The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 13 of 21.

Poulton, R., Moffitt, T.E. | 1995
The Rey Osterreith Complex Figure Test: Norms for young adolescents and an examination of validity

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1995, 10(10), 47-56.
Our ref: RO240

Show abstract » Although recent studies have investigated theoretically relevant aspects of performance and psychometric properties of the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), there is no documentation of the instrument's construct and predictive validity in an unselected, nonclinical population. This is necessary because knowledge of base rates of poor performance in the general population is required to evaluate the significance of performance deficits in clinical populations. The ROCFT was administered to 740 children aged 13 years who are members of an unselected birth cohort, representative of the general population. Normative findings are presented. Correlational analysis indicated that performance on the ROCFT was closely related to performance on the Block Design and Object Assembly subtests of the WISC-R. The first documentation was obtained of the ROCFT's predictive validity. Subjects in an unselected nonclinical sample who had a history of central nervous system health problems scored below the rest of the sample. Implications for the continued use of this instrument are discussed.
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Le Souef, P.N., Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R. | 1995
Size dependence of airway responsiveness in children

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1995, 152(152), 576-579.
Our ref: RO225

Show abstract » Methodologies used to assess airway responsiveness (AR) in children administer the same dosage schedule to all children despite the great range in the size of subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the level of AR is size dependent within same-age cohorts and between different ages. Among a birth cohort of 1,037 New Zealand children participating in a longitudinal study, 818 had at least two measurements of airway responsiveness between ages 9 and 15 yr. Each child performed spirometry and a four-dose methacholine inhalation test. A continuous slope index of methacholine responsiveness was computed. AR slope indexes were analyzed using longitudinal methods, which included an indicator variable for subjects who reported having any wheeze. AR was lowest in both males and females in the upper quartile for height than those in the lower quartile, independently of age. AR tended to be higher (responded to lower concentrations of methacholine) in boys than girls and to decline with age among wheezers. The greater level of responsiveness in smaller or younger children could be explained by these individuals having received a dose of methacholine that was relatively large for their size.
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Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1995
Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age 3 to age 15. [Abstracted in 1996 Year Book of Psychiatry & Applied Mental Health, Mosby - Year Book, Inc.]

Child Development, 1995, 66(66), 55-68.
Our ref: RO212

Show abstract » We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11, and by parents at ages 13 and 15. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems; Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys; and Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. These results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of later psychopathology.
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Langley, J.D., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Murdoch, J.C. | 1995
Disability in late adolescence I: Introduction, methods and overview

Disability and Rehabilitation, 1995, 17(17), 45-52.
Our ref: RO210

Show abstract » The research sought to describe the nature and severity of disability and its impact in a large sample of 18-year-olds. It was conducted as part of a larger longitudinal study of the health and development of a cohort of approximately 1000 children. This paper presents an overview of the methods used together with the results on the prevalence of specific disabilities. The three leading disabilities were: coping with dust, pollens, or chemicals (rate: 272 per 1000), equipment dependence (186), and disability in endurance (160).
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Reeder, A.I., Feehan, M., Chalmers, D.J., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Socio-economic characteristics of a much studied cohort: the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1994, 29(29), 209-213.
Our ref: NZ69

Show abstract » This paper summarises the results of socioeconomic comparisons made between the parents of 15-year-old children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) and the population of New Zealand parents with children of similar age identified from the 1986 Census database. DMHDS parents were significantly advantaged in terms of education, income, occupation, and overall socioeconomic status. Prevalence estimates of characteristics associated with socioeconomic factors reported by the DMHDS are likely to be conservative. Nevertheless, the full socioeconomic spectrum of parents was represented, therefore, the identification of socioeconomic risk factors for particular outcomes can be achieved within the structure of the DMHDS cohort itself.
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McGee, R., Stanton, W.R. | 1994
Smoking in pregnancy and child development to age 9 years

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1994, 30(30), 263-268.
Our ref: RO258

Show abstract » This study examined the association between women's retrospective reports of smoking during pregnancy and subsequent language, cognitive, behavioural and physical development in their children up to age 9 years. While there was a strong association between maternal smoking and an index of disadvantageous child rearing, maternal smoking was not associated with more general family disadvantage. After controlling for levels of background disadvantage, no relationship was found between reports of smoking and language, cognitive or physical development. However, smoking was related to maternal reports of behaviour problems at age of school entry. Possible explanations for this relationship are discussed.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B. | 1994
Changes in airway responsiveness from age 9 to 15: relationship with atopy, symptoms and lung function [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1994, 194(194), A912.
Our ref: RO255

Show abstract » Abstract of study described in RO264 on rrlation of the course of bronchial responsiveness from age 9 to age 15 to allergy.
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Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D., Jones, D.T. | 1994
Sheepskins and bedding in childhood, and development of bronchial asthma [Abstract]

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1994, 93(93), 176.
Our ref: RO254

Show abstract » This abstract showed that there were no associations between the use of any type of bedding and the development of asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness or atopy. Use of a sheepskin in the bed in early childhood was not a risk factor for the development of asthma. [See RO251 for a full description of this study.]
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Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D., Jones, D.T., Sears, M.R. | 1994
Sheepskins and bedding in childhood, and the risk of development of bronchial asthma

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 1994, 24(24), 687-692.
Our ref: RO251

Show abstract » Relationships between various beds and mattresses and the risk of the development of bronchial asthma were studied. In the whole cohort no associations were identified to suggest a causal relationship between any type of material and the development of features of asthma. However, increased airway responsiveness and mite sensitivity were significantly associated with the use of innerspring mattresses, although the significance of this association was not certain.
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St George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Body size and the menarche: the Dunedin Study

Journal of Adolescent Health, 1994, 15(15), 573-576.
Our ref: RO249

Show abstract » Purpose. We wished to elucidate the relationships among body size variables and age of menarche for New Zealand girls. Methods. Body size variables were measured repeatedly over eighteen years and age of menarche recorded for 415 girls enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Results. Girls who were taller and heavier with a higher body mass index than their peers from 7 years of age reached menarche early: height was the most important determinant. Early maturing girls were overtaken in height by the later-maturing girls by fifteen but remained heavier even at eighteen. The daughters of tall mothers matured later. The mean weight at menarche was 41.4 kg, height 149.4 cm, body mass index 18.4, and age 12.9 years. Conclusions. The daughters of short women matured early and continued growing heavier, but they stopped growing taller and were overtaken in height by the later-maturing daughters of tall women.
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Connolly, G.M., Casswell, S., Zhang, J.F., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Alcohol in the mass media and drinking by adolescents: A longitudinal study

Addiction, 1994, 89(89), 1255-1263.
Our ref: RO246

Show abstract » Data from a longitudinal study carried out in Dunedin, New Zealand, were used to investigate associations between alcohol consumption at age 18 years and alcohol-related mass media communications recalled at ages 13 and 15 years. The respondents' recall of alcohol-related mass media material were categorized as: commercial alcohol advertising, alcohol moderation messages or the portrayal of alcohol in entertainment. An additional media variable was the number of hours spent watching television. Non-media variables, such as peer approval of drinking, living situation and occupation (all at age 18 years) were also included in the analyses. The period between the interviews at ages 13 and 15 years saw an increase in the broadcast of commercial alcohol advertisements on television in New Zealand and this was reflected in an increase in the proportion of the mass media material recalled which was categorized as commercial advertising. At age 15 years television advertising, mostly for beer companies, was the predominant material recalled. No relationships were found between the commercial advertising and wine and spirits consumption, among either men or women, but young women who had watched more hours of television drank more wine/spirits. Among women there were two unexpected negative relationships between recall of alcohol in the media at age 13 years and beer consumption. However, among men there was a consistent positive relationship such that those who had recalled more alcohol advertisements at age 15 years drank larger quantities of beer at age 18 years.
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Nada-Raja, S., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1994
Health beliefs among New Zealand adolescents

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1994, 30(30), 523-529.
Our ref: RO245

Show abstract » This report describes the use of a modified version of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scale. There were significant sex differences in the result. In general, MHLC beliefs were not significantly associated with self-reportings of general health.
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Stanton, W.R., Oei, T.P.S., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Sociodemographic characteristics of adolescent smokers

International Journal of the Addictions, 1994, 29(29), 913-925.
Our ref: RO243

Show abstract » In this study we examined the interdependence of a broad range of sociodemographic characteristics in a large sample of 15-year-old smokers and nonsmokers. The most prominent risk factors for smoking included the father figure not being the natural father, low family SES, and the young person having a recent part-time job. In particular, the number of adverse sociodemographic conditions present was associated with an increased likelihood of daily smoking at ages 15 and 18. It is estimated that over a I-year period the cost of cigarettes consumed by 15-year-olds alone is NZ$4.6 million. Use of sociodemographic characteristics to target adolescents at risk of becoming smokers is discussed.
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Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1994
On the Remembrance of Things Past A longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method

Psychological Assessment, 1994, 6(6), 92-101.
Our ref: RO242

Show abstract » This study examined the extent of agreement between retrospective and prospective measures of variables in seven different content domains: resident changes, anthropometrics, injuries, reading ability, family characteristics, behavioural problems and delinquency. The results suggested that the use of retrospective reports should be limited to testing hypotheses about the relative standing of individuals in a distribution, and should not be used to test hypotheses that demand precision in estimating event frequencies and event dates.
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Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R.F., Schmutte, P.S. | 1994
Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races and methods

Criminology, 1994, 32(32), 163-195 .
Our ref: RO241

Show abstract » We examined the relation between personality traits and crime in two studies. In New Zealand we studied 18-year-old males and females from an entire birth cohort. In Pittsburgh we studied an ethnically diverse group of 12- and 13-year-old boys. In both studies we gathered multiple and independent measures of personality and delinquent involvement. The personality correlates of delinquency were robust in different nations, in different age cohorts, across gender, and across race: greater delinquent participation was associated with a personality configuration characterized by high Negative Emotionality and weak Constraint. We suggest that when Negative Emotionality (the tendency to experience aversive affective states) is accompanied by weak Constraint (difficulty in impulse control), negative emotions may be translated more readily into antisocial acts. We review additional evidence about the developmental origins and consequences of this personality configuration and discuss its implications for theories about antisocial behavior. [Reprinted in S. Henry & W. Einstadler (Eds), Criminology: Readings in Contempory Theory. NY: New York University Press, 1997]
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Moffitt, T.E., Lynam, D.R., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Neuropsychological tests predicting persistent male delinquency

Criminology, 1994, 32(32), 277-300.
Our ref: RO239

Show abstract » This article reports the first longitudinal evidence that prospective measures of neuropsychological status predict antisocial outcomes. We studied data for a birth cohort of several hundred New Zealand males from age 13 to age 18. Age-13 neuropsychological scores predicted later delinquency measured via multiple sources: police, courts, and self-report. Poor neuropsychological scores were associated with early onset of delinquency. The results fit our predictions about two trajectories of delinquent involvement: (1) Poor neuropsychological status predicted specifically male offending that began before age 13 and persisted at high levels thereafter. (2) By contrast, in this sample neuropsychological status was unrelated to delinquency that began in adolescence.
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Nada-Raja, S., Williams, S.M., McGee, R. | 1994
Multidimensional health locus of control beliefs and psychological health for a sample of mothers

Social Science and Medicine, 1994, 39(39), 213-220.
Our ref: RO238

Show abstract » Five multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) types for 772 women whose children are enrolled in a longitudinal study of their health and development were identified. The MHLC is composed of an internal and two external dimensions (chance and powerful others). The five independent MHLC clusters were: pure internal; believer in control; pure chance; yea-sayer; and nay-sayer. Women with high scores on the three dimensions of the MHLC (yea-sayer) compared with the rest of the sample were significantly more likely to be from a lower socio-economics status, score lower on a general verbal intelligence test and higher on the Neuroticism and Lie Scales of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. They rated their overall health as significantly poorer, and reported more symptoms of depression compared with the other groups. A pure internal locus of control was strongly associated with the report of good health. Women with a strong belief in internal and powerful other loci of control were significantly more likely to have received treatment for their depression compared with other groups. Help-seeking for children's problem behaviour did not vary significantly with MHLC groups. The present study replicated five out of six MHLC types identified in an earlier study, and established the external validity of the MHLC types on measures of health status. The findings support the use of MHLC types in future research on health locus of control.
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Feehan, M., McGee, R., Nada-Raja, S., Williams, S.M. | 1994
DSM-III-R disorders in New Zealand 18-year-olds

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1994, 28(28), 87-99.
Our ref: RO237

Show abstract » The one-year prevalence and correlates of selected DSM-III disorders were determined in a sample of 930 18-year-olds. Using both diagnostic and impairment criteria 340 Individuals (36.6%) were considered to have disorder. The most prevalent disorders were major depressive episode (16.7%), alcohol dependence (10.4%) and social phobia (11.1%). There was a high degree of co-morbidity among disorders; 46% of those with disorder had two or more. The prevalence of disorders was greater for females with the exception of conduct disorder and alcohol or marijuana dependence. A variety of characteristics were associated with disorder including poor social competence, disadvantage and self-rated health status. A third of those with disorder had their problems recognised by a significant-other. The results are presented within the context of a perceived need for research in the area of adolescent and early adult mental health in order to minimise the toll of mental disorder in later life.
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Schaughency, E., McGee, R., Nada-Raja, S., Feehan, M., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Self-reported inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity at ages 15 and 18 in the general population

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1994, 33(33), 173-184.
Our ref: RO219

Show abstract » Objective: Prevalence, impact, and continuity of self-reported attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptomology from ages 15 to 18 years were examined in a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. Method: At age 15, prevalence of ADD symptomology was estimated, with no gender differences found in self-reported symptomology. Four adolescents (0.5%) met full DSM-III criteria for ADD. Adolescents scoring higher than 1.5 SD above the sample mean on total ADD symptom score were identified as having high levels of ADD symptomology. Results: Male and female adolescents reporting ADD symptomology with (6% of males; 4% of females) and without history of behavior disorder (6% of males; 7% of females) did not differ in inattention and impulsivity, received more diagnoses other than ADD, and experienced more adverse educational and social outcomes at 15 and 18 years than did the non ADD group. Conclusions: Findings pertaining to the ADD with history group were consistent with previous research on the outcome of hyperactive children, whereas the ADD without history group may be reflecting the onset of other pathology in adolescence. Results suggest adolescent self-report of attentional difficulties may be a clinically significant marker of adjustment difficulties for both males and females, but additional information likely is needed for accurate diagnosis.
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Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1994
A longitudinal study of birth order, help seeking and psychopathology

British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1994, 33(33), 143-150.
Our ref: RO218

Show abstract » Recent studies have suggested an association between birth order and psychopathology. However, the association remains unclear due to a lack of consideration of the confounding effects of family size. At age seven years the family size and birth order of children from a large cohort of New Zealand children were examined in relation to parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems, and the development of DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) disorder in pre-adolescence and adolescence. Neither the child's gender, birth order nor family size were associated with parental help seeking or the prevalence of DSM-III disorder in pre-adolescence at age 11. In adolescence at age 15, however, significantly more girls, first-borns and children from small families had DSM-III disorder, but the interactions between these factors were not significant. In particular, these associations were found with internalizing disorders. The appropriateness of further studies of birth order in relation to psychopathology is discussed.
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Krueger, R.F., Schmutte, P.S., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Campbell, K., Silva, P.A. | 1994
Personality traits are linked to crime among men and women: Evidence from a birth cohort

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1994, 103(103), 328-338.
Our ref: RO214

Show abstract » Is there a relationship between personality and criminal behavior? We addressed this question in a representative birth cohort of 862 male and female 18-year-olds. Personality was assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). The MPQ measures 10 relatively independent personality traits and was not designed to identify offenders. Delinquency was assessed via 3 data sources: self-reports, informant reports, and official records. Variable-centered analyses revealed that MPQ scales indexing negative emotionality and behavioral constraint were consistent predictors of delinquency across the 3 data sources. Person-centered analyses revealed that youths abstaining from delinquency were uniquely characterized by low interpersonal potency. Youths involved in extensive delinquency were uniquely characterized by feelings of alienation, lack of social closeness, and risk taking. Advances in understanding criminal behavior can be made through research that places the personality-delinquency link in a developmental context.
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Williams, S.M., McGee, R. | 1994
Reading attainment and juvenile delinquency

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1994, 35(35), 441-459.
Our ref: RO208

Show abstract » Structural equation modelling was used with data from a longitudinal study of child development (N= 698) to examine relationships between early reading attainment and antisocial behaviour at ages 7 and 9 years and subsequent reading and delinquent behaviour in adolescence. While reading, analysed as a continuous variable, did not directly influence later delinquency, antisocial behaviour during the early school years was strongly predictive of delinquency at age 15 years, particularly for boys, and had a detrimental effect on reading. These findings were independent of social disadvantage, and were unchanged by adjusting reading scores for IQ. Reading disability at 9 years old, however, predicted conduct disorder at age 15 in boys.
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McGee, R., Feehan, M. | 1993
Cannabis use among New Zealand Adolescents [Letter]

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1993, 106(106), 345.
Our ref: NZ67

Show abstract » This letter describes results from the Study on cannabis use among sample members at age 15 and 18 in support of the findings of Fergusson et al on cannabis use in a sample of adolescents in Christchurch, New Zealand.
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Worsley, A., Worsley, A.J., McConnon, S., Silva, P.A. | 1993
Reported food consumption and dietary habits of New Zealand adolescents

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1993, 29(29), 209-214 .
Our ref: RO297

Show abstract » Six hundred and sixty-seven fifteen year old members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development study cohort completed a self-administered food frequency and dietary habits inventory. The results show that only 14 foods were consumed on a regular basis by more than 80% of the cohort. Statistically significant differences were found between the numbers of boys and girls consuming a variety of foods; generally, more girls consumed fruits and green vegetables and more boys consumed foods rich in fat and sugar. Several differences were observed in the food consumption of three income groups: fewer adolescents in low income families consumed expensive foods such as steak. The implications of these food consumption findings and their associated gender and income differences for nutrition promotion and food policy are discussed.
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Stanton, W.R. | 1993
A cognitive development framework

Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 1993, 12(12), 26-45.
Our ref: RO236

Show abstract » Prominent stage theories of cognitive development show evidence of a structure in which each stage contains a number of subsidiary levels. Comparisons of the stages in these theories have commonly been made through the established links with stages of Piaget's theory. In response to Kagan's criticism of Piaget's theory, features of these developmental theories were used in this paper as the basis for a general framework of interactive stages and levels of cognitive operations. Some implications of the proposed framework in relation to cognitive development theories and directions for further research are examined. Further application of this framework could help to identify commonalities in cognitive operations across different contents, contexts and cultures.
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Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. | 1993
When do individual differences matter? A paradoxical theory of personality coherence

Psychological Inquiry, 1993, 4(4), 247-271.
Our ref: RO235

Show abstract » This paper proposed that individual differences in personality should be studied during periods of environmental change because these periods provide an opportunity to discern the general mechanisms that govern the functions and processes of personality. The authors delineate the circumstances wherein personality differences are accentuated and then specific the conditions whereby change is produced. Personality differences are likely to be revealed during transitions into unpredictable new situations, when there is a press to behave but no information about how to behave adaptively. Dispositional differences are thus accentuated as each person seeks to transform novel, ambiguous and uncertain circumstances into familiar, clear, and expectable social encounters. The authors' theory also accounts for turning points in behavioural development: systematic change is likely to occur during transitions into new situations, when there is a press to behave and when previous responses are actively discouraged while clear information is provided about how to behave adaptively.
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Sears, M.R. | 1993
The definition and diagnosis of asthma

Allergy, 1993, 48(48), 12-16.
Our ref: RO234

Show abstract » Asthma defies precise definition, despite several carefully worded statements. Perhaps the most concise and useful description of asthma is variable airflow obstruction. The diagnosis is made by recognition of a patterns of one or more characteristic symptoms including wheeze, cough, chest tightness and dyspnoea, and is best confirmed by evidence of variable or reversible airflow obstruction accompanying symptoms.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, G.P., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D. | 1993
Atopy in childhood. III. Relationship with pulmonary function and airway responsiveness

Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1993, 23(23), 957-963.
Our ref: RO233

Show abstract » The relationship between atopy and pulmonary function in children, and how these relate directly or indirectly to airway hyperresponsiveness, is uncertain. We have examined these relationships in a sample of 13-year-old children. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, skin-prick tests to 11 common allergens, spirometry and an abbreviated methacholine challenge test were completed by 662 members (341 boys) of a birth cohort of New Zealand children followed longitudinally to age 13. There was a significant relationship between the presence and degree of atopy, and baseline pulmonary function. Low FEV1/VC ratios were associated with a greater likelihood of airway responsiveness, not only in subjects with diagnosed asthma, but also in the full cohort and in the sub-group of 426 children who denied asthma or current wheeze. The relationships between baseline FEV1/VC and airway responsiveness were stronger in atopic than in non-atopic children, with the strongest relationships in children sensitive to house dust mite and/or cat dander. In the presence of atopy, progressively lower levels of lung function were strongly associated with a higher prevalence of airway responsiveness (P<0.001). In non-atopic subjects, only those with the most impaired lung function (FEV1/VC <75%) showed any substantive prevalence of airway responsiveness. The relationship between the degree of atopy and the FEV1/VC ratio, although significant in univariate analysis, became completely non-significant after accounting for airway responsiveness. In 13-year-old children, atopy, especially to house dust mite and cat dander, was correlated with pulmonary function expressed as FEV1/VC ratio. Airway responsiveness likewise correlated with impaired baseline lung function. The apparent relationship of lung function to atopy occurred primarily as a result of the relationship between atopy and airway responsiveness. Atopy and impaired lung function were additive factors predicting airway responsiveness.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery E.M. | 1993
Atopy in childhood. II. Relationship to airway responsiveness, hayfever and asthma

Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1993, 23(23), 949-956.
Our ref: RO232

Show abstract » While airway hyperresponsiveness is usually associated with a diagnosis of asthma or symptoms of wheezing, some individuals with rhinitis show airway hyperresponsiveness as do some with no symptoms whatsoever. We have studied the correlations between symptoms, airway hyperresponsiveness and atopy as determined by skin-prick tests in a cohort of New Zealand children. A total of 662 members of a birth cohort were studied at age 13 years using a respiratory questionnaire, skin-prick tests to 11 common allergens, and an abbreviated validated methacholine challenge test to determine airway responsiveness. Airway hyperresponsiveness (methacholine PC20 FEV1 less-than-or-equal-to 8 mg/ml) was strongly correlated with reported asthma and current wheezing (P<0.0001) and also with atopy, especially to house dust mite and cat (P<0.0001). As weal size for both house dust mite and cat increased, so did the proportion of children with airway hyperresponsiveness. All children with diagnosed asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness were atopic. Skin-test reactions to house dust mite and cat were strongly correlated with any degree of measurable airway responsiveness (PC20 FEV1 less-than-or-equal-to 25 mg/ml) in children with rhinitis (P < 0.0001), and remained significantly correlated even in children without current asthma, without asthma ever and without rhinitis (P < 0.001). Atopy is a major determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness in children, not only in those with reported histories of asthma and wheezing, but also in the absence of any history suggesting asthma and rhinitis.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D. | 1993
Atopy in childhood. I. Gender and allergen related risks for development of hayfever and asthma

Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1993, 23(23), 941-948.
Our ref: RO231

Show abstract » Reasons for the gender differences in prevalence rates for asthma remain unclear. We have examined the relationships between allergen skin-test reactions and diagnoses of hay fever and asthma in New Zealand boys and girls examined at the age of 13 years. Information on current and past wheezing, diagnosed asthma, and hay fever was obtained for 662 subjects (341 boys) of a birth cohort followed longitudinally to the age of 13 years, using a physician-administered questionnaire. Atopic status was determined by skin-prick tests to 11 common allergens. The proportion of 13-year-old boys with current asthma was 1.6 times higher and of ever-diagnosed asthma 1.4 times higher than in girls, but the prevalence of recurrent wheeze (greater-than-or-equal-to three episodes per year) not diagnosed as asthma, or of hay fever, was not significantly different between the sexes. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma increased with increasing numbers of positive skin tests, but hay fever without asthma was little affected above one positive skin-test. Boys had a greater prevalence of any positive skin-test (50.1 % vs 37.1%), two or more positive tests (29.3% vs 21.8%), and responses to house dust mite (34.0% vs 23.1%) and cat (14.7% vs 11.2%). Gender differences for asthma became insignificant when adjusted for skin-test responsiveness to house dust mite and/or cat. The proportion of children with diagnosed asthma increased with increasing size of weals to house dust mite and cat dan er. Gender differences in allergen sensitivities partly explain the gender differences in diagnosed asthma in children. In both sexes, risk of asthma was primarily associated with sensitization to indoor allergens (house dust mite and cat), and was related to the magnitude of the skin-test response, while the risk of hay fever was primarily associated with grass pollen sensitivity.
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Sherrill, D.L., Martinez, F.D., Sears, M.R., Lebowitz, M.D. | 1993
An alternative method for comparing and describing methacholine response curves

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1993, 148(148), 116-122.
Our ref: RO230

Show abstract » Tests of nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness are frequently used in the study of asthma both in the clinical settings and in epidemiologic studies. However, standard methods for characterizing individual tests and comparing results between subgroups have not been established. The most frequently used method of characterizing response curves is to report the dose that results in a 20% fall in FEV1 from the initial or baseline FEV1 value (PD20FEV1). Other investigators have suggested using the response slopes. In this study we demonstrate an alternative method of analysis that uses all of each subject's response data, makes comparisons between subgroups, and can include explanatory covariables. This approach is demonstrated using methacholine challenge data obtained in New Zealand children at 9 and 11 yr of age. The results showed significant differences between the mean dose-response curves of wheezers and nonwheezers, that responsiveness increased with the frequency of reported wheeze, and that initial pulmonary function and serum IgE are significantly related to responsiveness. These factors were not always significant using more traditional methods of analysis, indicating an increased sensitivity with this method of analysis.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, G.P., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D. | 1993
Additive effects of reduced pulmonary function and atopy in predicting airway responsiveness in childhood [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1993, 147(147), A381.
Our ref: RO229

Show abstract » This abstract describes results of methacholine tests to airway responsiveness. See RO233 for full report.
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Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Herbison, G.P., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. | 1993
Asthma and asthma-like symptoms, airway responsiveness and treatment: a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1993, 147(147), A374.
Our ref: RO228

Show abstract » This study describes some of the respiratory research results from the Study.
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Lebowitz, M.D., O'Rourke, M.K., Paoletti, P., Sears, M.R., Burrows, B. | 1993
Airway responsiveness related to allergen skin test reactivity [Abstract]

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1993, 91(91), 163.
Our ref: RO227

Show abstract » This study found that even the smallest reaction to skin allergy testing was related to airway responsiveness.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, E.M. | 1993
Atopy and airway responsiveness in hayfever and asthma

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1993, 91(91), 351.
Our ref: RO226

Show abstract » This study showed that atopy is a major determinant of airway responsiveness in children.
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Moffitt, T.E. | 1993
Adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy

Psychological Review, 1993, 100(100), 674-701.
Our ref: RO221

Show abstract » A dual taxonomy is presented to reconcile 2 incongruous facts about antisocial behavior (a) It shows impressive continuity over age, but (b) its prevalence changes dramatically over age, increasing almost 10-fold temporarily during adolescence. This article suggests that delinquency conceals 2 distinct categories of individuals, each with a unique natural history and etiology: A small group engages in antisocial behavior of 1 sort or another at every life stage, whereas a larger group is antisocial only during adolescence. According to the theory of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior, children's neuropsychological problems interact cumulatively with their criminogenic environments across development, culminating in a pathological personality. According to the theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behavior, a contemporary maturity gap encourages teens to mimic antisocial behavior in ways that are normative and adjustive.
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Feehan, M., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1993
Mental health disorders from age 15 to age 18 years

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1993, 32(32), 1118-1126.
Our ref: RO217

Show abstract » Objective: To determine the strength of association between mental health disorders in adolescence and disorder in early adulthood. Method: The study used mental health data from a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. Of the 943 with prevalence data for DSM-III disorder at age 15, 890 had prevalence data for DSM-III-R disorder when aged 18 years. Results: Two-thirds of those with disorder at age 15 had disorder at age 18. The residual form of attention deficit disorder, simple phobias, and oppositional disorders (with no other accompanying disorders) were associated with the lowest risk of later disorder and conduct disorder with the highest. With the exception of the overall symptom level, a variety of characteristics examined (e.g., social competence and adversity) could not differentiate between those with transient disorder and those with disorder at both ages. Comparisons of those with recurring disorder and those with new disorder at age 18 showed that in addition to characteristics of the disorder, disadvantage was strongly associated with recurrent disorder. Conclusions: The risk of later disorder for those with disorder in adolescence was high and differed across type of disorder. Findings suggest that to reduce the risk of disorder in early adulthood, clinicians could play a more active role in community interventions with direct social outcomes.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1993
Consistency in children's recall of age of initiating smoking

International Journal of Epidemiology, 1993, 22(22), 1064-1069.
Our ref: RO216

Show abstract » Studies of the accuracy of long-term recall for information about smoking status have tended to conclude that this information is consistent and reliable. Estimation of consumption levels have been found to be less reliable and can be influenced by current consumption levels. Results of this longitudinal study indicated that children's and adolescents' 2-year recall of smoking status was inconsistent and that children's reports of age of initiating smoking showed an unacceptably high level of misclassification, particularly if they had not smoked in the last 2 years. Children's and adolescents' 2-year recall for the age at which they first smoked were imprecise and suggested that those who had smoked in the last 2 years retained a perspective as they grew older of having started in the last few years. It is recommended that the period of recall for children and adolescents be restricted to no more than 1 year.
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Stanton, W.R., Mahalski, P.A., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1993
Reasons for smoking or not smoking in early adolescence

Addictive Behaviors, 1993, 18(18), 321-329.
Our ref: RO215

Show abstract » Previous studies of smokers' and nonsmokers' reasons have not compared their reasons for smoking and their reasons for not smoking, or examined the extent of change or stability in these reasons over time. We examined reasons for smoking and not smoking in a large sample of 13-year-olds from the general population. Factor structures of reasons differed according to whether adolescents were smokers or nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were found to be less discriminating than smokers about the reasons for smoking. Smokers and nonsmokers tended to show more agreement about the reasons for not smoking. Recency of smoking was differentially related to the factors for smoking and the factors for not smoking, ''Image'' was a more important reason for smoking at age 11 than at age 13. ''Friends'' as a reason for smoking showed a small degree of consistency across age, whereas reasons involving relaxation and pleasure showed a relatively higher degree of consistency: Health, as a reason not to smoke, showed only a small degree of consistency, while social context, effects and access were moderately consistent as reasons not to smoke at ages 11 and 13.
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Henry, B., Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1993
The importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in predicting adolescent substance use

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1993, 21(21), 469-480.
Our ref: RO213

Show abstract » The current study assessed the relative importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms, measured at two ages (11 and 15), for predicting substance use at age 15 in an unselected birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents. Among males, when the relative predictive utility of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms was assessed, only pre-adolescent depressive symptoms were found to predict multiple drug use 4 years later. No predictive relation was found between early symptomatology and later substance use among females. The strongest association between predictors and substance use emerged between age 15 multiple drug use and concurrent conduct problems for both males and females. Finally, both conduct problems and depressive symptoms at age 15 were also found to be associated with concurrent ''self-medication'' among females.
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