The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 11 of 22.

Onset of and patterns of change in dental anxiety in adolescence and early adulthood: A birth cohort study | 2001
Locker, D., Thomson, W.M., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Community Dental Health, 2001, 18(18), 99-104.
Our ref: RO382
Show abstract » Objective: To assess the onset of and patterns of change in dental anxiety during adolescence and early adulthood. Design: A birth cohort study of 1,037 individuals born in Queen Mary Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. Data were collected from these individuals at birth, every two years between the ages of 3 and 15 and at 18, 21and 26 years. Study members Data on dental anxiety were obtained at the 15, 18 and 26-year assessments from 678 study members. Outcomes: Dental anxiety was assessed using the Dental Anxiety Scale. Study members with a score of 13 or over were classified as being dentally anxious. Results: The prevalence of dental anxiety increased from 10.6% at age 15 years to 13.3% at 18 years and 21.1% at 26 years. Of the 31.2% who were anxious at one or more data collection periods, approximately one third were anxious by the age of 15, one third became anxious between 16 and 18 years and one third between 18 and 16 years. High rates of remission were observed. Of 72 study members who were dentally anxious at 15 years, 22% were persistent cases, anxious at all three data collection points; 24% were recurrent cases, anxious at 26 but not anxious at 18 years: and 54% were remitted cases, no longer anxious at 26 years. There were no gender differences in the onset and course of dental anxiety over the developmental periods observed. Conclusions: The period of observation was one of instability with respect to anxiety about dental treatment. Early adulthood in particular appeared to be a life stage during which this population was vulnerable to the onset of dental anxiety. This may be related to dental disease and treatment factors, or changing psychological states during significant life transitions.
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The prevalence and correlates of psychological distress following physical and sexual assault in a young adult cohort | 2001
Feehan, M. , Nada-Raja, S. , Martin, ... Show all » J. , Langley, J. D. « Hide
Violence and Victims, 2001, 16(16), 49-63.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO381
Show abstract » Among a birth cohort of New Zealand's 21-year-olds, 41% experienced physical or sexual assault in the previous 12 months. The level of psychological distress experienced by the 374 victims was determined in interviews assessing for symptoms indicative of posttraumatic stress disorder and ratings of impairment in activities of daily living. Of the 141 women victims, 32.6% were identified as experiencing psychological distress as were 9.9% of the 233 men. For men, bivariate analyses showed psychological distress was significantly associated with factors indicative of increased assault severity, and for women an increased likelihood of distress was associated with the location of assault and the relationship to the assailant. Positive indicators of social support were not significantly associated with less adverse psychological outcomes. However, for both men and women, resisting the assailant was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychological distress. Multivariate analyses revealed that for both women and men, unemployment uniquely predicted variance in distress, over and above that accounted for by characteristics of the assault.
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Paths to panic disorder/agoraphobia: An exploratory analysis from age 3 to 21 in an unselected birth cohort | 2001
Craske, M.G., Poulton, R., Tsao, ... Show all » J.C.I., Plotkin, D. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2001, 40(40), 556-563.
download pdf Our ref: RO380
Show abstract » Objective: To evaluate childhood temperamental traits and early illness experiences in the etiology of adult panic disorder with agoraphobia. Method: Evaluated temperamental and illness experience factors, at ages 3 through 18, as predictors of panic and agoraphobia at ages 18 or 21 in an unselected sample (N = 992). Analyses were conducted with classification trees. Results: Experience with respiratory ill health predicted panic/agoraphobia relative to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls. Also, temperamental emotional reactivity at age 3 predicted panic/agoraphobia in males but did not predict other anxiety disorders, compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, temperament and ill health interacted with gender. Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of cognitive theories of fear of physical symptoms and biological models of respiratory disturbance for panic/agoraphobia.
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Why are children born to teen mothers at risk for adverse outcomes in young adulthood? Results from a 20-year longitudinal study | 2001
Jaffee, S.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Belsky, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 2001, 13(13), 377-397.
Our ref: RO379
Show abstract » This 20-year longitudinal study showed that the young adult offspring of teen mothers are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes including early school leaving, unemployment, early parenthood, and violent offending. We tested how much the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes could be accounted for by social selection (in which a womans characteristics that make her an inadequate parent also make her likely to bear children in her teens) versus social influence (in which the consequences of becoming a teen mother also bring harm to her children, apart from any characteristics of her own). The results provided support for both mechanisms. Across outcomes, maternal characteristics and family circumstances together accounted for approximately 39% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes. Consistent with a social-selection hypothesis, maternal characteristics accounted for approximately 18% of the effect of teen childbearing on offspring outcomes and consistent with a social-influence hypothesis, family circumstances accounted for 21% of the teen childbearing effect after controlling for maternal characteristics. These results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population, but at supporting individual at-risk mothers and their children.
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Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females | 2001
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A.
Development and Psychopathology, 2001, 13(13), 355-375.
download pdf Our ref: RO378
Show abstract » This article reports a comparison on childhood risk factors of males and females exhibiting childhood-onset and adolescent-onset antisocial behavior, using data from the Dunedin longitudinal study. Childhood-onset delinquents had childhoods of inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, and temperament and behavior problems, whereas adolescent-onset delinquents did not have these pathological backgrounds. Sex comparisons showed a male to female ratio of 10:1 for childhood-onset, but a sex ratio of only 1.5:1 for adolescence-onset delinquency. Showing the same pattern as males, childhood-onset females had high-risk backgrounds, but adolescent-onset females did not. These findings are consistent with core predictions from the taxonomic theory of life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior.
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Determinants of early- versus late-onset dental fear in a longitudinal epidemiological study | 2001
Poulton, R., Waldie, K.E., Thomson, ... Show all » W.M., Locker, D. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2001, 39(39), 777-785.
Our ref: RO377
Show abstract » A longitudinal investigation of risk factors for Early- and Late-onset dental fear was conducted. Early-onset dental fear was related to conditioning experiences (indexed via caries level and tooth loss), service use patterns, stress reactive personality and specific beliefs about health professionals. Late-onset dental fear was related to aversive conditioning experiences, irregular service use and an external locus of control. In contrast to recent findings for dental anxiety, personality factors were not strongly related to the onset of dental fear in young adulthood. The key role played by conditioning events in the development of both Early- and Late-onset dental fear was confirmed. Conditioning events appear to play a different role in the development of dental fear versus dental anxiety. This may reflect important, but largely ignored differences between these two closely related constructs. Interventions for Early-onset dental fear should aim to modify both the dental fear and the personality vulnerabilities that may contribute to the development of dental fear early in the life-course.
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The irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders in the community: Is there a link? | 2001
Talley, N. J., Howell, S., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2001, 96(96), 1072-1079.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO376
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric morbidity is high among patients who present to referral centers with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between psychiatric disturbance and IBS in community samples. We hypothesized that psychiatric disorders are linked to IBS in the general community, but this is influenced by the criteria used to establish a diagnosis of IBS. METHODS: The data were collected from a birth cohort born in Dunedin (New Zealand) between April 1972 and March 1973. This cohort consisted of 1037 members (52% male), who were assessed at ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 yr. GI symptoms were recorded at age 26 yr, using an abbreviated version of the Bowel Symptom Questionnaire; psychiatric history was obtained at ages 18 and 21 yr, using a modified version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. RESULTS: The prevalence of IBS was 12.7% according to the Manning criteria and 4.3% according to the Rome II criteria. The IBS was not significantly related to a diagnostic history for psychiatric illness overall. nor to a history of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and substance dependence. These results were independent of the IBS criteria used, there was no association between psychiatric history and IBS when IBS was defined according to the Manning criteria (p = 0.11 to 0.98) or the Rome criteria (p = 0.18 to 0.92): Rome and Manning criteria subjects did not significantly differ from each other in terms of psychiatric history (p = 0.16 to 0.89). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of young adults with IBS from New Zealand, IBS appears to not be related to psychiatric disorders.
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Boys with reading disabilities and/or ADHD: Distinctions in Early Childhood | 2001
Pisecco, S., Baker, D.B., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brooke, M. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2001, 34(34), 98-106.
Our ref: RO375
Show abstract » Examined distinctions in the early childhood characteristics of boys with reading disabilities and/or ADHD. A four group mixed design consisting of boys identified at age 11 with reading disabilities only (RD only; N=46), reading disabilities and ADHD (RD/ADHD; N=16), ADHD only (N=20), and a comparison group (N=281) was utilized. Differences on receptive and expressive language and temperament for ages 3 and 5, were investigated. Analyses indicated that the boys from the RD only group performed worse on measures of receptive and expressive language. The results also indicated that boys from the RD/ADHD groups consistently performed worse on measures of receptive language and exhibited more behaviors indicative of an under-controlled temperament. In summary we suggest that reading disabilities and ADHD represent moderately unique disorders, which frequently co-occur and are characterized by distinct developmental pathways.
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Smoking in adolescence as a predictor of early loss of periodontal attachment | 2001
Hashim, R., Thomson, W.M., Pack, ... Show all » A.R.C. « Hide
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2001, 29(29), 130-135.
Our ref: RO374
Show abstract » Objectives: On the basis of information from studies of older adults, smoking is considered to be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. Examining periodontal loss of attachment among younger adults means a lower contribution from cumulative exposure to other environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the role of chronic exposure to cigarette smoking as a risk factor for greater prevalence and extent of periodontal loss of attachment among 26-year-old participants in a longstanding prospective cohort study. Methods: Loss of attachment (LOA) was measured at three sites per tooth in two randomly selected contralateral quadrants (one upper, one lower). Cigarette smoking history was obtained at ages 15, 18, 21 and 26, and used to categorise participants as never-smokers, ever-smokers, long-term smokers or very long-term smokers. Results: Periodontal data were available for 914 Study members, among whom 33.6%, and, after controlling for sex, self-care and dental visiting, they were nearly three times as likely to have one or more sites with 4+mm LOA. Conclusions: Chronic exposure to smoking is a strong predictor of periodontal disease prevalence in young adults.
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Overweight at age 21: the association with body mass index in childhood and adolescence and parents' body mass index. A cohort study of New Zealanders born in 1972-73 | 2001
Williams, S.M.
International Journal of Obesity, 2001, 25(25), 158-163.
Our ref: RO373
Show abstract » Background: Obesity is an increasing problem so understanding the association between childhood and adolescent measures of body mass index (BMI) and being overweight at age 21 has implications for treatment or strategies to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To examine the association between measures of BMI in childhood and adolescence and parents' BMI and being overweight at age 21. Design: The study was based on a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-73. Results: BMI tracked from childhood to early adulthood. The point on the BMI distribution where the probability of being overweight at age 21 was 0.5 was close to the 75th centile for boys throughout childhood and adolescence. It was rather higher for girls in childhood but similar in adolescence. Boys with a BMI above the 75th centile at age 7 were more than 4.0 times more likely to be overweight at age 21 than those with a BMI below the median. The relative risk for girls was 3.2. By age 15 this increased to 9.8 for males and 6.8 for females. Having overweight parents, particularly a mother, increased the likelihood of being overweight. Only 40% of those who were overweight at age 21 could be identified by age 7 and 25% were not identified until they were at least 15. Conclusion: Although a high BMI in childhood predicts being overweight at age 21, many of those who were overweight at age 21 had a BMI below the 75th centile or even the median in childhood and early adolescence. Population strategies, complemented by an individual approach for those above the 75th centile, are needed to reduce the average BMI of the population.
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Childhood headache, stress in adolescence, and primary headache in young adulthood: A longitudinal cohort study | 2001
Waldie, K.E.
Headache, 2001, 41(41), 1-10.
Our ref: RO369
Show abstract » Objectives. To determine the association between childhood history of headache, adolescent stress, and headache syndromes (determined by International Headache Society criteria) in young adulthood. Background. The association between stress and tension-type headache has recently been challenged. Little is known about stress and other headache subtypes, particularly among young people from the general population. Design. Members of the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study participated in this study. Study members were asked about headache characteristics/symptoms at age 26 (96% of the living cohort) and historical records were examined to ascertain headache history (< 12 yrs) and the reporting of stressful life events at age 15. Results. Study members with childhood headache were significantly more likely to report adolescent stress than those without headache. High intensity stress during mid-adolescence increased the likelihood of migraine diagnosis. In the case of combined headache (individuals with migraine attacks as well as tension-type headache) this relation held only for those with a history of headache. Stress associated with bodily changes during mid-adolescence was the only significant predictor of tension-type headache. Conclusions. Childhood headaches are related to the appraisal of life events reported during mid-adolescence. Childhood headaches also appear to confer a specific risk for the development of combined headache. There was little evidence for a prospective relation between stress in mid-adolescence and tension-type headache in young adulthood, supporting claims that proximal (rather than distal) stress is associated with this disorder.
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Failure to overcome 'innate' fear: A developmental test of the non-associative model of fear acquisition | 2001
Poulton, R., Waldie, K.E., Menzies, ... Show all » R.G., Craske, M.G., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2001, 39(39), 29-43.
Our ref: RO359
Show abstract » The non-associative, Darwinian theory of fear acquisition proposes that some individuals fail to overcome biologically-relevant fears (e.g. height) because they (1) do not have sufficient safe exposure to the relevant stimuli early in life or (2) are poor habituators who have difficulty learning not to fear. These two hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Study 1 found evidence for reduced exposure to height stimuli in childhood for individuals with a fear of heights compared to study members without fear. Study 2 found evidence for higher levels of stress reactivity (a proxy for habituation) in childhood and adolescence among 18-year-old height phobics compared to study members with dental phobia and those with no fear. The results were discussed in relation to recent findings suggesting that some evolutionary-relevant fears may appear in the absence of traumatic learning experiences. The merits of adding a fourth, non-associative pathway to Rachman's [Rachman, S. (1977)] The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: a critical examination (Behavior Research and Therapy, 15, 375-387) three pathways model of fear acquisition were briefly considered.
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Users of unconventional practitioners: a profile of 26 year old New Zealanders | 2000
Milne, B.J., Waldie, K.E., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2000, 113(113), 396-399.
Our ref: NZ79
Show abstract » Aims: To profile 26 year old New Zealand unconventional practitioner users. Methods: 977 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study participating in the age-26 assessment (1998-1999) answered questions about 12-month health service use, education, income, recent medical history, current health status and avoidance of medical situations. Results: 10% had used an unconventional practitioner in the previous 12 months. The majority (88%) had also used a conventional practitioner. Those using both types of practitioner were heavy users of health services (12 visits/year). Compared to those who used conventional practitioners exclusively, they had significantly higher incomes and were more likely to report a serious injury, a current disability, a history of back problems, role limitations due to physical health problems, and more bodily pain (all p <0.01). Conclusions: 26 year old New Zealand users of unconventional practitioner have a similar profile to their counterparts in other developed countries. It appears that their health needs are not fully met by conventional services, emphasising the need for more research into the aetiology and treatment of ailments (eg, back pain) for which unconventional practitioners are commonly sought. The Medical Council of New Zealand guidelines on unconventional medicine are discussed in light of these findings.
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Body Mass Index growth curves for use in New Zealand | 2000
Williams, S.M.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2000, 113(113), 308-311.
Our ref: NZ78
Show abstract » Aim: To construct reference curves for body mass index (BMI) and estimate the prevalence of obesity or being overweight at ages 18 and 21 years. Methods: Smoothed BMI curves were derived from data from a birth cohort born in Dunedin in 1972-73, followed up at two yearly intervals from age three to 15 years, and then at ages 18, 21 and 26 years. Results: Nine curves 0.67 SD apart, corresponding to the 0.4, 2, 9, 25, 50, 75, 91, 98, 99.6 centiles are provided. The prevalence of obesity, a BMI of 30 kg/m or more, was 2.7% for men and 2.6% for women at age 18 years, and 5.8% for men and 5% for women at age 21 years. At age 18 years, 14.9% men and 16.8% of women were overweight, with a BMI between 25 kg/m and 30 kg/m. The prevalence increased to 24.7% for men and 24.2% for women at age 21 years. Conclusion: At age 18 years, the value of the 98th centile was close to WHO criteria defining obesity in adults. This suggests that it could be used to describe obese children and adolescents. The 75th centile could be used in a similar way to delineate those regarded as overweight.
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Nutritional supplement use among 26-year-olds | 2000
Allen, T, Thomson, W.M., Emmerton, ... Show all » L.M., Poulton, R. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2000, 113(113), 274-277.
Our ref: NZ77
Show abstract » Aims: To estimate the prevalance of use of nutritional supplements among young adults, to examine the source of those supplements and to investigate sex differences in usage. Methods: Participants in the age-26 years assessments of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were asked to bring containers for any medication (including supplements) taken in the previous two weeks. Medication data (including prescription source) were recorded and analysed for 978 of 980 Study members. Results: The prevalence of supplement use was 16.6%; 20.4% among females and 13.3% for males (p<0.01). Multivitamin preparations were the most widely consumed, followed by water-soluble vitamin supplements (such as folate and vitamin C). Folate use was higher among females and was taken by 35.7% of pregnant females. Most supplements were self-prescribed, although a doctor had prescribed over one-third of the mineral supplements. Most supplements had been taken for weeks or months, rather than years. Conclusions: Nutritional supplement usage among young adults is reasonably common, and involves a wide range of preparations. The extent of use among younger people suggests a need for regulation of their manufacture, sale and usage, and research to examine their efficacy.
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Seatbelt use and related behaviours among young adults | 2000
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D.
Journal of Safety Research, 2000, 31(31), 211-220.
Our ref: RO372
Show abstract » Seat belt use among young adults was examined to identify factors associated with non-use. This research was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study which is a study of the health, development and behaviour of a birth cohort of young New Zealanders (n=1037). At age 21 years, 948 (93%) members of this cohort were administered a face-to-face interview where they were asked about seat belt use (own and friends'), reasons for non-use, and also their involvement in risky driving practices, motor vehicle traffic crashes, and some thrill-seeking activities. Results showed relatively high front seat belt use (85-96%) but low rear use (29-47%). Some differences in use were a function of gender and seating location. Generally, users had higher academic qualifications and lower risky driving behaviour (males only), but did not differ significantly as far as crash experiences, and thrill-seeking activity was concerned. The main reasons for not using a seat belt were forgetfulness/laziness, a perceived low risk of injury, and discomfort. This study provided information about the background and behaviour of young adults who do not use seat belts, which could be helpful when designing strategies to promote seat belt use in this age group.
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Epidemiological personology: The unifying role of personality in population-based research on problem behaviors | 2000
Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality, 2000, 68(68), 967-998.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO371
Show abstract » Epidemiological personology refers to a paradigm in which a developmental perspective on individual differences is paired with a population-based sampling frame to yield insights about the role of personality in consequential social outcomes. We review our work in epidemiological personology, linking personality to diverse, problematic social outcomes: Mental disorders, health-risk behaviors, and violence. We conclude that broad-band personality measurement is both feasible and fruitful in large-scale research on problem behaviors, and we call for increased collaboration between personality psychologists and researchers in fields such as public health, epidemiology, and sociology.
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Incidence of dental anxiety in young adults in relation to dental treatment experience | 2000
Thomson, W.M., Locker, D., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2000, 28(28), 289-294.
Our ref: RO370
Show abstract » Objectives: To document the incidence of dental anxiety among individuals aged 18 years at baseline and 26 years at follow-up, and to determine if dental treatment experience continues to play a significant etiological role with respect to the onset of dental anxiety in young adults. Methods: Dental anxiety scale (DAS; Corah, 1969) scores at ages 15, 18 and 26 were obtained for Study members in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Dental examinations were conducted, and sociodemographic and dental service-use data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Using a case definition of a DAS score of 13 or more, age 18-26 incident cases were identified and their dental treatment experience and service-use characteristics compared with the remainder. Results: DAS scores at 18 and 26 were available for 792 (80.8%) of the 980 26-year- old Study members. An increase in dental anxiety prevalence was observed over the eight-year period, with an annualized incidence of 2.1%. Fewer incident cases had visited a dentist in the previous eight years, and there were no differences between incident cases and others in their eight-year DFS, FS or tooth-loss increments. A subgroup of recurrent cases was identified who were dentally anxious at 15 and 26 but not at 18, and their eight-year incidence of tooth loss due to caries was substantially higher than non-cases. Conclusions: Aversive conditioning experiences appear to be unrelated to the adult onset of dental anxiety, and it may be that particular temperamental or psychological traits are associated with the condition.
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The effects of pre- and post-natal sunlight exposure on human growth: evidence from the southern hemisphere | 2000
Waldie, K.E., Poulton, R., Kirk, ... Show all » I.J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Early Human Development, 2000, 60(60), 35-42.
Our ref: RO368
Show abstract » Several recent studies have reported a causal association between stature and month of birth. Perinatal exposure to sunlight has been suggested as the principal factor underlying this relationship, although the mechanisms involved remain a matter of debate. The longitudinal design of the present study allowed us to directly test the influence of perinatal sunlight exposure (and other meteorological and behavioural factors) on body size at birth and at regular intervals up to age 26. The findings confirmed that prenatal sunlight is one of the most significant determinants of height. However, the trimester of greatest influence differs depending on the age at which study members were measured.
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Does low self-esteem predict health compromising behaviours among adolescents | 2000
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Journal of Adolescence, 2000, 23(23), 569-582.
Our ref: RO367
Show abstract » It is often believed that low self-esteem is associated with such health-compromising behaviours in adolescence as substance use, early sexual activity, eating problems and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, there is little longitudinal research addressing this issue. This longitudinal study examines the predictive association between both global and academic self-esteem from ages 9 to 13 years, and a variety of health compromising behaviours at age 15, in a large sample of young New Zealanders. Levels of global self-esteem significantly predicted adolescent report of problem eating, suicidal ideation, and multiple health compromising behaviours. Earlier levels of self-esteem were unrelated to later substance use and early sexual activity. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for efforts to raise self-esteem among young people.
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The determinants of sexual intercourse before age 16 | 2000
Paul, C., Fitzjohn, J., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Dickson, N. « Hide
Journal of Adolescent Health, 2000, 27(27), 136-147.
Our ref: RO366
Show abstract » PURPOSE: To identify risk and protective factors for initiation of sexual intercourse before age 16 years at the level of the individual, family, and school. METHODS: A longitudinal study based on a cohort of 1020 people born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/73 and followed up to age 21 years. Demographic characteristics of the sample were similar to the New Zealand population of that age, except that a smaller proportion (3%) were Maori or Pacific Island Polynesian. Information on individual, family and school factors was collected by interview with parents at ages 3, 5, 7 and 9 years and then by postal questionnaire two-yearly up to 15 years. Subjects were assessed two-yearly from age 3 years and interviewed about their behaviours and ambitions at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Questions about age at first intercourse were asked by computer at age 21 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model associations with age of first intercourse less than 16 years. RESULTS: Data on age at first intercourse were available for 926/1020 (91%) of surviving members of the cohort assembled at age 3 years. Overall 27.5% of males and 31.7% of females reported sexual intercourse before age 16 years. In multivariate analyses the independent predictors for early sexual initiation for males were: not having outside home interests at age 13 years, no religious activity at age 11 years, not being attached to school at age 15 years, a low reading score, and a diagnosis of conduct disorder in early adolescence. For females, independent predictors were: socioeconomic status in the middle range, mother having her first child before age 20 years, IQ in the middle range, not being attached to school, being in trouble at school, planning to leave school early, cigarette smoking and higher self-esteem score. CONCLUSIONS: Individual and school factors appear to be more important than family composition or socioeconomic status in the decision to have sexual intercourse before age 16 years. The lowering of age at first intercourse may be partly a cohort effect related to high rates of teenage childbearing in the mothers' generation, and to changes in social acceptability of early sexual behaviour.
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Dental neglect and dental health among 26-year-olds in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary health and Development Study | 2000
Thomson, W.M., Locker, D.
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2000, 28(28), 414-418.
Our ref: RO365
Show abstract » Objectives: To test a modification of a previously-reported six-item dental neglect scale and examine its association with dental health and service-use among young adults. Methods: Of the 980 26-year-old participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, 973 completed the scale and 930 underwent dental examination. Sociodemographic and dental service-use data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Results: Factor analysis showed that five of the original six items loaded on the scale, and responses to those items were summed to give a dental neglect scale score for each participant. Scale scores were normally distributed (mean = 13.0; SD = 3.5; range 5 to 25), and a median split created higher and lower dental neglect groups. A higher proportion of the higher neglect group: (i) were male; (ii) rated their dental health and dental appearance as below average; (iii) brushed their teeth infrequently; (iv) had extensive plaque deposits; (v) used dental services only when they had a problem; (vi) had not recently seen a dentist; (vii) had lost at least one permanent tooth because of caries, and (viii) had a greater number of decayed tooth surfaces. Conclusions: Although further examination of its validity and reliability is indicated, the dental neglect scale appears to hold promise for use in dental health promotion, not only in highlighting population groups or individuals who would benefit from intensive health promotion efforts, but also in the evaluation of health promotion interventions.
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The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults | 2000
Taylor, D.R., Poulton, R., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Ramankutty, P., Sears, M.R. « Hide
Addiction, 2000, 95(95), 1669-1677.
download pdf Our ref: RO364
Show abstract » Aim. To evaluate the relationship between cannabis dependence and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults, while controlling for the effects of tobacco smoking. Setting and participants. Nine hundred and forty-three young adults from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 were studied at age 21. Measurements. Standardized respiratory symptom questionnaires were administered. Spirometry and methacholine challenge tests were undertaken. Cannabis dependence was determined using DSM-III-R criteria. Descriptive analyses and comparisons between cannabis-dependent, tobacco-smoking and non-smoking groups were undertaken. Adjusted odds ratios for respiratory symptoms, lung function and airway hyper-responsiveness (PC20) were measured. Findings. Ninety-one subjects (9.7%) were cannabis-dependent and 264 (28.1%) were current tobacco smokers. After controlling for tobacco use, respiratory symptoms associated with cannabis dependence included: wheezing apart from colds, exercise-induced shortness of breath, nocturnal wakening with chest tightness and early morning sputum production. These were increased by 61%, 65%, 72% (all p < 0.05) and 144% (p < 0.01) respectively, compared to non-tobacco smokers. The frequency of respiratory symptoms in cannabis-dependent subjects was similar to tobacco smokers of 1-10 cigarettes/day. The proportion of cannabis-dependent study members with an FEV1/FVC ratio of < 80% was 36% compared to 20% for non-smokers (p = 0.04). These outcomes occurred independently of co-existing bronchial asthma. Conclusion. Significant respiratory symptoms and changes in spirometry occur in cannabis-dependent individuals at age 21 years, even although the cannabis smoking history is of relatively short duration.
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Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: A 15-year longitudinal study | 2000
Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Cannon, M., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57(57), 1053-1058.
download pdf Our ref: RO363
Show abstract » Background: Childhood risk factors for the development of adult schizophrenia have proved to have only modest and non-specific effects, and most appear unrelated to the adult phenotype. This paper reports the first direct examination of the longitudinal relation between psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood. Methods: Prospective data from a birth cohort (n=761) in which children were asked about delusional beliefs and hallucinatory experiences at age 11, and then followed up to age 26, were analysed. Structured diagnostic interviews were employed at both ages and self-report of schizophreniform symptoms was augmented by other data sources at age 26. Results: Self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 predicted a very high risk of a schizophreniform diagnosis at age 26 (OR = 16.4, 95%CI: 3.9-67.8). In terms of attributable risk, 42% of the age-26 schizophreniform cases in the cohort had reported one or more psychotic symptoms at age 11. Age-11 psychotic symptoms did not predict mania or depression at age 26, suggesting specificity of prediction to schizophreniform disorder. The link between child and adult psychotic symptoms was not simply the result of general childhood psychopathology. Conclusions: These findings provide the first evidence for continuity of psychotic symptoms from childhood to adulthood.
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Occupational injury in a cohort of young New Zealand adults | 2000
Alsop, J., Gafford, J.E., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Begg, D.J., Firth, H. « Hide
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety, 2000, 16(16), 107-116.
Our ref: RO362
Show abstract » The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of occupational injury by industry and occupation, describe the nature and circumstances of serious occupational injury, and describe work-related safety practices in a cohort of young New Zealand adults. The participants of this study were members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Injury rates varied by gender, full/part-time work status, experience, occupation and industry. Approximately 30% of the young adults who stated that they needed protective equipment had none available to them. The results suggest that the performance of employers in the provision of a safe work environment for young employees needs to be reviewed.
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The prevalence and intra-oral distribution of periodontal loss of attachment in a birth cohort of 26-year-olds | 2000
Thomson, W.M., Hashim, R., Pack, ... Show all » A.R.C. « Hide
Journal of Periodontology, 2000, 71(71), 1840-1845.
Our ref: RO360
Show abstract » Background: Most research efforts in periodontal epidemiology have focused on middle-aged or older people, giving a picture of disease occurrence at a relatively late stage in the natural history of the condition. There is a paucity of comprehensive descriptive data from younger age groups. Understanding the epidemiology and clinical presentation of the condition earlier in the disease course may enable more appropriate interventions. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of gingival recession, probing depth, periodontal loss of attachment, and gingivitis among participants at age 26 in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Gingival recession and probing depth were measured at three sites per tooth in two randomly selected contralateral quadrants. Results: At age 26, 980 (96.2%) of the surviving cohort participated, and periodontal data were available for 914 individuals. Nearly three-quarters of the sample had one or more teeth with 1+mm of gingival recession, and it was observed at over one-fifth of midbuccal sites. Over 15 per cent had one or more sites with probing depths of 4+mm, and nearly one-fifth had one or more sites with 4+mm of LOA. The extent of gingival recession was greatest for midbuccal sites on mandibular premolars, followed by midbuccal sites on maxillary premolars and mandibular molars. In the mandible, more distolingual sites had probing depths of 4+mm, but a higher percentage of mesiobuccal sites was affected in the maxilla, and molars were the most affected, followed by premolars, incisors and canines. Bleeding after probing was more extensive in the mandible than in the maxilla. Conclusions: Periodontal disease appears to be well-established among a small proportion of young adults. The prevalence of gingival recession was higher than expected, with clear differences by site. Pocketing and LOA were more prevalent in mesiobuccal and distolingual sites than the buccal sites, with differences between the jaws.
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Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: Results from the Dunedin Study | 2000
Arseneault, L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Taylor, P.J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57(57), 979-986.
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Our ref: RO358
Show abstract » Background: We report on mental disorders and violence for a birth cohort of young adults, regardless of their contact with the health or justice systems. Methods: We studied 961 young adults who constituted 94% of a total-city birth cohort in New Zealand, April 1, 1972, through March 31, 1973. Past-year prevalence of mental disorders was measured using standardized DSM III R interviews. Past-year violence was measured using self-reports of criminal offending and a search of official conviction records. We also tested whether substance use before the violent offence, adolescent excessive perceptions of threat, and a juvenile history of conduct disorder accounted for the link between mental disorders and violence. Results: Individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, and schizophrenia spectrum disorder were 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.5), 3.8 (95% CI, 2.2-6.8), and 2.5 (95% CI, 1.1-5.7) times, respectively, more likely than control subjects to be violent. Persons with at least 1 of these 3 disorders constituted one fifth of the sample, but they accounted for half of the sample's violent crimes (10% of violence risk was uniquely attributable to schizophrenia-spectrum disorder). Among alcohol-dependent individuals, violence was best explained by substance use before the offence; among marijuana-dependent individuals, by a juvenile history of conduct disorder; and among individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, by excessive perceptions of threat and a history of conduct disorder. Conclusions: In the age group committing most violent incidents, individuals with mental disorders account for a considerable amount of violence in the community. Different mental disorders are linked to violence via different core explanations, suggesting multiple-targeted prevention strategies.
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Socio-economic and behavioural risk factors for tooth-loss from age 18 to 26 among participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study | 2000
Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R., Kruger, ... Show all » E., Boyd, D. « Hide
Caries Research, 2000, 34(34), 361-366.
Our ref: RO357
Show abstract » Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with tooth loss between the ages of 18 and 26. Methods: Dental examinations at ages 18 and 26 were conducted on Study members in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, and sociodemographic and dental service-use data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. At age 15, an estimate of socio-economic status (SES) for each Study member had been obtained by classifying the occupation of the male parent. A case of tooth loss was defined as an individual who had lost one or more teeth (excluding third molars) due to caries between ages 18 and 26. Logistic regression and Poisson analysis were used to model the occurrence of tooth loss. Results: Among the 821 Study members who were examined at both ages, one or more teeth were lost because of caries by 85 (10.3 per cent). After controlling for sex, SES and visiting pattern, baseline caries experience predicted subsequent tooth loss, with the odds increasing by 2.8 for every increase by 1 in the number of decayed surfaces present at age 18. Episodic dental visitors had 3.1 times the odds of their routine visiting counterparts of losing a tooth over the observation period. The number of teeth lost was, on average, 2.3 times higher among episodic dental visitors. Conclusions: Socio-economic inequalities in tooth loss appear to begin early in the life course, and are modified by individuals socio-economic status and dental visiting patterns.
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Adolescent influences not to smoke, and recall of anti-smoking campaigns | 2000
Healy, G.N., Stanton, W.R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2000, 10(10), 148-153.
Our ref: RO356
Show abstract » Few studies have looked at the impact of health promotion campaigns on adolescents or the extent to which adolescents promote anti-smoking messages or are subjected to them by others. Determination of the sources of influence, and the perceived extent of their influence on others, can assist in targeting primary influential groups. A study concerning recognition of anti-smoking campaigns and the attitudes and influences of 18-year-olds (n=937) towards non-smoking was conducted. The main sources of influence came from parents, partners, and self-experience, with general health messages being the major focus. Penetration (reach) of general anti-smoking messages among adolescents was relatively high, although no specific campaign was frequently cited. As anticipated, smokers' attitudes to current smoking issues differed from those of the remainder of the sample. These issues deserve attention in health promotion campaigns, and indicate that the whole social network should be targeted rather than the individual.
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Two personalities, one relationship: Both partners' personality traits shape the quality of a relationship | 2000
Robins, R.W., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 79(79), 251-259.
Our ref: RO355
Show abstract » This research examined how the stable personality traits that each partner brings to an intimate relationship shape the quality of their relationship. Both members of 360 couples (N = 720) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and were interviewed about their relationship. We tested six models of the independent and interactive effects of personality on each partners reports of relationship satisfaction and quality. Findings show that a womans relationship happiness is predicted by her partners low Negative Emotionality, high Positive Emotionality, and high Constraint, whereas a mans relationship happiness is predicted only by his partners low Negative Emotionality. Findings also show evidence of additive but not interactive effects: Each partners personality contributed independently to relationship outcomes but not in a synergistic way. We discuss these results in relation to models that seek to integrate research on individual differences in personality traits with research on interpersonal processes in intimate relationships.
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Psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviour in young adulthood: cross sectional study in birth cohort | 2000
Ramrakha, S., Caspi, A., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Moffitt, T. E, Paul, C. « Hide
BMJ, 2000, 321(321), 263-266.
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Our ref: RO354
Show abstract » Objective: To determine if risky sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual intercourse at an early age are associated with psychiatric disorder. Design: Cross sectional study of a birth cohort at age 21 years with assessments presented by computer (for sexual behaviour) and by trained interviewers (for psychiatric disorder). Setting: New Zealand in 1993-4. Participants: 992 study members (487 women) from the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Complete data were available on both measures for 930 study members. Main outcome measures: Psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorder, substance dependence, antisocial disorder, mania, schizophrenia spectrum) and measures of sexual behaviour. Results: Young people diagnosed with substance dependence, schizophrenia spectrum, and antisocial disorders were more likely to engage in risky sexual intercourse, contract sexually transmitted diseases, and have sexual intercourse at an early age (before 16 years). Unexpectedly, so were young people with depressive disorders. Young people with mania were more likely to report risky sexual intercourse and have sexually transmitted diseases. The likelihood of risky behaviour was increased by psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusions: There is a clear association between risky sexual behaviour and common psychiatric disorders. Although the temporal relation is uncertain, the results indicate the need to coordinate sexual medicine with mental health services in the treatment of young people.
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Partner abuse and general crime: How are they the same? How are they different? | 2000
Moffitt, T.E., Krueger, R.F., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Fagan, J. « Hide
Criminology, 2000, 38(38), 201-235.
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Our ref: RO353
Show abstract » Both partner abuse and general crime violate the rights and safety of victims. But are these phenomena the same or are they distinct, demanding their own research and intervention specialities? Are persons who abuse their partners the same people who commit other criminal behavior? Do partner abuse and general crime share the same correlates? We investigated these questions in a birth cohort of over 800 young adults, by testing whether a personality model known to predict general crime would also predict partner abuse. Personality data were gathered at age 18, and self-reported partner abuse and general criminal offending were measured at age 21. Results from modelling latent constructs showed that partner abuse and general crime represent different constructs that are moderately related; they are not merely two expressions of the same underlying antisocial propensity. Group comparisons showed many, but not all, partner abusers also engaged in violence against nonintimates. Personality analyses showed that partner abuse and general crime shared a strong propensity from a trait called Negative Emotionality. However, crime was related to weak Constraint (low self-control), but partner abuse was not. All findings applied to women as well as to men, suggesting that women's partner abuse may be motivated by the same intra-personal features that motivate men's abuse. The results are consistent with theoretical and applied arguments about the uniqueness of partner violence relative to other crime and violence.
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Dishabituation processes in height fear and dental fear: An indirect test of the non-associative model of fear acquisition | 2000
Poulton, R., Waldie, K.E., Craske, ... Show all » M.G., Menzies, R.G., McGee, R. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2000, 38(38), 909-919.
Our ref: RO352
Show abstract » The fear dishabituation hypothesis described in the non-associative model of fear acquisition was tested in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Results were consistent with height fear and phobia dishabituation. That is, 're-emergence' of a fear of heights occurred between age 11 and 18 years among individuals who reported higher levels of non-specific stress at age 15. Interestingly, there was no evidence for dental fear dishabituation - a finding consistent with the non-associative model of fear acquisition. Strengths and weaknesses of the study were considered and the results discussed in relation to laboratory-based findings on (dis)habituation.
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Sexual abstinence at age 21 in New Zealand: the importance of religion | 2000
Paul, C., Fitzjohn, J., Eberhart-Phillips, ... Show all » J., Herbison, G.P., Dickson, N. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 2000, 51(51), 41548.
Our ref: RO351
Show abstract » Most research on adolescent sexual behaviour has focused on early initiation and consequent risks. We have instead examined the circumstances of young people who have not had sexual intercourse before age 21, in order to throw light on the ways in which young people might resist societal pressures for early sexual intercourse. The sample was a cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/73, formed at age 3, and followed with regular assessments of personal, family and educational functioning to age 21. At age 18 and 21 information on sexual behaviour was collected, using a computer presented questionnaire. The response rate at age 21 was 935/1020 (91.7%) of the survivors of the original cohort. Overall 11.3% of the men and 8.1% of the women reported never having sexual intercourse. Sex with a man was reported by 20 men (4.5%), of whom only two reported having sex only with men. Being first born and being persistently involved in religious activities, measured at both 11 years and 21 years, were significant predictors of abstinence for both sexes. Examination of perceptions of an ideal lifestyle, sexual behaviour and religious involvement showed that religion was an important factor in decisions to delay sexual intercourse past age 20, especially for men. It would be helpful to examine further the features of moral decision making which are characteristic of religious experiences.
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Chlamydia pneumoniae serological status is not associated with asthma in children or young adults | 2000
Mills, G.D., Lindeman, J.A., Fawcett, ... Show all » J.P., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. « Hide
International Journal of Epidemiology, 2000, 29(29), 280-284.
Our ref: RO350
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: The factors that cause the allergic sensitization and inflammation in asthma still remain to be clarified. A role for Chlamydia pneumoniae has been suggested although serological studies have produced conflicting findings. This study aims to clarify the relationship between asthmatic variables and C. pneumoniae serological status. METHODS: A case-control study was undertaken on an asthma-enriched subset from a longitudinal birth cohort. In all, 198 subjects (96 with self-reported asthma) had C. pneumoniae serology (microimmunofluorescence [MIF] IgG, IgA) undertaken at age 11 and age 21 and assessment made in relation to a number of asthma variables. RESULTS: The only statistically significant finding was in subjects self-reporting asthma at age 21 who had evidence of lower IgG titres (P = 0.046), a finding in the opposite direction to that expected from the hypothesis. Subjects with high IgG titres (> or =128) were less likely to have reported ever having asthma; odds ratio (OR) = 0.29, (95% CI: 0.10-0.87). No association existed between symptoms suggestive of asthma in the previous 12 months and either IgG (P = 0.127) or IgA (P = 0.189) antibody titres at age 21. Likewise, no association was found between symptoms suggestive of asthma in the previous two years and C. pneumoniae IgG antibody titre (P = 0.81) at age 11. There was no evidence of an association with any of the other variables examined at either age 11 or age 21. These included use of inhaled steroids, serum IgE levels, airway responsiveness, skin test evidence of atopy, or smoking status. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that C. pneumoniae infection when diagnosed by MIF serology is not a major risk factor for the development of asthma in children and young adults. The study has not, however, addressed the role this organism may play in specific asthmatic subsets or asthma exacerbations.
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A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood | 2000
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Addiction, 2000, 95(95), 491-503.
download pdf Our ref: RO349
Show abstract » AIMS: To examine the longitudinal association between cannabis use and mental health. DESIGN: Information concerning cannabis use and mental health from 15 to 21 years was available for a large sample of individuals as part of a longitudinal study from childhood to adulthood. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a research programme on the health, development and behaviour of a large group of New Zealanders born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. MEASUREMENTS: Cannabis use and identification of mental disorder was based upon self- report as part of a general assessment of mental health using a standard diagnostic interview. Daily smoking and alcohol use at age 15 were assessed by self-report. Indices of family socio-economic status, family climate and parent-child interaction were formed using information gathered from parent report and behavioural observations over early childhood. Childhood behaviour problems were assessed by parent and teacher report. Attachment to parents was assessed in adolescence. FINDINGS: Cross-sectional associations between cannabis use and mental disorder were significant at all three ages. Both outcome variables shared similar pathways of low socio-economic status and history of behaviour problems in childhood, and low parental attachment in adolescence. Mental disorder at age 15 led to a small but significantly elevated risk of cannabis use at age 18; by contrast, cannabis use at age 18 elevated the risk of mental disorder at age 21. The latter association reflected the extent to which cannabis dependence and other externalizing disorders at age 21 were predicted by earlier level of involvement with cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the primary causal direction leads from mental disorder to cannabis use among adolescents and the reverse in early adulthood. Both alcohol use and cigarette smoking had independent associations with later mental health disorder.
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The child is the father of the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood | 2000
Caspi, A.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78(78), 158-172.
Our ref: RO348
Show abstract » This article presents findings about continuities in personality development that have been uncovered in the Dunedin Study. At age 3, children were classified into temperament groups on the basis of observations of their behaviour. In young adulthood, data were collected from Study members themselves, from people who knew them well, and from official records. Undercontrolled 3-year-olds grew up to be impulsive, unreliable and antisocial, and had more conflict with members of their social networks and in their work. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely to be unassertive and depressed and had few sources of social support. Early appearing temperamental differences have a pervasive influence on life-course development and offer clues about personality structure, interpersonal relations, psychopathology, and crime in adulthood.
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The inter-relationship of indices of body composition and zinc status in 11 year old New Zealand children | 2000
Gibson, R.S., Skeaff, M., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Biological Trace Element Research, 2000, 73(73), 65-77.
Our ref: RO338
Show abstract » Serum zinc and hair zinc concentrations of some New Zealand children aged 11 years, were examined in relation to selected anthropometric indices. Serum zinc concentrations (n=453) in boys and girls were similar, and unrelated to anthropometric indices and hair zinc concentrations. Mean hair zinc concentration (n=620) of the girls was higher than that for the boys (2.95 0.49 vs. 2.46 0.47 mmol/g; p<0.001). Correlation analysis demonstrated that, for the boys, all the studied anthropometric indices with the exception of height, were significantly related to hair zinc composition and that the confounding effects of mid-parent height and the timing of the adolescent growth spurt are small. Results for the girls were similar but less significant. Dichotomizing the hair zinc results divided both the boys and girls into two groups: those with hair zinc < 2.44 mmol/g were heavier (girls 39.0 v 35.2 kg, boys 36.6 v 34.7 kg) and fatter (mid-upper-arm fat area: girls 15.2 v 12.0 cm2, boys 11.1 v 9.5 cm2) compared to their counterparts with hair zinc >2.44mmol/g. The results demonstrate that in these healthy New Zealand children, those with lower hair zinc concentrations are fatter and heavier than their high hair zinc counterparts.
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Road traffic practices among a cohort of young adults in New Zealand | 1999
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1999, 112(112), 9-12.
Our ref: NZ76
Show abstract » Aim: To describe the road safety practices of young adults in New Zealand. Method: Face to face structured interviews, seeking information on a range of road safety practices, were conducted with 948 members of the DMHDS cohort when they were 21 years old. Results: In the 30 days before the interview, 49% of the males and 32% of the females reported driving within two hours of drinking alcohol; 19% males and 8% females reported driving after drinking too much to perhaps be able to drive safely; and 25% males and 9% females reported driving after using marijuana. Also, 25% males and 6% females reported that they often drove fast just for the thrill of it, and 38% males and 11% females reported often driving faster than 120 kph on the open road. Seatbelt use as a driver was reported as always or nearly always by 87% of the males and 95% of the females, but as a rear seat passenger it was 34% for males and 47% for females. Conclusions: Unsafe road traffic practices, especially among males, were unacceptably high. Continued efforts are required to find new ways of addressing these issues.
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Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: social causation, social selection, or both? | 1999
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 1999, 37(37), 479-514.
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Our ref: RO347
Show abstract » This article examines the social-selection and social-causation processes that generate criminal behavior. We describe these processes with three theoretical models: a social-causation model that links crime to contemporaneous social relationships; a social-selection model that links crime to personal characteristics formed in childhood; and a mixed selection-causation model that links crime to social relationships and childhood characteristics. We tested these models with a longitudinal study in Dunedin, New Zealand, of individuals followed from birth through age 21. We analyzed measures of childhood and adolescent low self-control as well as adolescent and adult social bonds and criminal behavior. In support of social selection, we found that low self-control in childhood predicted disrupted social bonds and criminal offending later in life. In support of social causation, we found that social bonds and adolescent delinquency predicted later adult crime and, further, that the effect of self-control on crime was largely mediated by social bonds. In support of both selection and causation, we found that the social-causation effects remained significant even when controlling for preexisting levels of self-control, but that their effects diminished. Taken together, these findings support theoretical models that incorporate social-selection and social-causation processes.
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