epidemiology, psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience, neuroimaging, pharmacology, biostatistics, and genetics. Epidemiological G x E studies using indirect measures of genetic risk in genetically sensitive designs have the advantage that they are able to model the net, albeit nonspecific, genetic load. In studies using direct molecular measures of genetic variation, a hypothesis-driven approach postulating synergistic effects between genes and environment impacting on a final common pathway, such as sensitization of mesolimbic dopamine neurotransmission, while simplistic, may provide initial focus and protection against the numerous false-positive and false-negative results that these investigations engender. Experimental ecogenetic approaches with randomized assignment may help to overcome some of the limitations of observational studies and allow for the additional elucidation of underlying mechanisms using a combination of functional enviromics and functional genomics.
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