The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 15 of 21.

Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1991
Bicycle road crashes in the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1991, 104(104), 60-61.
Our ref: NZ62

Show abstract » From a sample of 848 teenagers 57 individuals reported a total of 62 bicycle road crashes, 40 (65%) of which involved injury to a cyclist. Thirty (48%) of the crashes occurred when the cyclist lost control of the bicycle (73% of which involved injury) and 17 crashes (27%) involved a moving motor vehicle (41% of which involved injury). The majority of the injuries were not serious and of those with multiple injuries no one had an injury severity score greater than five. The body area most frequently injured was the extremities (74%), with the remainder primarily head injuries. Environmental conditions were not a major contributing factor in these crashes. In only five cases the cyclist was wearing a safety helmet. Recommended measures to prevent, or minimise, bicycle related injuries include the wearing of safety helmets, bicycle maintenance checks, and road safety awareness instruction
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1991
Children's exposure to smoking

International Journal of Epidemiology, 1991, 20(20), 933-937.
Our ref: RO184

Show abstract » Exposure to smoking and the attitudes of other people have, in many studies, been associated with an increase in smoking through childhood and adolescence. Previous studies which have examined the relative influence of parents, siblings and friends on young people smoking do not show the same pattern of results, indicating that parents and siblings who smoke may or may not have an influence above or beyond that of friends. In this study, the extent to which these sources of exposure influence young people is examined. A related hypothesis which is tested in this study is that the amount of exposure to smoking may be a factor which influences young people to smoke independent of the particular source of the influence. The pattern of results suggests that the source of the influence is more important than the extent of influence among friends and family members. In particular, the influence of friends' smoking was evident at ages 9 to 15 years to the exclusion of the parental example of smoking. Parental smokers may lead their children to try smoking but it seems unlikely that this is related to them smoking at a later age. While peer influence may result in smoking, the influence of parents or older people smoking may be becoming a disincentive in this time of changing attitudes to smoking.
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McGee, R., Feehan M. | 1991
Are girls with problems of attention under-recognised

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 1991, 13(13), 187-198.
Our ref: RO182

Show abstract » There is a generally held belief that disorders of attention (e.g., ADHD) are to be found primarily among boys, not girls. We question the evidence relating to sex differences in the prevalence of attentional disorders and suggest possible reasons why reported sex differences appear limited to teacher ratings. An examination of the admittedly scarce literature on correlates of ADHD behaviors suggests no strong evidence for sex differences in the pattern of developmental, attentional and background correlates. We recommend the use of sex-specific norms and diagnostic criteria to identify girls with problems of attention and our plea is for more research to examine the nature of attention deficits in girls.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Oei, T.P.S. | 1991
Change in children's smoking from age 9 to age 15 years: the Dunedin Study

Public Health, 1991, 105(105), 425-433.
Our ref: RO181

Show abstract » Studies have shown that the rate at which children take up smoking is still very high, particularly for female adolescents. While some progress has been made in determining the factors related to the initiation of smoking, an issue that still requires investigation is the relationship between early smoking patterns and later smoking behaviour. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study which examined the continuity between smoking at an early age and later smoking behaviour. The smoking behaviour of a cohort of New Zealand children was followed from age 9 to age 15 years. Results showed that children's smoking pattern at age 9 years was not highly related to their smoking behaviour at age 15. The children most likely to become daily smokers by age 15 were those who had smoked within the last year at ages 11 and 13. It was concluded that the formative period for children's daily smoking at age 15 was from 10 to 13 years of age.
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Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R., Lebowitz, M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1991
The effects of bronchial reactivity, persistent wheeze and atopy on longitudinal pulmonary function in children [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1991, 143(143), A500.
Our ref: RO180

Show abstract » See RO196 for full report of this study.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. | 1991
Airway hyperresponsiveness in children is related to serum total IgE even in the absence of asthma and atopic disease [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1991, 143(143), A19.
Our ref: RO179

Show abstract » See RO178 for a full report of this study.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. | 1991
Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children

New England Journal of Medicine, 1991, 325(325), 1067-1071.
Our ref: RO178

Show abstract » This study concluded that even in children who have been asymptomatic and have no history of atopic disease, airway hyperresponsiveness appears to be closely linked to an allergic diathesis, as reflected by the serum total IgE level.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1991
School Achievement as an independent predictor of smoking in childhood and adolescence

Health Education Journal, 1991, 50(50), 84-88.
Our ref: RO173

Show abstract » This study looked at the effect of school achievement as an independent predictor of child and adolescent smoking, when a large number of other measures relating to family background, attitudes to smoking, exposure to smoking and self-esteem were taken into account. After the effect of these other variables were controlled for, academic achievement was not related to smoking at age 9 but was related to change in smoking for age 9 to 11 years and, for boys, further change in smoking from age 11 to age 13 years.
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Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1991
Strict and inconsistent discipline in childhood: consequences for adolescent mental health

British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1991, 30(30), 325-331.
Our ref: RO172

Show abstract » Recent reviews have suggested an association between discipline experienced in childhood and the development of later psychopathology. As part of a longitudinal study of the health and development of a large sample of New Zealand children, maternal reports of strict and inconsistent discipline were obtained when the sample members were aged 7 and 9 years. It was found that inconsistency was associated with early behaviour problems, but strictness was not. At age 15 years the prevalence of DSM-III disorders in the sample was established. Univariate analyses showed significant associations between inconsistency and low levels of strictness with externalizing disorder. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that in the presence of other predictor variables including childhood problem behaviour, these associations only approached significance. However, when the two ratings were combined, rates of disorder for those who experienced more relaxed and inconsistent discipline were double the rates found in the sample remainder. No significant association was found between discipline and internalizing disorder.
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Morrison, D.N., McGee, R., Stanton, W.R. | 1991
Sleep problems in adolescence

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1991, 31(31), 94-99.
Our ref: RO170

Show abstract » A sample of 943 adolescents from the general population were questioned about sleep problems. A quarter of the sample responded needing a lot more sleep than they previously had, and 10% of the sample complained of difficulty falling asleep. Adolescents reporting sleep problems showed more anxious, depressed, inattentive, and conduct disorder behaviors than those who had no (or only occasional) sleep problems. Sleep problems, particularly multiple problems, were associated with DSM-III disorder. There were no significant differences between male and female adolescents on any of the above measures. Finally, sleep problems were relatively persistent over time from ages 13 to 15.
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Brown, R.H., Treasure, E.T., Williams, S.M. | 1991
Relationship between caries, anxiety, and beliefs in oral health behaviours in adolescents [Abstract]

Journal of Dental Research, 1991, 70(70), 36.
Our ref: RO169

Show abstract » This abstract reported a study of associations between experience of caries, self reported anxiety levels and strength of belief in the importance of seven oral health behaviours. The findings questioned the effectiveness of present health education programmes in New Zealand and have relevance for the retention of high-risk adolescents within the dental care system.
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Treasure, E.T., Ross, W.D., Brown, R.H., Herbison, G.P. | 1991
A longitudinal analysis of traumatised teeth in children [Abstract]

Journal of Dental Research, 1991, 70(70), 40.
Our ref: RO168

Show abstract » This abstract reported on trauma to teeth. It showed that the majority of injuries occur away from home and that many teeth with fractures were unrestored.
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Strange, J.W., Ross, W.D., Brown, R.H., Treasure, E.T. | 1991
Caries increment in 509 children between age 12-15 years

Journal of Dental Research, 1991, 70(70), 32.
Our ref: RO167

Show abstract » This study reported on the caries increment in children between age 12 and 15. It also looked at preventive services. The study showed that a significant proportion of the teenagers in this study continued to increase their DMF over the three year period and some aspects of the provision of preventive services for their age were found to be inadequate.
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Casswell, S., Stewart, J., Connolly, G.M., Silva, P.A. | 1991
A longitudinal study of New Zealand children's experience with alcohol

British Journal of Addiction, 1991, 86(86), 277-285.
Our ref: RO165

Show abstract » This paper described a longitudinal study of children's experience with alcohol and some correlates of various levels of children's alcohol consumption. There was a marked increase in consumption with age, particularly between ages 13 and 15. Girls drank slightly less than boys until age 15 when they drank slightly more. Those from lower socio-economic levels drank less to age 13, after which they drank more. There was a tendency with increasing age towards more drinking away from the home.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1991
Social competence in adolescence: preliminary findings from a longitudinal study of New Zealand 15-year olds

Psychiatry, 1991, 54(54), 281-291.
Our ref: RO164

Show abstract » Recently, there has been an increase of research interest in the nature of the relationship between the concept of competence and mental health and disorder. For a large sample of adolescents studied at ages 11 and 15 years, we developed indices of social competence at each age based on measures of social attachment and involvement in activities. There was a significant association between competence and externalizing disorders at both ages. Competence was related to internalizing disorder only at age 11. Preadolescent social competence did not predict later disorder at age 15 in the sample as a whole. However, externalizing disorder at age 15 was predicted by presence of disorder together with low social competence in preadolescence.
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Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1991
Anxiety and cognitive task performance: A longitudinal perspective

Child Study Journal, 1991, 21(21), 167-184.
Our ref: RO163

Show abstract » Assesses the relation between anxiety and cognitive task performance longitudinally across middle childhood in New Zealand. Testing of contrasting predictions; Examining cognitive task performance of four anxiety groups; Comparison of intelligence quotients (IQ) among anxious and comparison subjects.
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Williams, S.M., McGee, R. | 1991
Adolescents' self perceptions of their strengths

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1991, 20(20), 325-337.
Our ref: RO162

Show abstract » This paper described the results and properties of the Strengths Scale, and some sex differences in various types of strength. Boys tended to see themselves as strong in sport, confidence, popularity, having lots of hobbies and to be attractive. Girls saw themselves as reliable, kind, independent and affectionate. Regression analysis suggested that boys' strengths depended upon parent, peer and school attachment, part-time work and the number of physical activities with which they were involved. Girls' strengths were best predicted by parent attachment and the number of physical activities in which they were involved.
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Kelly, J.L., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Jordan, T.E. | 1991
Comparison of United States and New Zealand children's body mass scores

Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1991, 111(111), 51-53.
Our ref: RO161

Show abstract » Heights and weights of a large sample of subjects studied longitudinally from ages 3 and 13 years were used to calculate relative weight, using a Body Mass Index score (BMI) which estimates adiposity. Males and females differed significantly in BMI scores only at ages 3 and 13 years. The correlations between BMI scores at all ages were positive and significant. The subjects were divided at each age into a 'light', an 'average' and a 'heavy' group based on the position of their BMI score relative to the 25th and 75th percentiles. Subjects were 'tracked' from ages 3, 7 and 11 years to determine whether they had remained in the same BMI group by age 13 years relative to their peers. Slightly fewer than half of the 3 year old subjects but the majority of 7 and 11 year old subjects remained in the same relative weight group by age 13 years. Only 1% of 7 and 11 year old subjects in the top and the bottom quartiles for BMI scores shifted from one extreme group to the other. Relative weight at 3, 7 and 11 years was more persistent for subjects with extreme bodyweights than subjects with bodyweights in the middle range. Consistent with the pattern of correlations, the tracking pattern for all 3 groups showed that subjects' BMI scores remained more stable as the subjects grew older.
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Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. | 1991
Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change: the sample case of girls at puberty

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991, 61(61), 157-168.
Our ref: RO160

Show abstract » This study was designed to test several hypotheses related to the effects of different timings of puberty in girls related to behavioural problems. The results showed that behaviour problems were associated with puberty only when this occurred at a very young age. The results clearly supported the hypothesis that stressful transitions tended to accentuate behavioural problems among girls who were predisposed to behaviour problems earlier in childhood.
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McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Feehan, M. | 1991
Big cities, small towns and adolescent mental health in New Zealand

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1991, 25(25), 338-342.
Our ref: RO159

Show abstract » This study examined relationships between measures of mental health and the type of residential locations in which the sample lived. There were no significant differences between groups from differing types of towns or cities, but adolescents who come from larger population centres reported more life event stresses. Those adolescents who experienced more frequent changes of address had more mental health problems.
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McGee, R., Partridge, F., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1991
A twelve year follow-up of preschool hyperactive children

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1991, 30(30), 224-232.
Our ref: RO158

Show abstract » Two percent (N = 21) of a large sample of preschool children were identified as pervasively hyperactive. Compared with nonhyperactive preschoolers, these children more often came from families with high levels of adversity, and they showed poorer language skills. Over a 12-year follow-up period, the hyperactive preschoolers continued to show poorer cognitive skills, lower levels of reading ability, disruptive and inattentive behaviors at home and at school, and higher rates of DSM-III disorder in preadolescence and adolescence. By age 15, only one-quarter of this group were identified as having met recovery criteria. The findings point to the long-term adverse consequences of preschool hyperactivity and indicate the need for intervention with this type of disorder.
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St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1991
Smoking and blood pressure in Dunedin fifteen year olds

BMJ, 1991, 302(302), 89.
Our ref: RO155

Show abstract » When an individual inhales cigarette smoke, heart rate rises and blood pressure increases. These physiologic responses are due to the effects of nicotine. However, many studies have reported lower than average blood pressures in adults who smoke than in nonsmokers. A total of 839 children in Dunedin, New Zealand were evaluated biannually, between the ages of 11 and 15 years, regarding their smoking history, cardiovascular fitness, exercise tolerance, and body size. Blood pressures were obtained at rest; before exercise, while seated on a bicycle; during a standard six-minute bicycling test; immediately after six minutes of cycling; and following five minutes' recovery. The study population consisted of five groups of children who were defined in terms of their smoking history. Data were evaluated when the participants were 15 years old. Among the groups, blood pressure differences during exercise were not significant. However, significant differences in blood pressure readings were observed after recovery and, although these differences were small, they remained significant after adjustment for height, weight, and sex. The results were similar in direction and magnitude to those noted in adult smokers, and are suggestive of a smoking-related effect on blood pressure among even young, occasional smokers. That the differences were not evident four years earlier suggests that they were caused by smoking.
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Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1991
Indices of perinatal complications, family background, child rearing and health as predictors of early cognitive and motor development

Pediatrics, 1991, 88(88), 954-959.
Our ref: RO154

Show abstract » An index of adversity is a measure of risk that can be considered independently of individual risk factors. This study examined four areas of adversity in early childhood, namely perinatal complications, family background, child-rearing practices, and the child's physical health, and their relationship to developmental outcomes. Four indices of adversity in these areas were examined as predictors of cognitive ability and motor ability for 476 girls and 510 boys at age 5 years. Results of the study indicated that indices of family background and child-rearing practices were highly related to these developmental outcomes. An index of health problems was found to be significantly related to motor ability. The perinatal complications index was significantly related only to specific cognitive ability scores for boys. Previously, developmental outcomes have been assessed in terms of the magnitude of individual risk factors, but more effective screening procedures may need to take account of the additive effect of the number of relevant adverse risk factors.
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Reeder, A.I., Stanton, W.R., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1991
Adolescents' sporting and leisure-time physical activities during their fifteenth year

Canadian Journal of Sports Science, 1991, 16(16), 308-315..
Our ref: RO153

Show abstract » Participation in physical activity may influence health outcomes, so its quantification is important. There is little data on adolescent physical activities. Recall of physical activity in the preceding year was obtained from a birth cohort of 799 fifteen-year-old adolescents in New Zealand using a modified version of the Minnesota Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. Mean total participation times were relatively high, with 612 hrs/year (1.68 hrs/day) for males and 401 hrs/year (1.1 hrs/day) for females. Individual total participation ranged from less than a minute to 6.5 hrs/day. Over 10% more females than males reported netball, equestrian activities, and dancing, and at least 10% more males reported cricket, rugby, fishing, soccer, squash, golf, and surfing. Ranked by mean participation time, equestrian activity was highest for females and walking was highest for males. Cycling and swimming represented the largest proportion of total group participation time. The sample will be followed up at age 18 years.
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Stanton, W.R., Feehan, M., Silva, P.A., Sears, M.R. | 1991
Handedness and allergic disorders in a Dunedin cohort

Cortex, 1991, 27(27), 131-135.
Our ref: RO148

Show abstract » Studies of the proposed association between handedness and allergic disorders have shown results which appear contradictory. In view of differences in the procedures of these studies, further tests of the strength of this association are warranted. Results from this study of a large birth cohort of children showed no support for an association between handedness measured at age 7 years and reports of eczema, urticaria, rhinitis, or asthma in late childhood or early adolescence. There was no significant association found between handedness and reported frequency and duration of symptoms of wheezing, or parental help-seeking for these symptoms. Apparent differences in the results of these studies could possibly be reconciled by the view that preference for use of the left hand may be associated with increased help-seeking behaviour in later life for a range of problems or difficulties. Further tests of the association between handedness and disorder in clinical samples require more rigorous control procedures.
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Dickson, N., Martin, M., Waller, A.E. | 1990
Hot water temperature in Dunedin homes with pre-school children

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 452-454.
Our ref: NZ61

Show abstract » This paper described a study of hot water temperatures in Dunedin homes. Temperatures were often found to be too high for safety. Strategies to overcome this problem were suggested.
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Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1990
Road crash experiences during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life: An overview

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 174-176.
Our ref: NZ59

Show abstract » This paper describes a study of road crash experiences. From a sample of 848 15 year olds, 113 subjects had experienced 121 road traffic crashes. Details relating to the type of crash by nature of outcome, place of treatment and the number reported to the Ministry of Transport are given. Problems of under-reporting and biases in reporting are discussed.
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Johnston, S.E., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1990
Serious unintentional injuries associated with architectural glass

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 117-119.
Our ref: NZ58

Show abstract » This paper reported on national data relating to serious injuries associated with architectural glass. Outcomes assessed were mortality and morbidity, including hospitalisation. Recommendations for preventing this type of injury were made.
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Sinclair, B.L., Clark, D.W.J., Facoory, B.D., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Medication use in nine year olds: Types of medicines used and recall of advice given

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 13(13), 263-265.
Our ref: NZ57

Show abstract » Use of medications was investigated in 819 nine year old children living in Dunedin. Twenty-four percent of the cohort (199 children) were given medications during the week prior to interview, mainly on prescription (68%). The majority of medicines used were said to be for respiratory illnesses and oral antibiotics represented a high proportion of prescribed medicines. Most medicines were obtained through a pharmacy (91%), and side effects were noted by nine percent of those taking medications. Some counselling was recalled with 70% of items although, as recalled by the parent, less than 25% of medicines obtained from pharmacies were dispensed or sold with any advice or instruction. The prescriber must ensure that adequate information is provided for the patient. Pharmacists may reinforce this information and provide additional advice on optimum methods of administration. It is debatable whether antibiotics should be used to the extent indicated by this study.
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St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1990
The stability of high blood pressure in Dunedin children: An eight year longitudinal study

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 115-117.
Our ref: NZ56

Show abstract » Resting blood pressures were recorded for children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at two year intervals five times from age seven to fifteen. Correlations between pairs of readings were modest but significant, and higher for systolic (0.39 to 0.62) than for diastolic blood pressure. However, although children with normal blood pressure were likely to continue to have normal blood pressure, high blood pressures at age seven, nine, eleven and thirteen were not stable--only 28% of those whose systolic blood pressure at age seven was in the highest 5% had two subsequent readings in the highest 5%. On the other hand 56% of those in the highest 20% had two subsequent readings in the highest 20%, and 9% had all subsequent readings in the highest 20%. We do not believe that adult essential hypertensives can be recognised early by annual blood pressure measurement in childhood and the assignation of blood pressure rank according to a set of normal values.
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Worsley, A., Worsley, A.J., McConnon, S., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Weight control practices of fifteen year old New Zealanders

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 41-45.
Our ref: RO197

Show abstract » More than 800 15 year old members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development study cohort completed a questionnaire designed to provide descriptive data concerning the weight control behaviours of this sample of New Zealand adolescents. The results showed that approximately 75% of the adolescents were within acceptable body mass index ranges. However 68% of the girls (but only 19% of the boys) wanted to weigh less than their present weight. Generally, girls were more concerned about their body weight than boys: 26% of girls weighed themselves fortnightly or more often, compared with 12% of boys; 45% of girls reported that they were trying to lose weight at present, compared with 9.5% of boys. The main methods of weight reduction included weight reduction diets (21% of girls, 4% of boys in the previous year); exercise such as jogging, walking, swimming and cycling (60% of girls, 34% of boys); and participation in dieting and fitness clubs (35% of girls, 16% of boys). In addition, 20% of girls reported using techniques such as slimming tablets (3%), cigarette smoking (5%) and self-induced vomiting (5%) to control weight. The results show that weight control is a major preoccupation of many girls and some boys. Results are discussed in relation to differential social influences on the sexes, and health consequences.
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Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J., Collins, B. | 1990
Serious unintentional injuries to students at school

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 323-328.
Our ref: RO171

Show abstract » Unintentional injuries at school have been identified as a significant public health problem. A major barrier to the development of injury prevention policy has been the absence of national data on the circumstances of injuries to students which occur at school. This study sought to determine the incidence, nature, and circumstances of injuries which resulted in death or hospitalization. Fatalities were identified from national mortality data for 1977-86 inclusive. Coroners' files were then examined to obtain details of the circumstances of injury. Hospitalization cases were identified from the national hospital discharge summary for 1986. Fifteen fatalities were identified. The circumstances of the deaths were diverse with the most frequent event being a fall (n = 4). A total of 1013 first admissions to hospital were identified, giving an overall incidence rate of 152/100 000 students/year. Injury rates declined with increasing age, and males had higher rates than females for all ages. Fractures of the upper and lower limbs and intracranial injury represented more than three-quarters of all injury. The two leading causes of injury, falls, and incidents involving striking against or being struck by a person or object, represented 89% of all incidents. The use of playground equipment and involvement in sporting activity were two of the more common aspects of many injury events. The results suggest that prevention policy should place emphasis on those in their first 2 years of schooling, falls from playground equipment, provision of protective equipment for sporting activities, sporting activities designed to minimize physical contact, establishment of standardized injury referral procedures, first-aid training, and a standardized injury reporting system.
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Teele, D.W., Stewart, I.A., Teele, J.H., Smith, D.K., Tregonning, S.J. | 1990
Acoustic reflectometry for assessment of hearing loss in children with middle ear effusion

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 1990, 9(9), 870-873.
Our ref: RO166

Show abstract » This paper reports on associations between acoustic reflectometry and hearing loss in ears with and without middle ear effusion in 137 Dunedin children aged 3 to 16 years. Reflectometry was significantly associated with conductive hearing loss. It was recommended that the techniques be further explored and extended to permit rational decisions about management of middle ear problems.
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White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Earls, F., Silva, P.A. | 1990
How early can we tell? Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency

Criminology, 1990, 28(28), 507-533.
Our ref: RO157

Show abstract » This study examined the power of a variety of characteristics of the preschool child to predict antisocial behaviour at ages 11 and 15 years. After screening preschool measures for their predictive power, a discriminant function analysis was performed with the five most promising preschool predictors. This function correctly classified 81% of subjects as antisocial at age 11 and 66% as delinquent at age 15. Having preschool behaviour problems was the best predictor of antisocial outcome.
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Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence

Community Health Studies, 1990, 14(14), 303-309.
Our ref: RO156

Show abstract » Previous publications from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit have reported the prevalence of DSM-III disorders through its longitudinal examination of a New Zealand birth cohort. The present study describes the help-seeking practices of each sample member's parents for their child's behavioural or emotional problems exhibited in childhood (ages 5-11) or adolescence (ages 12-15). Increased help-seeking for boys was evident in childhood. However, this sex difference was not present at adolescence. There was a decline in the frequency with which medically oriented agencies were contacted between childhood and adolescence, and teachers were found to be the most frequently used source of assistance in adolescence. Although there was a strong association between help-seeking and mental health disorder, approximately half of those with disorder had parents who had not sought help for their child's problems. In addition, family characteristics of low SES, low family social support and poorer maternal mental health predicted help-seeking. The results are discussed in terms of service provision for these age groups, within the present restructuring of the public health system in New Zealand.
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St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1990
Blood pressure level, trend, and variability in Dunedin children. An 8-year study of a single birth cohort

Circulation, 1990, 82(82), 1675-1680.
Our ref: RO152

Show abstract » In a birth cohort of children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study in New Zealand, resting blood pressures were recorded biennially five times from age 7 to 15 years. Using previously described methods, we examined the level, trend, and variability of blood pressures in those children with at least three readings. The level, trend, and variability of height, weight, and body mass index were compared among six separate groups of children. Two groups were categorized on the basis of high systolic pressure levels, one with low variability and the other with high variability, which was thought to resemble adult labile hypertension. Two additional groups were categorized on the basis of increasing and decreasing blood pressure trends; the fifth group had consistently low blood pressures, and the sixth group consisted of the remaining children. There were significant differences among the groups for the level of all the physical measurements and for the trend of body mass index. No significant differences were found among the groups for gender or socioeconomic status. A parental history of high blood pressure, stroke, or heart attack was significantly more common in the first two groups.
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Lodge, J.F., Langley, J.D., Begg, D.J. | 1990
Injuries in the 14th and 15th Years of Life

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 316-322.
Our ref: RO151

Show abstract » From a sample of 849 adolescents studied at age 15, 429 had been involved in 657 separate incidents, which resulted in 705 acute injuries requiring medical attention during their 14th and 15th years of life. The most common injuries were sprains, strains, fractures and lacerations, and the most common body site was the finger. The majority of injuries were of minor severity. Striking against an object or person was the most common incident resulting in injury, followed by being struck by an object or person, and overexertion or strenuous movement. Approximately half of the injuries were incurred during sport or a similar physical activity. Sporting injuries are examined in detail and preventive measures discussed.
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Langley, J.D., Johnston, S.E. | 1990
Purposely self-inflicted injuries resulting in death and hospitalisation

Community Health Studies, 1990, 14(14), 190-199.
Our ref: RO150

Show abstract » This study reported national data on morbidity and mortality relating to self inflicted injuries. Incidence rates for various groups in the population for fatalities and hospitalisations are reported. Personal factors, methods used to inflict injury and place of occurrence are described, together with a discussion of implications for prevention. Limiting the availability and lethality of agents in self inflicted injuries is recommended.
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Chalmers, D.J., Langley, J.D. | 1990
Epidemiology of playground equipment injuries resulting in hospitalisation

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 329-334.
Our ref: RO149

Show abstract » This study reported national data relating to discharges from hospitals in 1984 as a result of injuries relating to mainly falls from playground equipment. Incidence rates, ages of children, type of injuries and the implications of the findings are reported.
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McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, S.M., Partridge, F., Silva, P.A., Kelly, J.L. | 1990
DSM-III disorders in a large sample of adolescents

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990, 29(29), 611-619.
Our ref: RO147

Show abstract » The prevalence of DSM-III disorders was studied in 943 adolescents aged 15 years from a general population. Prevalence rates of disorder of 25.9% for girls and 18.2% for boys were found. The most prevalent disorders were overanxious disorder, nonaggressive conduct disorder, and simple phobia. Marked differences were noted among the disorders in terms of associated social competence, with multiple disorders and primarily externalizing disorders being related to poorer competence. A model of parental confirmation of disorder was developed suggesting that confirmation was more likely where the mother was depressed, the family low in social support, and the adolescent less socially competent. (Abstracted in the Psychiatry Digest, 1991.)
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