The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 11 of 21.

Eberhart-Phillips, J., Dickson, N., Paul, C., Fawcett, J.P., Holland, D., Taylor, J., Cunningham, A.L. | 1998
Herpes simplex type 2 infection in a cohort aged 21 years.

Sexually Transmitted Infections, 1998, 74(74), 216-218.
Our ref: RO327

Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies in a birth cohort of 21 year old New Zealanders from whom detailed sexual histories had been obtained, and to assess the potential for HSV-2 serology in characterising a young adult population's risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STD). METHODS: Sera from 784 cohort members were tested using an indirect IgG enzyme linked immunoassay specific to the HSV-2 glycoprotein G. Positive results were confirmed by western blot. RESULTS: In all, 27 subjects were seropositive for HSV-2 (3.4%), only seven of whom gave a history of genital herpes (26%). Risk among females increased with lifetime number of partners, while risk for males increased with having a first partner who was aged 16 years or under. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in this cohort was low, but similar to that seen in several other populations in this age group. HSV-2 seropositivity did not appear to be a sensitive marker for high risk sexual activity in this young population. This may be because a critical mass of HSV-2 carriers has not accumulated among potential partners by age 21 years.
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Bardone, A.M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with conduct disorder, depression and anxiety

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1998, 37(37), 594-601.
Our ref: RO325

Show abstract » Objective: To examine the young adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with behavior problems. Method: Girls with conduct disorder, girls with depression, girls with anxiety, and healthy girls (N=459) who had been evaluated at age 15 years were followed up at age 21 when general physical health, substance dependence and reproductive health were assessed. Results: After control for potentially confounding variables including prior health, adolescent conduct disorder predicted more medical problems, poorer self-reported overall health, lower body mass index, alcohol and/or marijuana dependence, tobacco dependence, daily smoking, more lifetime sexual partners, sexually transmitted disease, and early pregnancy. Adolescent depression predicted only adult tobacco dependence and more medical problems; adolescent anxiety predicted more medical problems. Conclusions: The robust link between female adolescent conduct disorder and poor physical health in adulthood suggests that intervention with girls who have conduct disorder may be a strategy for preventing subsequent health problems.
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Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1998
The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R): A longitudinal/epidemiological study

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 216-227.
Our ref: RO324

Show abstract » The latent structure and stability of 10 common mental disorders were examined in a birth cohort at ages 18 and 21. A 2-factor model, in which some disorders were presumed to reflect internalizing problems and others were presumed to reflect externalizing problems, provided a more optimal fit to the data than either a 1- or a 4-factor model. To a significant extent, persons in the sample retained their relative positions on the latent factors across the 3-year period from age 18 to age 21. Results offer potential clarification of the meaning of comorbidity in psychopathology research by suggesting that comorbidity may results from common mental disorders being reliable, covariant indicators of stable, underlying core psychopathological processes.
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Krueger, R.F., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Bleske, A., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications

Behavior Genetics, 1998, 28(28), 173-186.
Our ref: RO323

Show abstract » Do people mate assortatively for antisocial behavior? If so, what are the implications for the development and persistence of antisocial behavior? We investigated assortative mating for antisocial behavior and its correlates in a sample of 360 couples from Dunedin, New Zealand. We found substantial assortative mating for self-reports of antisocial behavior per se and for self-reports of couple members' tendencies to associate with antisocial peers (0.54 on average). Perceptions about the likelihood of social sanctions for antisocial behavior (e.g., being caught by the authorities or losing the respect of one's family) showed moderate assortative mating (0.32 on average). However, assortative mating for personality traits related to antisocial behavior was low (0.15 on average). These findings suggest that, whereas assortative mating for many individual-difference variables (such as personality traits) is low, assortative mating for actual antisocial behaviors is substantial. We conclude that future family studies of antisocial behavior should endeavor to measure and understand the influence of assortative mating. In addition, we outline a testable behavior-genetic model for the development of antisocial behavior, in which genes and environments promoting or discouraging antisocial behavior become concentrated within families (due to assortative mating), giving rise to widely varying individual developmental trajectories that are, nevertheless, similar within families.
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Poulton, R., Thomson, W.M., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Dental fear with and without blood-injection fear: implications for dental health and clinical practice

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1998, 36(36), 591-597.
Our ref: RO321

Show abstract » The relation between dental, blood and injection fear and oral health was examined in 936 New Zealand 18-year-olds. Of the approximately ten percent (n = 96) of the sample who reported a dental fear, 1 in 10 also reported a fear of blood and 53% a co-morbid fear of injections. Study members with dental fear alone or co-morbid dental and blood or injection fear had significantly worse oral health (i.e. greater caries experience) than a no-fear comparison group or individuals with blood- injection fear only. Further, individuals with dental and blood or injection fear had a significantly higher level of recent tooth decay than individuals with dental fear alone. Time since last dental treatment also tended to be highest in this group. Implications for dental health and practice were discussed.
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Poulton, R., Davies, S., Menzies, R.G., Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Evidence for a non-associative model of the acquisition of a fear of heights

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1998, 36(36), 537-544.
Our ref: RO320

Show abstract » Theories that fear results from previous traumatic experience (i.e. conditioning theories) have enjoyed widespread support for over half a century. Recent research, however, has cast doubt on the validity of these models in some specific phobias. Two studies on the etiology of height phobia have obtained findings consistent with a non-associative, evolutionary explanation of fear acquisition (Menzies and Clarke, 1993a, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 355-365; Menzies and Clarke, 1995a, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 795-805). Unfortunately, the retrospective nature of these studies limits the conclusions that can be drawn from these data. Like all retrospective research, these studies depend on adult subjects imperfect ability to recall conditioning events that may have occurred many years earlier. The present investigation overcomes these methodological shortcomings by examining the relationship between putative conditioning events before the age of 9 yr and the presence of height fear at ages 11 and 18 yr in a large birth cohort studied longitudinally. To our knowledge this is the first study that has prospectively examined the relationship between relevant traumatic events early in life and the onset of height fear in late adolescence. No positive relationship was found between a history of falls resulting in injury (i.e. fracture, dislocation, intracranial injury or laceration) before the age of 9 and fear of heights at age 11 or 18. Interestingly, falls resulting in injury between the ages of 5 and 9 occurred more frequently in those without a fear of heights at 18 (P < 0.01)--a finding in the opposite direction to that predicted by conditioning theory but consistent with non- associative theories of fear acquisition. In general, the results provide strong support for non-associative models of fear and are difficult to reconcile with conditioning theories.
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Magdol, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Developmental antecedents of partner abuse: A prospective-longitudinal study

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 375-389.
Our ref: RO319

Show abstract » Prospective measures of risk factors for partner abuse were obtained from a large birth cohort in 4 domains: socioeconomic resources, family relations, educational achievements, and problem behaviors. Partner abuse outcomes were measured at age 21. Results showed that antecedents of abuse included risk factors from all 4 domains. Risk factors were similar for men and women. Some age 3 antecedents were significant, but the strongest correlations were from age 15. In multivariate analyses, the most consistent predictor was the presence of early problem behaviors. In a cross-validation test, abuse was moderately predictable by the same antecedents, whether the outcome measure was self-report or reports from partners of sample members. Findings suggest that theories of partner abuse should account for developmental influences from multiple life domains and that primary prevention of partner abuse should begin in adolescence.
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Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Factors associated with doubled-up housing - a common precursor to homelessness

Social Service Review, 1998, 72(72), 92-111.
Our ref: RO317

Show abstract » Previous research on housing problems has concentrated on the more visible homelessness rather than more intermediate forms of housing problems such as doubled-up housing. This article expands this research by analyzing entrance into doubled-up housing among a sample of adolescents. This common type of vulnerable housing has been linked to various social and psychological problems. It commonly precedes homelessness, and it potentially increases the risk of homelessness. We find that doubled-up housing frequently occurs during young adulthood and is predicted by insufficient human capital, broken social ties, and personal disabilities.
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Caspi, A., Wright, B.R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Early failure in the labor market: Childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood

American Sociological Review, 1998, 63(63), 424-451.
Our ref: RO316

Show abstract » We investigate the childhood and adolescent predictors of youth unemployment in a longitudinal study of young adults who have been studied for the 21 years since their births in 1972-1973. We test hypotheses about the predictors of youth unemployment using information about each individual's human capital, social capital, and personal capital. In the human capital domain, lack of high-school qualifications, poor reading skills, low IQ scores, and limited parental resources significantly increased the risk of unemployment. In the social capital domain, growing up in a single-parent family, family conflict, and lack of attachment to school also increased the risk of unemployment. In the personal capital domain, children involved in antisocial behavior had an increased risk of unemployment. These predictors of unemployment reached back to early childhood suggesting that they began to shape labor-marker outcomes years before these youths entered the work force. In addition, these effects remained significant after controlling for the duration of education and educational attainment, suggesting that many early personal and family characteristics affect labor-market outcomes, not only because they restrict the accumulation of human capital (e.g., education), but also because they directly affect labor-market behaviors. Failure to account for prior social, psychological, and economic risk factors may lead to inflated estimates of the effects of unemployment on future outcomes.
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Danielson, K.K., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Comorbidity between abuse of an adult and DSM-III-R mental disorders: Evidence from an epidemiological Study

American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, 155(155), 131-133.
Our ref: RO315

Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence, risk, and implications of comorbidity between partner violence and psychiatric disorders. METHOD: Data were obtained from a representative birth cohort of 941 young adults through use of the Conflict Tactics Scales and Diagnostic Interview Schedule. RESULTS: Half of those involved in partner violence had a psychiatric disorder; one-third of those with a psychiatric disorder were involved in partner violence. Individuals involved in severe partner violence had elevated rates of a wide spectrum of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the importance of mental health clinicians screening for partner violence and treating victims and perpetrators before injury occurs.
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Newman, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for clinical treatment and sample selection

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 305-311.
Our ref: RO314

Show abstract » Disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) were assessed in a birth cohort of 961 young adults. Comorbid cases exceeded single-disordered cases in chronic history of mental illness, use of treatments, physical health problems, functional interference in daily life, and impaired adaptation across domains such as work, education, health, and social-support networks. Single-disorder cases were also more impaired than nondisordered cases, but comorbid cases were the most severely impaired. Our findings suggest that (a) samples that underrepresent comorbidity (pure single-disorder cases or student samples) will underestimate effect sizes for relations between a disorder and its correlates, whereas samples that overrepresent comorbidity (clinical or adjudicated samples) will overestimate effect sizes, (b) comorbidity is accompanied by complications that challenge treatment planning, compliance, and coordination of service delivery, and (c) comorbidity is associated with physical, educational, and economic problems that make it a broad societal concern.
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Magdol, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Hitting without a license: testing explanations for differences in partner abuse between young adult daters and cohabiters

Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1998, 60(60), 41-55.
Our ref: RO313

Show abstract » We compared partner abuse by cohabiters and daters among 21-year-olds. Cohabiters were significantly more likely than daters to perform abusive behaviors. We identified factors that differentiate cohabitors from daters and tested whether these factors explained the difference in partner abuse. As controls in regression models predicting abuse, none of these factors individually explained the difference in partner abuse between cohabiters and daters. With all factors added to the model simultaneously, the effect of cohabitation remained significant, but was substantially reduced. These findings have intervention implications because premarital cohabitation is a risk factor for abuse after marriage.
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Dovey, S.M., Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J. | 1998
Continuity and change in sporting and leisure time physical activities during adolescence

British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1998, 32(32), 53-57.
Our ref: RO312

Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: To map the pattern of involvement in physical activities by adolescents at ages 15 and 18 years. METHODS: Data from a longitudinal cohort study were used. Participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information about their sporting and similar physical activities during the 12 months before study assessments at ages 15 and 18 years. RESULTS: Total participation time at age 18 was 63% of that reported at age 15. Mean participation time for girls decreased from 7.5 hours a week to 4.3 hours a week (p<0.001) whereas for boys it decreased from 11.7 hours a week to 7.8 hours a week (p<0.001). At both ages, boys spent significantly more time in physical activity than girls. More time in physical activity at age 18 was reported by participants who judged their fitness higher than their peers (odds ratio (OR) 1.7: 1.2, 2.5), those who played sport for their school (OR 1.8: 1.3, 2.4), and those reporting very good self assessed health (OR 1.4: 1.0, 1.8) at age 15. The overall median number of activities decreased from seven at age 15 to three at 18. Boys were involved in more activities at age 15 but there was no sex difference at age 18 in the number of different activities reported. CONCLUSION: Although involvement in school sporting activities and high levels of fitness in mid-adolescence may protect against marked reductions in physical activity in late adolescence, social and organisational factors are also likely to be important. There is a need for innovative approaches to health promotion which will encourage adolescents to maintain higher levels of physical activity after they leave school.
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Moffitt, T.E., Brammer, G.L., Caspi, A., Fawcett, J.P., Raleigh, M., Yuwiler, A., Silva, P.A. | 1998
Whole blood serotonin relates to violence in an epidemiological study

Biological Psychiatry, 1998, 43(43), 446-457.
Our ref: RO311

Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Clinical and animal studies suggest that brain serotonergic systems may regulate aggressive behavior; however, the serotonin/violence hypothesis has not been assessed at the epidemiological level. For study of an epidemiological sample we examined blood serotonin, because certain physiological and behavioral findings suggested that it might serve as an analog marker for serotonergic function. METHODS: Whole blood serotonin was measured in a representative birth cohort of 781 21-year-old women (47%) and men (53%). Violence was measured using cumulative court conviction records and participants' self-reports. Potential intervening factors addressed were: gender, age, diurnal variation, diet, psychiatric medications, illicit drug history, season of phlebotomy, plasma tryptophan, platelet count, body mass, suicide attempts, psychiatric diagnoses, alcohol, tobacco, socioeconomic status, IQ, and overall criminal offending. RESULTS: Whole blood serotonin related to violence among men but not women. Violent men's mean blood serotonin level was 0.48 SD above the male population norm and 0.56 SD above the mean of nonviolent men. The finding was specific to violence, as opposed to general crime, and it was robust across two different methods of measuring violence. Together, the intervening variables accounted for 25% of the relation between blood serotonin and violence. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an index of serotonergic function is related to violence in the general population.
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Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A. | 1998
Annotation: Implications of violence between intimate partners for child psychologists and psychiatrists

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1998, 39(39), 137-144.
Our ref: RO310

Show abstract » Violence between adult intimate partners has increasingly attracted the concern of the general public (Hunt & Kitzinger, 1996), medical professionals (Skolnick, 1995), and mental health practitioners who treat adults (Danielson, Moffitt, Caspi & Silva, 1998). Yet, it may seem surprising to find an article about adult partner violence in a journal focused on children. We prepared this article because research suggests that adult partner violence has some important consequences for the health and well-being of children. We present four reasons why practitioners who treat children and adolescents should be knowledgeable about adult partner violence: (1) Partner violence is not confined to adults; it is a feature of adolescents' earliest intimate experiences. (2) The strongest developmental risk factor for adult partner violence is childhood conduct problems. (3) Young children are adversely affected by witnessing violence between the adults in their homes. (4) Adult partners who are violent toward each other are also at increased risk of abusing their children.
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Dickson, N., Paul, C., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1998
First sexual intercourse: age, coercion, and later regrets reported by a birth cohort

BMJ, 1998, 316(316), 29-33 .
Our ref: RO309

Show abstract » Objectives: To investigate how age at first sexual intercourse is related to the reported circumstances and to determine how these corresponded to views in early adulthood about its timing. Design: Cross sectional study within a birth cohort using a questionnaire presented by computer. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand in 1993-4. Subjects: 477 men and 458 women enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, comprising 92% of survivors of the cohort. Results: The median age at first intercourse was 17 years for men and 16 years for women. Only one man (0.2%) but 30 (7%) women reported being forced to have intercourse on the first occasion. For women, there were increasing rates of coercion with younger age at first intercourse. More men than women reported that they and their partner were equally willing , 77% (316/413) v 53% (222/419)). Mutual willingness of both partners was greater for those who reported that it was also the first time for their partner. Timing of first intercourse was considered about right by 49% (200/411) of men and 38% (148/388) of women. Many women, 54% (211/388), reported that they should have waited longer, and this rose to 70% (90/129) for women reporting intercourse before age 16. Conclusions: Most women regretted having sexual intercourse before age 16. First intercourse at younger ages is associated with risks that are shared unequally between men and women. This information is important to young people themselves. [Reprinted in Student BMJ 1998, 6; 25-29]
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Hankin, B.L., Abramson, L.Y., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Angell, K.E. | 1998
Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 128-140.
Our ref: RO308

Show abstract » The authors investigated the emergence of gender differences in clinical depression and the overall development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood among members of a complete birth cohort using a prospective longitudinal approach with structured diagnostic interviews administered 5 times over the course of 10 years. Small gender differences in depression (females greater than males) first began to emerge between the ages of 13 and 15. However, the greatest increase in this gender difference occurred between ages 15 and 18. Depression rates and accompanying gender differences for a university student subsample were no different than for a nonuniversity subsample. There was no gender difference for depression recurrence or for depression symptom severity. The peak increase in both overall rates of depression and new cases of depression occurred between the ages of 15 and 18. Results suggest that middle-to-late adolescence (ages 15-18) may be a critical time for studying vulnerability to depression because of the higher depression rates and the greater risk for depression onset and dramatic increase in gender differences in depression during this period.
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Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R. | 1997
Relevance in health research funding: reality or myth?

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1997, 110(110), 361-362.
Our ref: NZ73

Show abstract » This paper presents arguments and opinion as to how research funds should be allocated.
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Poulton, R., Brooke, M., Moffitt,T.E., Stanton,W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use and dependence among young New Zealanders

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1997, 110(110), 68-70.
Our ref: NZ71

Show abstract » Aims. To determine change in patterns of cannabis use in New Zealand in an unselected birth cohort and investigate the relationship between level of cannabis use, violent behaviour and employment history. Method. Prospective longitudinal design using members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at ages 15, 18 and 21 years. Results. Rates of cannabis use increased from 15% (n = 144) at age 15 years to more than half of the sample seen at age 21 years (n = 497; 52.4%). DSM-III-R defined cannabis dependence assessed at age 18 and 21 years increased from 6.6% (n = 61) to 9.6% (n = 91). Males were more likely to use and be dependent on cannabis than females. Early use substantially increased the risk for the development of cannabis dependence in young adulthood. Cross-sectional analysis at age 21 found levels of cannabis use and dependence to be higher among the unemployed and those with a history of violent behaviour. Conclusions. Prevalence rates of cannabis use in young New Zealanders were found to be higher than previously reported. A history of unemployment or of violent behaviour was associated with more frequent cannabis use at age 21. Males were more likely than females to use cannabis frequently and to meet DSM-III-R criteria for dependence at age 21. It is suggested that drug education campaigns should specifically target young males.
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Stowell, L.I., Fawcett, J.P., Brooke, M., Robinson, G.M., Stanton, W.R. | 1997
Comparison of two commercial test kits for quantification of serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin

Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1997, 32(32), 507-516.
Our ref: RO332

Show abstract » Serum levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) were measured in subjects of two independent studies using two different commercial kits. The kits measure CDT either as a percentage of total transferrin (AXIS %CDT(TM), AXIS Biochemicals AS, Norway), or as the absolute amount (CDTect(TM), Pharmacia, Sweden). In a population of males (mean age 41 years) consisting of alcoholics, heavy, moderate and non-drinkers, a strong correlation was found between AXIS %CDT and CDTect results (r = 0.92, n = 58, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity in detecting chronic alcoholic drinking of over 60 g/day were 78 and 94% for the AXIS assay, and 83 and 88% for the CDTect assay, respectively. In a population from a birth cohort study, consisting of 21-year-old males and females with less excessive alcohol consumption, the correlation between AXIS %CDT and CDTect CDT was weaker but still statistically significant (r = 0.46, n = 212, P < 0.001). In this population with specificities >83% in detecting alcohol consumption levels of greater than or equal to 6 drinks per week, the sensitivities were low with both CDT assays (<43% for greater than or equal to 6 drinks per week, and <44% for greater than or equal to 16 drinks per week). These results suggest that (a) both assays are equally effective in detecting chronic drinking over 60 g/day in older alcoholic males, and (b) both assays are similarly ineffective in detecting less excessive regular drinking in young males and females.
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Sears, M.R. | 1997
Epidemiology of childhood asthma

Lancet, 1997, 350(350), 1015-1020.
Our ref: RO329

Show abstract » Asthma is a growing medical concern at the end of the 20th century. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of risk factors for this disease has not reduced the prevalence of childhood asthma, which appears to be increasing. This review highlights recent studies of the epidemiology of childhood asthma, risk factors associated with the development and persistence of the illness, and strategies which may contribute to its control.
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Sears, M.R., Willan, A., Herbison, G.P., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Associations between atopy, hyperresponsiveness and persistence of childhood asthma. [Abstract]

European Respiratory Journal , 1997, 10(10), 162s.
Our ref: RO326

Show abstract » This abstract concluded that house dust mite and cat sensitivity, and early measures of airway responsiveness are predictive of persistence of asthma to age 21.
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Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Marshall, S.W., Langley, J.D. | 1997
Psychological and social predictors of motorcycle use by young adult males in New Zealand

Social Science and Medicine, 1997, 45(45), 1357-1376.
Our ref: RO307

Show abstract » This study focussed on psychological and social predictors of motorcycle use by young adult males. A number of predictors were identified.
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Caspi, A., Begg, D.J., Dickson, N., Harrington, H. L., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997, 73(73), 1052-1063.
Our ref: RO306

Show abstract » In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into distinct temperament groups. Results showed that a similar constellation of adolescent personality traits, with developmental origins in childhood, is linked to different health-risk behaviors at 21. Associations between the same personality traits and different health-risk behaviors were not an artifact of the same people engaging in different health-risk behaviors; rather, these associations implicated the same personality type in different but related behaviors. In planning campaigns, health professionals may need to design programs that appeal to the unique psychological makeup of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviors.
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Knight, R.G., Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Olaman, S. | 1997
Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a sample of women in middle life

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 373-380.
Our ref: RO305

Show abstract » The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was completed by 675 women taking part in a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues. The data were submitted to confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 7 and a 4-factor model was found to fit the data moderately well. A second-order depression factor was also identified. The results provide support for the construct validity of the total and subscale scores from this measure. The scale was found to have good reliability. Evidence was found that scores on the subscale measuring somatic features of depression may be inflated in women who have experienced a chronic health problem in the past 12 months.
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Sears, M.R., Lewis, S., Herbison, G.P., Robson, B., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D., Pearce, N., Crane, J., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Comparison of reported prevalences of recent asthma in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies

European Respiratory Journal, 1997, 10(10), 51-54.
Our ref: RO300

Show abstract » A potential source of bias in prevalence rates reported for symptoms and diagnoses of asthma in longitudinal studies could arise if repeated questioning of subjects or previous experience of lung function and airway responsiveness tests increased awareness of respiratory symptoms. We wished to determine the extent of any such bias by comparing reported prevalence rates from a longitudinal and cross-sectional study within similar populations. The prevalences of wheezing in the last year, waking with chest tightness, waking with shortness of breath, waking with coughing, having an attack of asthma in the last year, and current use of medications for asthma were determined using identical questions in two populations, Self-completed questionnaire responses of 946 subjects, 21 yrs of age, participating in the seventh respiratory assessment in the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Study were compared with responses provided by 991 subjects, aged 20-22 yrs, completing a postal questionnaire on one occasion only for the New Zealand section of the European Community Respiratory Health Study. The prevalence rates were not significantly different between the two populations, for all of the reported symptoms and for medication use, Differences in responses between genders were similar in each study, with all responses being more common in females. We conclude that repeated questioning regarding respiratory symptoms and repeated lung function and bronchial challenge testing in a asthma did not bias prevalence rates compared with those population of the same age studied on only one occasion.
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Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R., Kruger, E., Davies, S., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Changes in self-reported dental anxiety in New Zealand adolescents from age 15 to 18

Journal of Dental Research, 1997, 76(76), 1287-1291.
Our ref: RO299

Show abstract » Little is understood of the natural history of dental anxiety. The aim of this study was to examine three-year changes in self-reported dental anxiety among adolescent participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Dental anxiety was estimated at ages 15 and 18 by means of the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). A DAS score of 13+ defined high dental anxiety. Participants were assigned to one of four dental-anxiety study groups (Chronic, Incident, Remitted, or Never) on the basis of changes in reported level of anxiety from ages 15 to 18. Results are reported for the 691 participants who completed the DAS at both ages. The sample's overall dental anxiety score decreased significantly from age 15 (mean, 8.79) to 18 (8.52) (paired t test, t = 2.37; P < 0.05). The Chronic and Never groups had small negative DAS increments, the Incident group showed a substantial positive increment, and the Remitted group recorded an even larger negative increment. Multivariate analysis showed that the DAS score at age 15 was the sole predictor of the change in DAS score for the Chronic and Remitted groups, and was a co-predictor for the Incident and Never groups. An episodic dental visiting pattern was a strong predictor of a positive change in DAS score for the Incident group; and for the Never group, a higher DMFS score at age 15 predicted a positive change in DAS score at 18, but being female was predictive of a decrement. This study indicates lower stability of dental anxiety in late adolescence than has been reported from other age groups.
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Langley, J.D., Martin, J., Nada-Raja, S. | 1997
Physical assault among 21-year-olds by partners

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1997, 12(12), 675-684.
Our ref: RO296

Show abstract » Abstract: The authors sought to answer the following question: Are more women than men physically assaulted by a partner? Do a disproportionate number of physical assaults against women involve a partner?Are women subjected to more physical assaults from partners than are men? Are physical assaults on women by partners more severe in terms of physical harm than physical assaults on men by partners? Using a semistructured face-to-face interview, information on assault was obtained from Study members when they turned 21 years of age. Our results showed that more women than men reported being assaulted by a partner, assaults by men represented a greater percentage of womens assault experiences, the partner assault rate was higher for women, and the assaults against women tended to result in more serious injury.
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Jeglum Bartusch, D.R., Lynam, D.R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Is age important? Testing general versus developmental theories of antisocial behavior

Criminology, 1997, 35(35), 13-47.
Our ref: RO295

Show abstract » We tested competing hypotheses derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory and Moffitt's (1993a) developmental theory of antisocial behavior. The developmental theory argues that different factors give rise to antisocial behavior at different points in the life course. In contrast the general theory maintains that the factor underlying antisocial behavior (i.e., criminal propensity) is the same at all ages. To test these competing predictions, we used longitudinal data spanning from age 5 to age 18 for the male subjects in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Using reports from three sources (parents, teachers, and the boys themselves), we estimated second-order confirmatory factor models of antisocial behavior. These models provided consistent support for the developmental theory, showing that separate latent factors underlie childhood and adolescent antisocial behavior Moreover, we found that these childhood and adolescent factors related in ways predicted by Moffitt's developmental theory to four correlates of antisocial behavior: Childhood antisocial behavior was related more strongly than adolescent antisocial behavior to low verbal ability, hyperactivity, and negative/impulsive personality, whereas adolescent antisocial behavior was related more strongly than childhood antisocial behavior to peer delinquency. The two underlying latent factors also showed the predicted differential relations to later criminal convictions: Childhood antisocial behavior was significantly more strongly associated with convictions for violence, while adolescent antisocial behavior was significantly more strongly associated with convictions for nonviolent offenses.
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Newman, D.L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Antecedents of adult interpersonal functioning: Effects of individual differences in age-3 temperament

Developmental Psychology, 1997, 33(33), 206-217.
Our ref: RO294

Show abstract » We examined whether temperamental differences at age 3 are linked to interpersonal functioning in young adulthood. In a sample of over 900 children, we identified 5 distinct groups of children based on behavioral observations: Well-adjusted, undercontrolled, reserved, confident, and inhibited. At age 21, we assessed the children's interpersonal functioning in 4 social contexts: in the social network, at home, in romantic relationships, and at work. We found three patterns of relations: (a) Well-adjusted, reserved, and confident children defined a heterogeneous range of normative adult interpersonal behavior, (b) inhibited children had lower levels of social support but normative adjustment in romantic relationships and at work, and (c) undercontrolled children had lower levels of adjustment and greater interpersonal conflict across adult social contexts.
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Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, T.E., Marshall, S.W. | 1997
Sport and delinquency: an examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study

British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1997, 30(30), 335-341.
Our ref: RO292

Show abstract » Objective-To determine whether involvement in sporting activity in midadolescence would deter delinquent behaviour in late adolescence. Methods-Members of a longitudinal cohort study were interviewed at ages 15 and 18 years and, among other topics, were asked questions relating to involvement in physical activity and delinquent behaviour. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relation between sports involvement and delinquency at age 15 years and delinquency at age 18. Results-After controlling for delinquent behaviour and psychosocial factors at age 15, females with moderate or high levels of sporting activity, and males with high levels of sporting activity, were significantly more likely to be delinquent at age 18 years than those with low levels of sporting activity. No significant association was found between sporting activity and aggressive behaviour, team sport participation and delinquency, and team sport participation and aggressive behaviour. Conclusions-This study did not support the deterrence hypothesis and showed that high involvement in sporting activity, but not team sport, was associated with a subsequent increase in delinquent behaviour.
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Casswell, S., Zhang, J.F. | 1997
Access to alcohol from licensed premises during adolescence: a longitudinal study

Addiction, 1997, 92(92), 737-745.
Our ref: RO291

Show abstract » Abstract: Control of young people's access to alcohol via licensed premises has been shown to be an effective alcohol harm reduction strategy in the United States. In a longitudinal study of young New Zealanders their access to alcohol at the ages of 15 and 18 years was shown to be significantly predictive of the quantities of alcohol they consumed during a drinking occasion both then and in subsequent years. In turn the quantities of alcohol consumed were predictive of the respondents' experience of intoxication related adverse consequences. The impact of access via licensed premises on drinking and related problems was greater in this cohort of young people than the impact of peer or parental influences.
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Poulton, R., Thomson, W.M., Davies, S., Kruger, E., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Good teeth, bad teeth and fear of the dentist

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 327-334.
Our ref: RO290

Show abstract » Studies of dental fear and oral disease suggest that conditioning processes are important in the acquisition of dental fear. At this time, however, definitive conclusions are premature as all research on the etiology of dental fear has been retrospective in design, with most confined to analogue or clinic samples. This study redressed these limitations by prospectively investigating the relationship between oral health (i.e. caries experience) at age 5 and 15 yr and the report of dental fear at age 18 in a large, unselected birth cohort. Caries experience at age 5 was not related to the development of dental fear in late adolescence. In contrast, caries experience at age 15 was significantly, and specifically, related to the report of dental fear at age 18. A ratio of caries severity at age 15, indicating the extent of multisurface involvement, was inversely related to dental fear at age 18. This intriguing finding suggests that relatively brief dental treatment occasioned by low levels of dental disease may result in the incubation of dental fear in some individuals and that longer episodes of treatment may facilitate fear habituation. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Olaman, S., Knight, R.G. | 1997
Level of education, age of bearing children and mental health of women

Social Science and Medicine, 1997, 45(45), 827-836.
Our ref: RO289

Show abstract » The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between women's mental health and both their level of education and age at which they had their first child. The women were divided into four groups depending on whether or not they had further education after leaving school and whether or not they had a baby before the age of 21. Longitudinal data collected over a 19-year period from this group of women suggested that psychological morbidity was relatively stable across this time span. Women who left school without proceeding to further education and those who became mothers before the age of 21 had higher psychological symptom scores than the other groups throughout this period. These two factors were associated with poorer mental health in an additive fashion. The women were also more likely to have separated from the father of their child and continued to be economically disadvantaged into mid-life.
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Poulton, R., Trainor, P., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Davies, S., Silva, P.A. | 1997
The (in)stability of adolescent fears

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 159-163.
Our ref: RO285

Show abstract » This study examined change in different types of fear in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort from age 13-15 years. When viewed cross-sectionally there were few differences in the frequency and content of fears reported at these ages with the exception of an increase in social fears at age 15. When viewed longitudinally, however, few adolescents who reported fears at age 13 continued to report fears 2 years later. Implications for developmental theories of fear and phobia are discussed.
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Gortmaker, S., Kagan, J., Caspi, A., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: Results from Northern and Southern Hemispheres

Developmental Psychobiology, 1997, 31(31), 107-144.
Our ref: RO284

Show abstract » This study looked at daylength during pregnancy (measured by the month the children were born) and shyness in children. Data from the Dunedin Study and also a United States study indicated that maternal exposure to short daylength during pregnancy, especially at the midpoint of gestation, predicted an increased risk of subsequent shy behaviour in the children. Some possible factors influencing this observation were discussed.
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Nada-Raja, S., Langley, J.D., McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Begg, D.J., Reeder, A.I. | 1997
Inattentive and hyperactive behaviors and driving offences in adolescence

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1997, 36(36), 515-522.
Our ref: RO280

Show abstract » Objective: The associations between symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, anxiety, or depression and no disorder in relation to driving offenses were examined in 916 adolescents. Method: Self-report and parent report were used to assess a birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents' mental health status at age 15 years. Adolescents who scored 1.5 SD above the mean on the DSM-III total ADHD symptom scale were identified as reporting significant ADHD symptomatology. Self-report data and official traffic conviction records were used to identify adolescents who had committed driving offenses between ages 15 and 18 years. Results: ADHD symptomatology and conduct disorder were strongly associated with driving offenses. ADHD symptomatology in females was significantly associated with driving offenses and more traffic crashes compared with other disorder or no disorder. Conclusions: Adolescents with a history of ADHD and conduct problems are significantly more likely than their peers to commit traffic offenses. Research in ADHD and risky driving should include female adolescents, as those with attentional difficulties are at a high risk for being involved in traffic crashes than females who do not experience attentional difficulties.
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Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Krueger, R.F., Magdol, L., Margolin, G., Silva, P.A., Sydney, R. | 1997
Do partners agree about abuse in their relationship? A psychometric evaluation of interpartner agreement

Psychological Assessment, 1997, 9(9), 47-56.
Our ref: RO278

Show abstract » This study tested whether partners can be relied on to provide congruent reports about abuse in their relationship. The authors examined whether interpartner agreement (IA) varies as a function of whether the perpetrator is the man or the woman, and by whether the abusive behavior being reported is physical or psychological. Guided by psychometric test theory, the authors examined whether weak IA about specific behaviors can be improved by aggregating behavior items into scales and by controlling for random measurement error. A representative sample of 360 young couples was studied. IA did not vary with the perpetrator's gender or with the nature of the abusive behaviors, but victims (both men and women) reported somewhat more abuse than did their perpetrators. IA about specific abusive behaviors was only poor to fair,but it became very good when items were aggregated into scales and even better when measurement errors were removed from the reports. The findings suggest that reports of abuse can be aggregated to form internally consistent scales that show strong IA, thereby fulfilling criteria for reliability. Moreover under research conditions that guarantee confidentiality, either abuser reports or victim reports are suitable methods for use in research on partner abuse.
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Magdol, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Newman, D.L., Fagan, J., Silva, P.A. | 1997
Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21-year-olds: bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1997, 65(65), 68-78.
Our ref: RO277

Show abstract » This study describes partner violence in a representative sample of young adults. Physical violence perpetration was reported by 37.2% of women and 21.8% of man. Correlates of involvement in severe physical violence differed by gender. Severe physical violence was more strongly associated with unemployment, low educational attainment, few social support resources, polydrug use, antisocial personality disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and violence toward strangers for men than for women. Women who were victims of severe physical violence were more likely than men who were victims to experience symptoms of anxiety. The findings converge with community studies showing that more women than men are physically violent toward a partner and with clinical studies highlighting violence perpetrated against women by mm with deviant characteristics.
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Douglass, H.M., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1997
Sun behaviour and perceptions of risk for melanoma among 21-year-old New Zealanders

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1997, 21(21), 329-334.
Our ref: RO272

Show abstract » This study investigated perceived risk of previous melanoma, sunscreen use and frequency of sunburn in a large sample of young New Zealanders. A self-report questionnaire was administered to a sample of 909 21-year-olds to survey their perception of how sun behaviours affect their risk of getting previous melanoma, how often they get sunburn, how often they use sunscreen and what factors would get them to use sunscreen more often. Knowledge of previous melanoma was high, but myths concerning 'safe tanning' persisted. Many young adults believed that sunbathing regularly using a sunscreen and obtaining a good base tan from gradual sun exposure decreased their risk of getting previous melanoma. They were unsure about the use of artificial sun beds and if their use would increase or decrease their risk. Males and females differed significantly on many aspects of their sun behaviour. Most used sunscreen only 'sometimes' and its use was linked to knowledge of previous melanoma and perceptions of risk. The best way to modify the sun behaviour of young adults is to target both their knowledge of previous melanoma risk factors and their perceptions of risk.
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