The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 17 of 23.

The relationship between digit sucking and behaviour problems: A longitudinal study over 10 years | 1992
Mahalski, P.A., Stanton, W.R.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1992, 33(33), 913-923.
Our ref: RO185
Show abstract » Data from the Dunedin (New Zealand) Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to examine continuity and discontinuity in digit sucking between 5 and 11 years. The data were also used to examine the relationship between digit sucking and behaviour problems at 5, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed a relationship between digit sucking and behaviour problems at all ages, except 5 years. Longitudinal analysis by multiple regression showed that digit sucking at 5 and 7 years predicted behaviour problems at 7, 9 and 11 years. This effect was most apparent at 7 years. Children who sucked their digits at 11 years were more likely to have overjets of 6mm or more between their upper and lower dental arches. The behavioural and dental evidence suggest that it would be better for children to stop sucking their digits before they started school and acquired their permanent dentition.
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DSM-III disorders from age 11 to age 15 years | 1992
McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Anderson, J. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1992, 31(31), 50-59.
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Our ref: RO183
Show abstract » Although research into the continuity of disorder from childhood to adolescence is sparse, results from both longitudinal and cross sectional studies suggest that the prevalence of disorder increases for girls but may remain more stable for boys. In this paper, the methodologies of two assessment phases of the Dunedin longitudinal study have been equated to estimate the continuity of DSM-III disorder from ages 11 to 15. Although the overall prevalence of disorder doubled between the ages, this was primarily because of an increase in nonaggressive conduct disorder and major depressive episode. The sex ratios in disorder had largely reversed from a male predominance at 11 to a female predominance at 15. In terms of persistence, over 40% of those with disorder at age 11 were also identified at age 15. However, over 80% of those identified with disorder at 15 did not have a history of disorder at 11. Significant sex differences were also found in the continuity of internalizing and externalizing disorders, with externalizing disorders showing more continuity for boys, and internalizing for girls. Logistic regression models were employed to evaluate the roles family background, academic and social competence, and early histories of behavior problems may play in the determination of disorder continuity.
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Motorcycling attitudes and behaviours 2: 14 and 15-year-old adolescents | 1992
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Begg, D.J. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1992, 28(28), 387-394.
Our ref: RO177
Show abstract » Of 846 adolescents interviewed near their 15th birthday, 51% could drive a motorcycle. A further 13% intended to learn. Drivers reported friends (mean age 16.5 years) as the most common source of instruction. Forty-four per cent of drivers and 69% of intending learners planned to apply for licences. Thirty-five per cent of the sample had driven or ridden as passengers on a motorcycle on-road in the past year and 85% of these had worn a helmet on the last occasion. The commonest cause of injuries to motorcyclists resulting in hospitalization (lower limb injury) was correctly identified by 52% of the sample. Fear of injury was the reason given for not learning to ride by 55% of confirmed non-drivers. Fifteen medically treated motorcycling injuries were reported for a 2-year recall period. Females reported significantly less exposure and less use of protective clothing than males. The issues of initiation, training, constraints on use and preventive strategies are discussed.
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Motorcycling attitudes and behaviours 1: 12 and 13-year-old adolescents | 1992
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1992, 28(28), 225-230.
Our ref: RO176
Show abstract » The death and serious injury of adolescent motorcyclists is a major public health problem. Effective preventive strategies depend on knowledge about target populations. The attitudes and patterns of exposure to motorcycling of 730 13 year old New Zealand adolescents are described. Fifty-two per cent could ride a motorcycle, a further 13% intended to learn, 22% had driven on-road, and 60% had ridden as pillion passengers on-road. Significantly more males than females were riders (P<0.001) and had ridden as pillion passengers (P<0.05). More male than female non-riders intended to learn (P<0.001). Eighty per cent of the sample recognized road 'accidents' as the main cause of death for their peers, and 31 % had known a motorcyclist killed or injured. Seventeen per cent of on-road riders had not worn a helmet when last riding. Few statistically significant differences in risk perception were obtained between males and females or riders and non-riders. Preventive options are discussed.
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Childhood experience and the onset of menarche | 1992
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Belsky, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Child Development, 1992, 63(63), 47-58.
Our ref: RO175
Show abstract » We tested predictions about psychosocial factors in the onset of menarche using data from a longitudinal study of 16-year-old girls. Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper have proposed a model that seeks to explain individual differences in maturational timing in terms of stressful childhood experiences. Their model hypothesizes that (1) individuals who grow up under conditions of family stress (2) experience behavioral and psychological problems which (3) provoke earlier reproductive readiness. In this study, the effect of family stressors on menarche was mediated by neither behavior problems nor weight, contrary to the predictions. However, the most provocative proposition advanced by Belsky et al, received empirical support. Family conflict and father absence in childhood predicted an earlier age of menarche, and these factors in combination with weight showed some evidence of an additive influence on menarche. A genetic inheritance model may provide a more parsimonious account of these data than does a conditional adaptation model derived from sociobiology.
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Perceptions of parenthood: similarities and differences between 15 year old girls and boys | 1992
Calvert, B., Stanton, W.R.
Adolescence, 1992, 27(27), 315-218.
Our ref: RO174
Show abstract » Similarities and differences between the contributions of both parents, and some reasons for these similarities and differences, are explored through the responses of a cohort of Dunedin teenagers to questions about their expectations of becoming parents, their relevant experience and knowledge, and their future needs for information. It is concluded that both sexes have a commitment to parenting and expectations of sharing the tasks of parenthood, and that they expect the basis of sharing to be expediency as dictated by economic and other factors rather than any inherent superiority of one sex for the tasks.
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Disentangling delinquency and learning disability: Neuropsychological function and social support | 1992
Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1992, 13(13), 1-6.
Our ref: RO146
Show abstract » In an effort to further disentangle the correlates of delinquency and learning disability, a study by Sobotowicz, Evans and Laughlin (1987) was replicated using boys from an unselected cohort. Four groups were identified: normal subjects (N; n=316), delinquent subjects (JD: n=50), learning disabled subjects (LD: n=39), and learning disabled/delinquent subjects (LD/JD: n=20). It was predicted that: (1) the N group would outperform the other groups on neuropsychological variables assessing verbal functioning and language skills; (2) the JD group would outperform the LD and LD/JD group on measures of verbal skill; (3) the LD group would out perform the LD/JD group on measures of executive functioning; and (4) the two non-delinquent groups would score higher on measures of social support than would the two delinquent groups. Results indicated that both the delinquent subjects and the learning disabled subjects performed more poorly than controls on measures of verbal skill, and scored lower than controls on measures of social support. No group differences were found on the executive function variables. The results were interpreted as indicating that 'known' correlates of delinquency are actually correlates of delinquency per se, and not simply a result of the large numbers of learning disabled subjects often found in delinquent samples.
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Neuropsychological and socioemotional correlates of specific-arithmetic disability | 1992
White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1992, 7(7), 1-16.
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Our ref: RO145
Show abstract » Neuropsychological and socio-emotional factors associated with specific-arithmetic disability were investigated in an unselected sample of New Zealand children. Subjects were 17 specific-arithmetic disabled, 27 specific-reading disabled, 63 generally disabled, and 50 nondisabled 13 year olds. Evidence was sought for an association between specific-arithmetic disability and the neuropsychological and socio-emotional correlates of Nonverbal Learning Disability syndrome (NLD). NLD is characterized by a pattern of nonverbal and verbal neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses, and appears to place individuals at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology, than other learning disabilities. Only specific-arithmetic disabled subjects were found to show a neuropsychological profile reminiscent of NLD. Evidence of poor socio-emotional adjustment was found across all three learning-disabled groups, and was greatest among generally disabled subjects. We found that the specific-arithmetic-disabled subjects exhibited the greatest degree of overlap between internalizing psychopathology and a NLD neuropsychological profile. The results are interpreted as providing some support for the idea that specific-arithmetic-disabled individuals may be at greater risk for the NLD syndrome than either generally disabled or specific-reading-disabled individuals.
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Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic and asymptomatic children is related to serum total IgE even in the absence of asthma and atopic disease [Abstract] | 1991
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1991, 104(104), 190.
Our ref: NZ66
Show abstract » See RO178 for a full report of this study.
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Educating for parenthood: the role of the school | 1991
Calvert, B., Stanton, W.R.
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1991, 26(26), 75-86.
Our ref: NZ63
Show abstract » This paper describes the results of interviews with 846 15 year olds regarding their expectations of becoming parents, the relevant experience and knowledge they already had for this task, the sources of their knowledge, their expected needs for further knowledge, and the anticipated sources of that knowledge. The role of the school in providing parenting education is discussed. The authors conclude that schools should provide all boys and girls with general information on a number of parenting-related topics which are of significance and interest to adolescents; should help parents understand the needs of their adolescent children; and should try to provide students with contacts with young children in everyday settings so that students are familiar with child development and child behaviour. See also NZ60 and MO22 for the full report.
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Bicycle road crashes in the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life | 1991
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1991, 104(104), 60-61.
Our ref: NZ62
Show abstract » From a sample of 848 teenagers 57 individuals reported a total of 62 bicycle road crashes, 40 (65%) of which involved injury to a cyclist. Thirty (48%) of the crashes occurred when the cyclist lost control of the bicycle (73% of which involved injury) and 17 crashes (27%) involved a moving motor vehicle (41% of which involved injury). The majority of the injuries were not serious and of those with multiple injuries no one had an injury severity score greater than five. The body area most frequently injured was the extremities (74%), with the remainder primarily head injuries. Environmental conditions were not a major contributing factor in these crashes. In only five cases the cyclist was wearing a safety helmet. Recommended measures to prevent, or minimise, bicycle related injuries include the wearing of safety helmets, bicycle maintenance checks, and road safety awareness instruction
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Children's exposure to smoking | 1991
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1991, 20(20), 933-937.
Our ref: RO184
Show abstract » Exposure to smoking and the attitudes of other people have, in many studies, been associated with an increase in smoking through childhood and adolescence. Previous studies which have examined the relative influence of parents, siblings and friends on young people smoking do not show the same pattern of results, indicating that parents and siblings who smoke may or may not have an influence above or beyond that of friends. In this study, the extent to which these sources of exposure influence young people is examined. A related hypothesis which is tested in this study is that the amount of exposure to smoking may be a factor which influences young people to smoke independent of the particular source of the influence. The pattern of results suggests that the source of the influence is more important than the extent of influence among friends and family members. In particular, the influence of friends' smoking was evident at ages 9 to 15 years to the exclusion of the parental example of smoking. Parental smokers may lead their children to try smoking but it seems unlikely that this is related to them smoking at a later age. While peer influence may result in smoking, the influence of parents or older people smoking may be becoming a disincentive in this time of changing attitudes to smoking.
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Are girls with problems of attention under-recognised | 1991
McGee, R., Feehan M.
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 1991, 13(13), 187-198.
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Our ref: RO182
Show abstract » There is a generally held belief that disorders of attention (e.g., ADHD) are to be found primarily among boys, not girls. We question the evidence relating to sex differences in the prevalence of attentional disorders and suggest possible reasons why reported sex differences appear limited to teacher ratings. An examination of the admittedly scarce literature on correlates of ADHD behaviors suggests no strong evidence for sex differences in the pattern of developmental, attentional and background correlates. We recommend the use of sex-specific norms and diagnostic criteria to identify girls with problems of attention and our plea is for more research to examine the nature of attention deficits in girls.
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Change in children's smoking from age 9 to age 15 years: the Dunedin Study | 1991
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Oei, ... Show all » T.P.S. « Hide
Public Health, 1991, 105(105), 425-433.
Our ref: RO181
Show abstract » Studies have shown that the rate at which children take up smoking is still very high, particularly for female adolescents. While some progress has been made in determining the factors related to the initiation of smoking, an issue that still requires investigation is the relationship between early smoking patterns and later smoking behaviour. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study which examined the continuity between smoking at an early age and later smoking behaviour. The smoking behaviour of a cohort of New Zealand children was followed from age 9 to age 15 years. Results showed that children's smoking pattern at age 9 years was not highly related to their smoking behaviour at age 15. The children most likely to become daily smokers by age 15 were those who had smoked within the last year at ages 11 and 13. It was concluded that the formative period for children's daily smoking at age 15 was from 10 to 13 years of age.
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The effects of bronchial reactivity, persistent wheeze and atopy on longitudinal pulmonary function in children [Abstract] | 1991
Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R., Lebowitz, ... Show all » M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1991, 143(143), A500.
Our ref: RO180
Show abstract » See RO196 for full report of this study.
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Airway hyperresponsiveness in children is related to serum total IgE even in the absence of asthma and atopic disease [Abstract] | 1991
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1991, 143(143), A19.
Our ref: RO179
Show abstract » See RO178 for a full report of this study.
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Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children | 1991
Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. « Hide
New England Journal of Medicine, 1991, 325(325), 1067-1071.
Our ref: RO178
Show abstract » This study concluded that even in children who have been asymptomatic and have no history of atopic disease, airway hyperresponsiveness appears to be closely linked to an allergic diathesis, as reflected by the serum total IgE level.
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School Achievement as an independent predictor of smoking in childhood and adolescence | 1991
Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A.
Health Education Journal, 1991, 50(50), 84-88.
Our ref: RO173
Show abstract » This study looked at the effect of school achievement as an independent predictor of child and adolescent smoking, when a large number of other measures relating to family background, attitudes to smoking, exposure to smoking and self-esteem were taken into account. After the effect of these other variables were controlled for, academic achievement was not related to smoking at age 9 but was related to change in smoking for age 9 to 11 years and, for boys, further change in smoking from age 11 to age 13 years.
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Strict and inconsistent discipline in childhood: consequences for adolescent mental health | 1991
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1991, 30(30), 325-331.
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Our ref: RO172
Show abstract » Recent reviews have suggested an association between discipline experienced in childhood and the development of later psychopathology. As part of a longitudinal study of the health and development of a large sample of New Zealand children, maternal reports of strict and inconsistent discipline were obtained when the sample members were aged 7 and 9 years. It was found that inconsistency was associated with early behaviour problems, but strictness was not. At age 15 years the prevalence of DSM-III disorders in the sample was established. Univariate analyses showed significant associations between inconsistency and low levels of strictness with externalizing disorder. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that in the presence of other predictor variables including childhood problem behaviour, these associations only approached significance. However, when the two ratings were combined, rates of disorder for those who experienced more relaxed and inconsistent discipline were double the rates found in the sample remainder. No significant association was found between discipline and internalizing disorder.
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Sleep problems in adolescence | 1991
Morrison, D.N., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1991, 31(31), 94-99.
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Our ref: RO170
Show abstract » A sample of 943 adolescents from the general population were questioned about sleep problems. A quarter of the sample responded needing a lot more sleep than they previously had, and 10% of the sample complained of difficulty falling asleep. Adolescents reporting sleep problems showed more anxious, depressed, inattentive, and conduct disorder behaviors than those who had no (or only occasional) sleep problems. Sleep problems, particularly multiple problems, were associated with DSM-III disorder. There were no significant differences between male and female adolescents on any of the above measures. Finally, sleep problems were relatively persistent over time from ages 13 to 15.
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Relationship between caries, anxiety, and beliefs in oral health behaviours in adolescents [Abstract] | 1991
Brown, R.H., Treasure, E.T., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 1991, 70(70), 36.
Our ref: RO169
Show abstract » This abstract reported a study of associations between experience of caries, self reported anxiety levels and strength of belief in the importance of seven oral health behaviours. The findings questioned the effectiveness of present health education programmes in New Zealand and have relevance for the retention of high-risk adolescents within the dental care system.
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A longitudinal analysis of traumatised teeth in children [Abstract] | 1991
Treasure, E.T., Ross, W.D., Brown, ... Show all » R.H., Herbison, G.P. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 1991, 70(70), 40.
Our ref: RO168
Show abstract » This abstract reported on trauma to teeth. It showed that the majority of injuries occur away from home and that many teeth with fractures were unrestored.
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Caries increment in 509 children between age 12-15 years | 1991
Strange, J.W., Ross, W.D., Brown, ... Show all » R.H., Treasure, E.T. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 1991, 70(70), 32.
Our ref: RO167
Show abstract » This study reported on the caries increment in children between age 12 and 15. It also looked at preventive services. The study showed that a significant proportion of the teenagers in this study continued to increase their DMF over the three year period and some aspects of the provision of preventive services for their age were found to be inadequate.
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A longitudinal study of New Zealand children's experience with alcohol | 1991
Casswell, S., Stewart, J., Connolly, ... Show all » G.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Addiction, 1991, 86(86), 277-285.
Our ref: RO165
Show abstract » This paper described a longitudinal study of children's experience with alcohol and some correlates of various levels of children's alcohol consumption. There was a marked increase in consumption with age, particularly between ages 13 and 15. Girls drank slightly less than boys until age 15 when they drank slightly more. Those from lower socio-economic levels drank less to age 13, after which they drank more. There was a tendency with increasing age towards more drinking away from the home.
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Social competence in adolescence: preliminary findings from a longitudinal study of New Zealand 15-year olds | 1991
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Psychiatry, 1991, 54(54), 281-291.
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Our ref: RO164
Show abstract » Recently, there has been an increase of research interest in the nature of the relationship between the concept of competence and mental health and disorder. For a large sample of adolescents studied at ages 11 and 15 years, we developed indices of social competence at each age based on measures of social attachment and involvement in activities. There was a significant association between competence and externalizing disorders at both ages. Competence was related to internalizing disorder only at age 11. Preadolescent social competence did not predict later disorder at age 15 in the sample as a whole. However, externalizing disorder at age 15 was predicted by presence of disorder together with low social competence in preadolescence.
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Anxiety and cognitive task performance: A longitudinal perspective | 1991
Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Child Study Journal, 1991, 21(21), 167-184.
Our ref: RO163
Show abstract » Assesses the relation between anxiety and cognitive task performance longitudinally across middle childhood in New Zealand. Testing of contrasting predictions; Examining cognitive task performance of four anxiety groups; Comparison of intelligence quotients (IQ) among anxious and comparison subjects.
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Adolescents' self perceptions of their strengths | 1991
Williams, S.M., McGee, R.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1991, 20(20), 325-337.
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Our ref: RO162
Show abstract » This paper described the results and properties of the Strengths Scale, and some sex differences in various types of strength. Boys tended to see themselves as strong in sport, confidence, popularity, having lots of hobbies and to be attractive. Girls saw themselves as reliable, kind, independent and affectionate. Regression analysis suggested that boys' strengths depended upon parent, peer and school attachment, part-time work and the number of physical activities with which they were involved. Girls' strengths were best predicted by parent attachment and the number of physical activities in which they were involved.
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Comparison of United States and New Zealand children's body mass scores | 1991
Kelly, J.L., Stanton, W.R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Jordan, T.E. « Hide
Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1991, 111(111), 51-53.
Our ref: RO161
Show abstract » Heights and weights of a large sample of subjects studied longitudinally from ages 3 and 13 years were used to calculate relative weight, using a Body Mass Index score (BMI) which estimates adiposity. Males and females differed significantly in BMI scores only at ages 3 and 13 years. The correlations between BMI scores at all ages were positive and significant. The subjects were divided at each age into a 'light', an 'average' and a 'heavy' group based on the position of their BMI score relative to the 25th and 75th percentiles. Subjects were 'tracked' from ages 3, 7 and 11 years to determine whether they had remained in the same BMI group by age 13 years relative to their peers. Slightly fewer than half of the 3 year old subjects but the majority of 7 and 11 year old subjects remained in the same relative weight group by age 13 years. Only 1% of 7 and 11 year old subjects in the top and the bottom quartiles for BMI scores shifted from one extreme group to the other. Relative weight at 3, 7 and 11 years was more persistent for subjects with extreme bodyweights than subjects with bodyweights in the middle range. Consistent with the pattern of correlations, the tracking pattern for all 3 groups showed that subjects' BMI scores remained more stable as the subjects grew older.
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Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change: the sample case of girls at puberty | 1991
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991, 61(61), 157-168.
Our ref: RO160
Show abstract » This study was designed to test several hypotheses related to the effects of different timings of puberty in girls related to behavioural problems. The results showed that behaviour problems were associated with puberty only when this occurred at a very young age. The results clearly supported the hypothesis that stressful transitions tended to accentuate behavioural problems among girls who were predisposed to behaviour problems earlier in childhood.
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Big cities, small towns and adolescent mental health in New Zealand | 1991
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Feehan, ... Show all » M. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1991, 25(25), 338-342.
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Our ref: RO159
Show abstract » This study examined relationships between measures of mental health and the type of residential locations in which the sample lived. There were no significant differences between groups from differing types of towns or cities, but adolescents who come from larger population centres reported more life event stresses. Those adolescents who experienced more frequent changes of address had more mental health problems.
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A twelve year follow-up of preschool hyperactive children | 1991
McGee, R., Partridge, F., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1991, 30(30), 224-232.
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Our ref: RO158
Show abstract » Two percent (N = 21) of a large sample of preschool children were identified as pervasively hyperactive. Compared with nonhyperactive preschoolers, these children more often came from families with high levels of adversity, and they showed poorer language skills. Over a 12-year follow-up period, the hyperactive preschoolers continued to show poorer cognitive skills, lower levels of reading ability, disruptive and inattentive behaviors at home and at school, and higher rates of DSM-III disorder in preadolescence and adolescence. By age 15, only one-quarter of this group were identified as having met recovery criteria. The findings point to the long-term adverse consequences of preschool hyperactivity and indicate the need for intervention with this type of disorder.
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Smoking and blood pressure in Dunedin fifteen year olds | 1991
St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
BMJ, 1991, 302(302), 89.
Our ref: RO155
Show abstract » When an individual inhales cigarette smoke, heart rate rises and blood pressure increases. These physiologic responses are due to the effects of nicotine. However, many studies have reported lower than average blood pressures in adults who smoke than in nonsmokers. A total of 839 children in Dunedin, New Zealand were evaluated biannually, between the ages of 11 and 15 years, regarding their smoking history, cardiovascular fitness, exercise tolerance, and body size. Blood pressures were obtained at rest; before exercise, while seated on a bicycle; during a standard six-minute bicycling test; immediately after six minutes of cycling; and following five minutes' recovery. The study population consisted of five groups of children who were defined in terms of their smoking history. Data were evaluated when the participants were 15 years old. Among the groups, blood pressure differences during exercise were not significant. However, significant differences in blood pressure readings were observed after recovery and, although these differences were small, they remained significant after adjustment for height, weight, and sex. The results were similar in direction and magnitude to those noted in adult smokers, and are suggestive of a smoking-related effect on blood pressure among even young, occasional smokers. That the differences were not evident four years earlier suggests that they were caused by smoking.
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Indices of perinatal complications, family background, child rearing and health as predictors of early cognitive and motor development | 1991
Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Pediatrics, 1991, 88(88), 954-959.
Our ref: RO154
Show abstract » An index of adversity is a measure of risk that can be considered independently of individual risk factors. This study examined four areas of adversity in early childhood, namely perinatal complications, family background, child-rearing practices, and the child's physical health, and their relationship to developmental outcomes. Four indices of adversity in these areas were examined as predictors of cognitive ability and motor ability for 476 girls and 510 boys at age 5 years. Results of the study indicated that indices of family background and child-rearing practices were highly related to these developmental outcomes. An index of health problems was found to be significantly related to motor ability. The perinatal complications index was significantly related only to specific cognitive ability scores for boys. Previously, developmental outcomes have been assessed in terms of the magnitude of individual risk factors, but more effective screening procedures may need to take account of the additive effect of the number of relevant adverse risk factors.
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Adolescents' sporting and leisure-time physical activities during their fifteenth year | 1991
Reeder, A.I., Stanton, W.R., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Chalmers, D.J. « Hide
Canadian Journal of Sports Science, 1991, 16(16), 308-315..
Our ref: RO153
Show abstract » Participation in physical activity may influence health outcomes, so its quantification is important. There is little data on adolescent physical activities. Recall of physical activity in the preceding year was obtained from a birth cohort of 799 fifteen-year-old adolescents in New Zealand using a modified version of the Minnesota Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. Mean total participation times were relatively high, with 612 hrs/year (1.68 hrs/day) for males and 401 hrs/year (1.1 hrs/day) for females. Individual total participation ranged from less than a minute to 6.5 hrs/day. Over 10% more females than males reported netball, equestrian activities, and dancing, and at least 10% more males reported cricket, rugby, fishing, soccer, squash, golf, and surfing. Ranked by mean participation time, equestrian activity was highest for females and walking was highest for males. Cycling and swimming represented the largest proportion of total group participation time. The sample will be followed up at age 18 years.
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Handedness and allergic disorders in a Dunedin cohort | 1991
Stanton, W.R., Feehan, M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Sears, M.R. « Hide
Cortex, 1991, 27(27), 131-135.
Our ref: RO148
Show abstract » Studies of the proposed association between handedness and allergic disorders have shown results which appear contradictory. In view of differences in the procedures of these studies, further tests of the strength of this association are warranted. Results from this study of a large birth cohort of children showed no support for an association between handedness measured at age 7 years and reports of eczema, urticaria, rhinitis, or asthma in late childhood or early adolescence. There was no significant association found between handedness and reported frequency and duration of symptoms of wheezing, or parental help-seeking for these symptoms. Apparent differences in the results of these studies could possibly be reconciled by the view that preference for use of the left hand may be associated with increased help-seeking behaviour in later life for a range of problems or difficulties. Further tests of the association between handedness and disorder in clinical samples require more rigorous control procedures.
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Hot water temperature in Dunedin homes with pre-school children | 1990
Dickson, N., Martin, M., Waller, ... Show all » A.E. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 452-454.
Our ref: NZ61
Show abstract » This paper described a study of hot water temperatures in Dunedin homes. Temperatures were often found to be too high for safety. Strategies to overcome this problem were suggested.
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Road crash experiences during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life: An overview | 1990
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 174-176.
Our ref: NZ59
Show abstract » This paper describes a study of road crash experiences. From a sample of 848 15 year olds, 113 subjects had experienced 121 road traffic crashes. Details relating to the type of crash by nature of outcome, place of treatment and the number reported to the Ministry of Transport are given. Problems of under-reporting and biases in reporting are discussed.
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Serious unintentional injuries associated with architectural glass | 1990
Johnston, S.E., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, ... Show all » D.J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 117-119.
Our ref: NZ58
Show abstract » This paper reported on national data relating to serious injuries associated with architectural glass. Outcomes assessed were mortality and morbidity, including hospitalisation. Recommendations for preventing this type of injury were made.
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Medication use in nine year olds: Types of medicines used and recall of advice given | 1990
Sinclair, B.L., Clark, D.W.J., Facoory, ... Show all » B.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 13(13), 263-265.
Our ref: NZ57
Show abstract » Use of medications was investigated in 819 nine year old children living in Dunedin. Twenty-four percent of the cohort (199 children) were given medications during the week prior to interview, mainly on prescription (68%). The majority of medicines used were said to be for respiratory illnesses and oral antibiotics represented a high proportion of prescribed medicines. Most medicines were obtained through a pharmacy (91%), and side effects were noted by nine percent of those taking medications. Some counselling was recalled with 70% of items although, as recalled by the parent, less than 25% of medicines obtained from pharmacies were dispensed or sold with any advice or instruction. The prescriber must ensure that adequate information is provided for the patient. Pharmacists may reinforce this information and provide additional advice on optimum methods of administration. It is debatable whether antibiotics should be used to the extent indicated by this study.
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The stability of high blood pressure in Dunedin children: An eight year longitudinal study | 1990
St. George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1990, 103(103), 115-117.
Our ref: NZ56
Show abstract » Resting blood pressures were recorded for children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at two year intervals five times from age seven to fifteen. Correlations between pairs of readings were modest but significant, and higher for systolic (0.39 to 0.62) than for diastolic blood pressure. However, although children with normal blood pressure were likely to continue to have normal blood pressure, high blood pressures at age seven, nine, eleven and thirteen were not stable--only 28% of those whose systolic blood pressure at age seven was in the highest 5% had two subsequent readings in the highest 5%. On the other hand 56% of those in the highest 20% had two subsequent readings in the highest 20%, and 9% had all subsequent readings in the highest 20%. We do not believe that adult essential hypertensives can be recognised early by annual blood pressure measurement in childhood and the assignation of blood pressure rank according to a set of normal values.
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