The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 10 of 23.

Relationship between abdominal pain subgroups in the community and psychiatric diagnosis and personality: a birth cohort study | 2003
Howell, S., Poulton, R., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Talley, N. J. « Hide
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2003, 55(55), 179-187.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO444
Show abstract » Introduction: It is unclear if there is a causal link between psychiatric disorders and unexplained chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology. The role of personality is also in dispute. We aimed to assess the association of these factors with functional GI symptoms in a birth cohort study. Methods: The Dunedin birth cohort is well characterised and has been followed-up prospectively to age 26 (n=980). Measured were upper and lower GI symptoms over the prior year at age 26 using a validated questionnaire, psychiatric diagnoses at ages 18 and 21 by standardised interview applying DSM-III-R criteria, and personality at age 18 using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Natural symptom groupings were identified using factor analysis and k-means clustering. The association of these clusters and psychiatric diagnoses or personality was assessed by logistic regression. Results: The k-means analysis produced a six-cluster solution, which was made up of a health group, and five disease clusters defined by higher than average scores on a single symptom. A diagnosis of depression at age 18 or 21 years was associated with increases in the odds of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.27'2.25) for all GI, of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.12'4.16) for dysmotility and of 2.07 (95% CI: 1.13'3.80) for constipation, but not with the other clusters. Similar results were observed with respect to anxiety disorders for the odds of GI overall (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.01'1.99) and constipation (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.17'3.79). The personality subscales were not strongly linked; membership of any diseased cluster was associated with a reduced odds of being in the fourth quartile for the well-being scale (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.46'0.88) but increased odds of being in the fourth quartile for the social potency scale (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.18'2.28). Conclusions: In a young adult community sample, unexplained GI symptoms appear to be linked to psychiatric disorders but personality differences were minimal.
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Occupational level of the father and alcohol consumption during adolescence: patterns and predictors | 2003
Droomers, M., Shrijvers, C.T.M., Casswell, ... Show all » S., Mackenback, J.P. « Hide
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2003, 57(57), 704-710.
Our ref: RO443
Show abstract » Study objective: This paper describes and attempts to explain the association between occupational level of the father and high alcohol consumption among a cohort of New Zealand adolescents from age 11 to 21. Design: Data were obtained from the longitudinal Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. At each measurement wave, those who then belonged to the quartile that reported the highest usual amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion were categorised as high alcohol consumers. Potential predictors of high alcohol consumption included environmental factors, individual factors, and educational achievement measured at age 9, 11, or 13. Longitudinal logistic GEE analyses described and explained the relation between father's occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants: About 1000 children were followed up from birth in 1972 until adulthood. Main results: A significant association between fathers' occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption emerged at age 15. Overall adolescents from the lowest occupational group had almost twice the odds of being a large consumer than the highest occupational group. The association between father's occupation and high alcohol consumption during adolescence was explained by the higher prevalence of familial alcohol problems and friends approving of alcohol consumption, lower intelligence scores, and lower parental attachment among adolescents from lower occupational groups. Conclusions: Socioeconomic background affects adolescent alcohol consumption substantially. This probably contributes to cumulation of disadvantage. Prevention programmes should focus on adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups and make healthier choices the easier choices by means of environmental change.
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Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene | 2003
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Taylor, A., Craig, I., Harrington, H. L., McClay, J., Mill, J.S, Martin, J. , Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R. « Hide
Science, 2003, 301(301), 386-389.
download pdf Our ref: RO440
Show abstract » In a prospective-longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort, we tested why stressful experiences lead to depression in some people but not in others. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene was found to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. Individuals with one or two copies of the short allele of the 5-HTT promoter potymorphism exhibited more depressive symptoms, diagnosable depression, and suicidality in relation to stressful life events than individuals homozygous for the long allele. This epidemiological study thus provides evidence of a gene-by-environment interaction, in which an individual's response to environmental insults is moderated by his or her genetic makeup.
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Children's behavioral styles at age 3 are linked to their adult personality traits at age 26 | 2003
Caspi, A., Harrington, H. L., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Amell, J.W., Theodore, R.F., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality , 2003, 71(71), 495-513.
download pdf Our ref: RO439
Show abstract » We observed 1,000 3-year-old children who exhibited five temperament types: Undercontrolled, Inhibited, Confident, Reserved, and Well-adjusted. Twenty-three years later, we reexamined 96% of the children as adults, using multiple methods of comprehensive personality assessment, including both self- and informant-reports. These longitudinal data provide the longest and strongest evidence to date that children's early-emerging behavioral styles can foretell their characteristic behaviors, thoughts, and feelings as adults, pointing to the foundations of the human personality in the early years of life.
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Socioeconomic status and drinking patterns in young adults | 2003
Casswell, S., Pledger, M., Hooper, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Addiction, 2003, 98(98), 601-610.
Our ref: RO438
Show abstract » Aims: To investigate the relationship between several indicators of socio-economic status and drinking patterns in young adulthood. Design: Data collected in a longitudinal study of young adults was analysed using repeated measures models to examine the relationship between income, occupational activity and educational achievement and patterns of drinking. Setting: These data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealanders. They were interviewed for the most part in a central location using face to face method and a computer assisted alcohol interview. Participants: The participants were members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study aged 18, 21 and 26. Nine hundred and sixty nine study members contributed to the analysis. Study members have been found to be broadly representative of the New Zealand population and cross national studies suggest findings are generalisable to other similar market economies. Measurements: Three indicators of socio-economic status were used; educational achievement, occupational activity and income. The educational achievement indicator at age 18 had three levels that ranged from no school qualifications to higher school qualifications. For age 21 two additional categories of tertiary educational achievement were included to make five categories and for age 26 higher tertiary degrees were included in the measure to make six categories. Five categories of occupational activity were used: unemployed; student; employed in higher status occupation; employed in lower status occupation; and homemakers/unpaid workers. Income data was also used. Two measures of alcohol consumption were used. These were the frequency of drinking and the typical quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion in the past year. Both of these measures were computed from a series of five location-specific questions. Findings: Frequency of drinking increased over these early adult years and the quantities consumed peaked at age 21 and decreased thereafter for both males and females. Frequency of drinking during these years was influenced by income with the higher income respondents drinking more often and this was persistent overtime. Quantity of drinking was most influenced by educational achievement. The less well educated young adult drank significantly more during a drinking occasion and at all ages (18, 21 and 26). There was also a relationship between educational achievement and frequency of drinking for males at age 18 and a relationship between womens occupational activity and the quantities they consumed. Conclusions: The quantities of alcohol consumed and the frequency of drinking had different relationships with measures of socio-economic status. Those with fewer educational qualifications had heavier drinking occasions. More frequent drinking was more common among those with higher income but income had no relationship with the quantities consumed. The finding that the dimensions of drinking operate differently explains the lack of consistency in previous research which has investigated socio-economic status and the volumes of alcohol consumed. The findings of higher quantities consumed among those of lower social status may explain some of the reduced life expectancy found among those with lower socio-economic status.
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Gender bias in IQ-discrepancy and post-discrepancy definitions of reading disability | 2003
Share, D.L., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2003, 36(36), 4-14.
Our ref: RO437
Show abstract » The present study investigated the hypothesis that the higher prevalence of reading disability (RD) often observed among boys is partly an artifact of gender bias in the prediction of reading from IQ. The relevant regression statistics derived from a sample of more than 900 children revealed a statistically significant intercept bias. Predicted reading scores for boys were systematically overestimated, thereby inflating IQ-reading discrepancies; the converse was found for girls. When defined separately for girls and boys, severe underachievement in reading was found to be equally prevalent in both genders and, furthermore, was associated with qualitatively and quantitatively similar patterns of deficits. Because the bias arose from general differences between boys and girls in reading score distributions (a lower mean and greater variance for boys) rather than from differences in IQ scores, gender bias poses a potential threat not only to traditional IQ-discrepancy definitions but also to post-discrepancy definitions that are based solely on reading score cutoffs.
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Identifying factors that predict persistent driving after drinking, unsafe driving after drinking, and driving after using cannabis among young adults | 2003
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Stephenson, ... Show all » S. « Hide
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2003, 35(35), 669-675.
download pdf Our ref: RO436
Show abstract » The main aim of this study was to identify adolescent/young adulthood factors that predicted persistent driving after drinking, persistent unsafe driving after drinking, and persistent cannabis use and driving among young adults. It was a longitudinal study of a birth cohort (n=933, 474 males and 459 females) and was based on data collected at ages 15, 18, 21 and 26 years. At each of these ages members of the cohort attended the research unit for a personal interview by a trained interviewer, using a standardised questionnaire. For this study, the data for the outcome measures (persistent driving after drinking, persistent unsafe driving after drinking, and persistent driving after using cannabis) were obtained at ages 21 and 26 years. The main explanatory measures were collected at ages 15, 18, 21 years and included demographic factors (academic qualifications, employment, parenting); personality measures; mental health measures (substance use, cannabis dependence, alcohol dependence, depression); anti-social behaviour (juvenile arrest, aggressive behaviour, court convictions); early driving behaviour and experiences (car and motorcycle licences, traffic crashes). The analyses were conducted by gender. The results showed that females who persisted in driving after drinking (13%, n=61) were more likely than the others to have a motorcycle licence at 18. The males who persisted in driving after drinking (28%, n=135) were more likely than the other males to have some school academic qualifications and to be employed at age 26. Compared to the other males, those who persisted in unsafe driving after drinking (4%, n=17) were more likely to be aggressive at 18 and alcohol dependent at 21. Only six (1%) females persisted in unsafe driving after drinking so regression analyses were not conducted for this group. For persistent driving after using cannabis, the univariate analyses showed that females who persisted with this behaviour tended to have high substance use at 18, cannabis dependence at 21, police contact as a juvenile, and to be a parent at 21. For this group, because of the small numbers (3%, n=13) multivariate analyses were not appropriate. For the males who persisted in driving after using cannabis (14%, n=68) a wide range of variables were significant at the univariate stage. The multivariate analysis showed that the most important factors were dependence on cannabis at 21, at least one traffic conviction before 21, a non traffic conviction before 18, and low constraint at 18. Conclusion: These results show different characteristics were associated with persistence in each of these outcome behaviours. This indicates that different approaches would be required if intervention programmes were to be developed to target these behaviours.
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Work experiences and personality development in young adulthood | 2003
Roberts, B.W., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, 84(84), 582-593.
download pdf Our ref: RO435
Show abstract » This longitudinal study provides an analysis of the relationship between personality traits and work experiences with a special focus on the relationship between changes in personality and work experiences in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses uncovered 3 findings. First, measures of personality taken at age 18 predicted both objective and subjective work experiences at age 26. Second, work experiences were related to changes in personality traits from age 18 to 26. Third, the predictive and change relations between personality traits and work experiences were corresponsive: Traits that selected people into specific work experiences were the same traits that changed in response to those same work experiences. The relevance of the findings to theories of personality development is discussed.
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Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood | 2003
Dickson, N., Paul, C., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 2003, 56(56), 1607-1615.
Our ref: RO434
Show abstract » There is a continuing debate about the importance of social versus biological factors in the expression of same-sex attraction. Investigation of prevalence, continuities, and changes over time among young adults growing up in a country with a relatively accepting climate to homosexuality is likely to illuminate this debate. Analyses were therefore undertaken of self-reported same-sex attraction at age 21 and 26, in a cohort of about 1000 people born in 1972/3 in one New Zealand city. Participants were also asked about same-sex behaviour and attitudes to same-sex relationships. By age 26, 10.7% of men and 24.5% of women reported being attracted to their own sex at some time. This dropped to 5.6% of men and 16.4% of women who reported some current same-sex attraction. Current attraction predominantly to their own sex or equally to both sexes (major attraction) was reported by 1.6% of men and 2.1% of women. Occasional same-sex attraction, but not major attraction, was more common among the most educated. Between age 21 and 26, slightly more men moved away from an exclusive heterosexual attraction (1.9% of all men) than moved towards it (1.0%), while for women, many more moved away (9.5%) than towards (1.3%) exclusive heterosexual attraction. These findings show that much same-sex attraction is not exclusive and is unstable in early adulthood, especially among women. The proportion of women reporting some same-sex attraction in New Zealand is high compared both to men, and to women in the UK and US. These observations, along with the variation with education, are consistent with a large role for the social environment in the acknowledgement of same-sex attraction. The smaller group with major same-sex attraction, which changed less over time, and did not differ by education, is consistent with a basic biological dimension to sexual attraction. Overall these findings argue against any single explanation for homosexual attraction.
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Sexual orientation and self-harm in men and women | 2003
Skegg, K.M., Nada-Raja, S., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Paul, C., Williams, S.M. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003, 160(160), 541-546.
Our ref: RO433
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Recent studies of homosexual people have found higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior than among heterosexuals. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-harm and sexual orientation for men and women separately, defining sexual orientation by sexual attraction rather than by behavior. METHOD: In a birth cohort of 1,019 New Zealand young adults eligible to be interviewed at age 26 years, 946 participated in assessments of both sexual attraction and self-harm. RESULTS: Both women and men who had experienced same-sex attraction had higher risks of self-harm. The odds ratios for suicidal ideation in the past year were 3.1 for men and 2.9 for women. Odds ratios for ever having deliberately self-harmed were 5.5 for men and 1.9 for women. Men with same-sex attraction were also significantly more likely to report having attempted suicide. In both sexes, a greater degree of same-sex attraction predicted increasing likelihood of self-harm, with over one-third of men and women with persistent major same-sex attraction reporting this. Men with even a minor degree of same-sex attraction had high rates of self-harm and resulting physical injury. One-quarter of deliberate self-harm among men and one-sixth among women was potentially attributable to same-sex attraction. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of a link between increasing degrees of same-sex attraction and self-harm in both men and women, with the possibility of some difference between the sexes that needs to be explored further.
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Fluctuating asymmetry and physical health among young adults | 2003
Milne, B.J., Belsky, J., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Thomson, W.M., Caspi, A., Kieser, J. « Hide
Evolution and Human Behavior, 2003, 24(24), 53-63.
Our ref: RO432
Show abstract » Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random deviations from perfect symmetry found in the bilateral structures of bilaterally symmetric organisms, has been inconsistently linked to health. In this study, the association between FA and an array of health measures was determined for a large (n=965) general population sample of 26-year-old men and women. FA was significantly associated with two health measures: body mass index (BMI), but only for females (more ASYMMETRIC=greater BMI), and number of medical conditions (asymmetric subjects were more likely to report they had two or more medical conditions). FA was not associated with waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure (BP), blood cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness, and periodontal disease. Two suggestions are offered for these results. The first is that, as a consequence of the association between developmental stability and low metabolism [Evol. Hum. Behav. 18 (1997) 15.], stable and unstable groups will differ on some health measures (e.g., BMI), but not those related to body maintenance (e.g., BP). The second is that because of the minimization of environmental stressors in Westernized societies, there is too much homogeneity in asymmetry among the population to detect differences within samples.
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Effectiveness of a community-based truancy intervention: a pilot study | 2002
Milne, B.J., Chalmers, S., Waldie, ... Show all » K.E., Darling, H., Poulton, R. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 2002, 37(37), 191-203.
Our ref: NZ86
Show abstract » This study assessed the effectiveness of a community-based intervention programme aimed at reintegrating youths back into school and improving problem behaviours and family functioning. Sixty-six youths (35 male, age range: 11 16 years) referred primarily for truancy, received an individualised intervention (lasting 6-13 months) which, for 31 youths, included mentoring. Pre- and post-intervention assessments included frequency of truancy, the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Family Environment Scales (FES) (n=59). Results indicated that (a) the proportion of youths truanting persistently decreased from 82% to 37%, (b) males (particularly non-persistent truants) showed improvement on the YSR delinquency subscale; females improved on YSR delinquency, depression and aggression subscales, and (c) youths FES conflict scores improved (particularly those who were assigned mentors). Drug use was related to improvements across all three domains, but in different ways (e.g., drug non-use was related to improvements in truancy while drug use was related to delinquency improvements). It is concluded that the intervention was partially successful. Its success may have been due to the multimodal and tailored nature of the program.
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Prevalence and correlates of irritable bowel symptoms in a New Zealand birth cohort | 2002
Barbezat, G.O., Poulton, R., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Howell, S., Fawcett, J.P., Talley, N. J. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2002, 115(115), U220.
http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/115-1164/220/
Our ref: NZ85
Show abstract » Aim: To determine the prevalence and correlates of bowel symptoms and the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in a birth cohort of young New Zealanders. Methods: Participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 26 completed a validated Bowel Disease Questionnaire expressing their experience of clearly defined symptoms over the previous 12 months. Results: 980 participants (499 male, 481 female, comprising 96% of the birth cohort) completed the questionnaire. Sixty four per cent had at least one of the measured symptoms; abdominal pain was reported in 46.5%, chronic constipation in 9.1%, and chronic diarrhoea in 17.1%. A diagnosis of IBS could be made by using two or more of Mannings diagnostic criteria in 18.8%, three or more criteria in 10.3%, and more than three in 3.3%. Symptoms were more than twice as frequent and severe in females than males. Conclusions: Bowel-related abdominal symptoms, including those required for a diagnosis of IBS are very common in 26-year-old New Zealanders; the prevalence of these symptoms is very similar to that recorded previously in Europe and the USA.
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Unwanted pregnancies involving young women and men in a New Zealand birth cohort | 2002
Dickson, N., Wilson, M., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Paul, C. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2002, 115(115), 155-158.
Our ref: NZ84
Show abstract » Aims. To examine the circumstances of wanted and unwanted pregnancies before age 25 years for both women and men, and compare the circumstances of the most undesired pregnancies with all others. Methods. Cross-sectional study within a birth cohort using a computer-presented questionnaire. Results. Of the 477 women, 173 (36%) had been pregnant before age 25 years, and experienced 289 pregnancies of which 173 (60%) were unwanted. Of the 489 men, 142 (29%) reported 225 pregnancies before age 25, of which 165 (73%) were unwanted. By age 25 about a quarter of the study members (27% of women and 24% of men), had been involved in at least one unwanted pregnancy. Wantedness increased with age and length of relationship with the other parent; both factors remained significant in multivariate analysis for men, but not age for women. For women unwanted pregnancies were more likely to be due to non-use of contraception than failure. For both women and men the commonest single reason for not using contraception was not thinking about it, followed by alcohol use. Conclusions. An environment has emerged for men and women in their twenties in New Zealand where most are sexually active but do not want a pregnancy to occur. To delay pregnancy for a prolonged period requires dedication and commitment to effective contraception. While more attention needs to be paid to promotion of effective use of contraception, more understanding is called for over the difficulties of avoiding pregnancy with long-term reversible contraception. A further approach to the problem of unwanted pregnancies which should be investigated is to encourage committed sexual relationships.
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It's not just who you're with, it's who you are: Personality and relationship experiences across multiple relationships | 2002
Robins, R.W., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality, 2002, 70(70), 925-964.
Our ref: RO442
Show abstract » The present study examined the influence of stable personality traits on romantic relationships using longitudinal data on a large, representative sample of young adults. Relationship experiences (quality, conflict, and abuse) showed relatively small meanlevel changes over time and significant levels of rankorder stability, even across different relationship partners. Antecedent personality traits (assessed at age 18) predicted relationship experiences at age 26 and change in relationship experiences from age 21 to 26. Conversely, relationship experiences also predicted change in personality. Importantly, these findings generally held across relationship partners, suggesting that some people tend to be generally happy (or unhappy) across relationships, and this is due, in part, to stable individual differences in personality. Discussion focuses on the broader implications of the findings, in particular the need for relationship researchers to consider the importance of personality for why relationships thrive or fail and the need for personality researchers to consider the impact of relationship experiences on intraindividual personality development.
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The targets of violence committed by young offenders with alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: findings from a birth cohort | 2002
Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Taylor, A. « Hide
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 2002, 12(12), 155-168.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO441
Show abstract » Background: Estimates of who is most at risk from violence by people with mental illness rest mainly on identified patient samples. This study, without such selection bias, examined the targets of violence committed by young adults with as-yet untreated alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, to determine the extent to which their victims were co-residents or non-household members. Methods: In a total birth cohort of 21-year-olds (n = 956), past-year prevalence of alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed using standardized DSM-III-R interviews. None of the people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder has been hospitalized in the past year. Past-year violence and victim targets were measured using self-reports. Results: Compared with controls, cohort members with substance dependence or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders had higher prevalence and frequency rates of assault against co-residents, against non-household members, and also robbery and gang fights. Out of 39, five individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder committed violent street crimes. Persons with substance dependence had similar proportions of violence against co-resident and non-household members, but persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders tended to victimize co-residents more than others. Conclusions: At the age when they are most likely to contribute to the community's violence burden, young untreated offenders with alcohol or marijuana dependence or with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders assault not only co-residents, but others as well, and commit violent street crimes. Families, schoolteachers and primary care physicians have an important potentially preventive role in early identification and treatment of the disorders.
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The long-term significance of teacher-rated hyperactivity and reading ability in childhood: findings from two longitudinal studies | 2002
McGee, R., Prior, M., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Smart, D., Sanson, A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2002, 43(43), 1004-1017.
Our ref: RO431
Show abstract » Background: The aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine behavioural and academic outcomes of children with hyperactivity, using data from two longitudinal studies; and second, to examine comparable psychosocial outcomes for children with early reading difficulties. Methods: Measures of teacher-rated persistent hyperactivity, and reading ability obtained during early primary school were available for children from the Australian Temperament Project and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Both samples were followed up to assess behavioural and academic outcomes during the adolescent and early adult years. Family background, antisocial behaviour and literacy were controlled in the first set of analyses to examine the influence of early hyperactivity. Results: There were strong linear relationships between early hyperactivity and later adverse outcomes. Adjustment for other childhood variables suggested that early hyperactivity was associated with continuing school difficulties, problems with attention and poor reading in adolescence. Early reading difficulties, after controlling for early hyperactivity, predicted continuing reading problems in high school and leaving school with no qualifications. Conclusions: The findings suggest that there are dual pathways from early inattentive behaviours to later inattention and reading problems, and from early reading difficulties to substantial impairments in later academic outcomes.
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Trajectories of drinking from 18 to 26: identification and prediction | 2002
Casswell, S., Pledger, M., Pratap, ... Show all » S. « Hide
Addiction, 2002, 97(97), 1427-1437.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410783
Our ref: RO430
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To identify developmental trajectories of drinking between the ages of 18 and 26 years and to identify variables, amenable to policy influence, which predict these trajectories. DESIGN: Longitudinal data were analysed using latent class mixture modelling. SETTING: Participants were interviewed in a central location. PARTICIPANTS: Provincial city birth cohort, cross-national studies suggest findings are generalizable to other similar market economies. MEASUREMENTS: The frequency of drinking over the past year and the typical quantity consumed per drinking occasion were computed from five location-specific questions. Measures used to predict membership of trajectory groups were ease of access to alcohol, drinking on licensed premises, response to alcohol advertising, educational achievement, parental consumption, age of onset of regular drinking and living arrangements. RESULTS: Three trajectories of quantities consumed showed reduced consumption after age 21 but one trajectory showed marked increases. Three trajectories of frequency of drinking increased or remained stable over time. Access to licensed premises at age 18 had the most significant impact on membership of the trajectory groups and educational achievement had a significant impact on membership of the heavier quantity trajectory groups. Parental alcohol consumption, access to alcohol at 15 years, liking for alcohol advertising, living arrangement and age of onset of regular drinking also influenced trajectory membership. CONCLUSIONS: Quantity and frequency of drinking in adolescence and early adulthood had different trajectories. Membership of heavier drinking groups was affected by environmental influences which are subject to policy change, particularly that of earlier access to licensed premises. In a small group high-quantity consumption did not decrease at age 26.
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How many children remain fracture-free during growth? A longitudinal study of children and adolescents participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study | 2002
Jones, I.E., Williams, S.M., Dow, ... Show all » N., Goulding, A. « Hide
Osteoporosis International, 2002, 13(13), 990-995.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12459942
Our ref: RO429
Show abstract » While much is known regarding the incidence and pattern of fractures during growth, information is sparse as to how many children fracture repeatedly and how many remain fracture-free during growth. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort, whose members were questioned regularly throughout growth (at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 18 years) concerning injuries including fractures, has provided a unique opportunity to answer these questions. Life-table analysis showed that approximately half the children remained fracture- free throughout growth [girls 60.1%, (95% CI 54.7-65.0) and boys 49.3% (95% CI 44.0-54.4)]. Data on fracture history, for participants seen at every phase, was available for 601 members through to the age of 18 years (61.1% of the cohort seen at age 5 years). Two hundred and ninety- one of these 601 participants reported 498 fractures, with 172 sustaining a single fracture, and 119 more than one fracture (15.8% girls and 23.4% boys). The most common site of fracture was the wrist/forearm (24.1% of all fractures). We conclude that although bone fractures are a common adverse event in childhood, half of all children remain fracture-free throughout growth.
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Association between children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study | 2002
Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Thomson, W.M., Taylor, A., Sears, M.R., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Lancet, 2002, 360(360), 1640-1645.
download pdf Our ref: RO428
Show abstract » Background: Research into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health risk factors and outcomes in adult life. Methods: We studied an unselected cohort of 1000 children (born in New Zealand during 1972-73) who had been assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. At age 26 years, we assessed these individuals for health outcomes including body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, dental caries, plaque scores, gingival bleeding, periodontal disease, major depression, and tobacco and alcohol dependence, and tested for associations between these variables and childhood and adult socioeconomic status. Findings: Compared with those from high socioeconomic status backgrounds, children who grew up in low socioeconomic status families had poorer cardiovascular health. Significant differences were also found on all dental health measures, with a threefold increase in adult periodontal disease (31.1% vs 11.9%) and caries level (32.2% vs 9.9%) in low versus high childhood socioeconomic status groups. Substance abuse resulting in clinical dependence was related in a similar way to childhood socioeconomic status (eg, 21.5% vs 12.1% for adult alcohol dependence). The longitudinal associations could not be attributed to life-course continuity of low socioeconomic status, and upward mobility did not mitigate or reverse the adverse effects of low childhood socioeconomic status on adult health. Interpretation: Protecting children against the effects of socioeconomic adversity could reduce the burden of disease experienced by adults. These findings provide strong impetus for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to direct energy and resources towards childhood as a way of improving population health.
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Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study | 2002
Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Murray, R. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
BMJ, 2002, 325(325), 1212-1213.
download pdf Our ref: RO427
Show abstract » The strongest evidence that cannabis use may be a risk factor for later psychosis comes from a Swedish cohort study which found that heavy cannabis use at age 18 increased the risk of later schizophrenia sixfold. This study could not establish whether adolescent cannabis use was a consequence of pre-existing psychotic symptoms rather than a cause. We present the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms antedating cannabis use.
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Orthodontic treatment outcomes in the long term: findings from a longitudinal study of New Zealanders | 2002
Thomson, W.M.
Angle Orthodontist, 2002, 72(72), 449-455.
Our ref: RO426
Show abstract » The aim of this study was to use a health services research (HSR) approach to examine the longer-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. Participants in a longstanding population-based New Zealand cohort study (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) were allocated to one of four malocclusion severity categories on the basis of orthodontic data collected at age 12. The outcome of that care by age 26 was evaluated using the key indicators of equity (was it fair?); efficacy (did it work?); effectiveness (did it work in the longer term?); and safety (was it associated with a greater subsequent experience of caries, periodontal disease, or tooth loss?). Data were available for 452 Study members, of whom 56.2% were in the minor/none category, 29.0% were in the definite category, 10.2% were in the severe category, and 4.6% were in the handicapping treatment-need category. No clear differences in treatment uptake by socioeconomic status were apparent, and the proportion treated increased across the malocclusion severity categories, as did the proportion that showed an improvement following treatment. By age 26 a difference between those who had and those who had not been treated was evident, with the percentage of those rating their dental appearance as above average increasing with increasing severity of the age-12 orthodontic treatment need. This was also true for the percentage that considered their orthodontic treatment to have been successful. There were no significant differences in caries experience, periodontal disease occurrence, or tooth loss between those who had and had not been treated by age 26. This study has found the equity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orthodontic treatment in the Dunedin cohort to be acceptable.
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Partial- or full-mouth approaches to assessing the prevalence of and risk factors for periodontal disease in young adults | 2002
Thomson, W.M., Williams, S.M.
Journal of Periodontology, 2002, 73(73), 1010-1014.
Our ref: RO425
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: While partial-mouth recording is often used in epidemiological studies of periodontal disease because of the efficiencies afforded in data collection, there has been no investigation of the extent to which information is lost in studies of young adults using the combined attachment loss (CAL) approach. METHODS: A random sample of 25- and 26-year-olds was periodontally examined at 3 sites per tooth in all 4 quadrants. The analysis obtained full-mouth prevalence estimates for gingival recession (GR), probing depth (PD), and CAL. The half-mouth analyses took 3 forms: 1) estimates from each of the left and right sides were obtained and compared; 2) estimates were obtained separately and compared for quadrants 1 and 3 (upper right and lower left), and quadrants 2 and 4 (upper left and lower right); and 3) estimates were obtained from a diagonal half-mouth count, whereby quadrants 1 and 3 were analyzed for study participants whose identification number was odd, and quadrants 2 and 4 were analyzed for the remainder. The utility of the half-mouth and full- mouth approaches in analytical epidemiology was examined by estimating the strength of the association between periodontitis prevalence and smoking, male gender, and episodic use of dental care. RESULTS: Of the 169 participants examined, 100 (59.2%) were female, 54 (32.0%) were smokers, and 78 (46.2%) were episodic dental visitors. The difference in prevalence estimates obtained from the different methods was considerably greater for GR than for PD and CAL. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of 1 or more teeth with > or = mm of CAL among smokers was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 5.3) using the full data set and 2.4 (95% CI 0.9, 6.1) using the diagonal half-mouth approach. Similarly close odds ratios were observed for males and, to a lesser extent, for episodic dental visitors. CONCLUSIONS: Wherever possible, full-mouth data should be collected for descriptive epidemiological studies of periodontal disease, but where resource and time constraints mean that half-mouth examinations must be used, analytical studies of periodontitis should not be unduly affected by the loss of information. However, where the primary focus of the latter is upon gingival recession, the full-mouth design should be used in order to capture all relevant information, and attention should be directed to making economies in other areas of the data collection process.
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Outcome in adulthood of asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness in childhood: a longitudinal population study | 2002
Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Cowan, J.O., Greene, J.M., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. « Hide
Pediatric Pulmonology, 2002, 34(34), 164-171.
Our ref: RO424
Show abstract » The clinical outcome of asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) first detected in childhood is sparsely reported, with conflicting results. We used a birth cohort of 1,037 children followed to age 26 years to assess the clinical outcome of asymptomatic AHR to methacholine first documented in study members at age 9 years.Of 547 study members who denied wheezing symptoms ever at age 9 years, 41 (7.5%) showed AHR. Forty showed methacholine responsiveness, with a provocation concentration of methacholine that elicted a 20% drop in forced expired volume in 1 sec (PC(20))
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Risk factors for hospital admission for asthma from childhood to young adulthood: a longitudinal population study | 2002
Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Cowan, J.O., Greene, J.M., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. « Hide
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2002, 110(110), 220-227.
Our ref: RO423
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Predictors of hospital admissions for asthma in children and young adults in a general population are not well defined, because most studies have used selected subpopulations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine risk factors for single and multiple hospital admissions for asthma. METHODS: The members of a population-based, unselected birth cohort of 1037 New Zealanders answered questionnaires and underwent lung function, airway responsiveness, and allergy testing on 7 occasions to the age of 26 years. RESULTS: Among the 766 study members (74% of the cohort) who reported wheezing symptoms ever by the age of 26 years, 136 hospitalizations were reported by 62 individuals (8.3% of those at risk, 6.2% of the total cohort). Only 55 of these 136 admissions involved children less than 9 years of age; admissions continued to occur between the ages of 9 and 18 years (40 admissions) and at >18 years (41 admissions). Those admitted were predominantly male, had earlier ages of onset of symptoms, were more atopic, and had more airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine than those not admitted. Frequent symptoms and low lung function were evident among the 45 study members with single admissions and even more evident among the 17 study members with multiple (2-10) admissions. CONCLUSIONS: A surprisingly large fraction of this unselected population experienced hospitalization for asthma during the 26-year follow-up, many being admitted in later childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Clinical characteristics and markers of severity, including frequent respiratory symptoms, airway hyperresponsiveness, atopy, and low lung function, identify those at high risk for hospitalization for asthma, particularly with respect to multiple admissions.
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The burden of illness associated with headache disorders among young adults in a representative cohort study | 2002
Waldie, K.E., Poulton, R.
Headache, 2002, 42(42), 612-619.
Our ref: RO422
Show abstract » This study investigated the functional impairment (work and social functioning and general health status) associated with migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) among young adult members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Using criteria based on the International Headache Society classificatory system, the 1-year prevalence for migraine headache was 7.4%, TTH was 11.1%, and combined headache (coexisting migraine and TTH) was 4.3%. All comparisons were against a health control group (headache free) and a diagnostic control group (individuals without headache currently using medication for asthma). Although those suffering from migraine and combined headache had the most severe impairment in work- and social-related activities, those with TTH reported significantly poorer social and mental health functioning and poorer emotional and physical functioning while performing everyday roles than did headache-free controls. Study members with combined headache had the poorest self-reported health, with significantly lower ratings on physical, vitality, and mental health measures than asthmatics currently using medication. The pervasive impairment reported across multiple life domains among young headache sufferers illustrates the significant burden of illness associated with headache disorders.
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Migraine and cognitive function: a life-course study | 2002
Waldie, K.E., Hausmann, M., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Poulton, R. « Hide
Neurology, 2002, 59(59), 904-908.
Our ref: RO421
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between migraine and cognitive ability among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHODS: Headache status was determined at age 26 (migraine, tension- type headache [TTH], headache-free control subjects) according to International Headache Society criteria, and data relating to cognitive and academic performance from ages 3 to 26 years were analyzed. RESULTS: Study members diagnosed with migraine were subtly but significantly impaired, compared with those with TTH and headache-free control subjects, on tests of verbal ability (especially language reception) from ages 3 to 13, independent of headache history. Performance on other tasks, including reading, arithmetic, motor, and spatial ability, was normal. The association between migraine and verbal functioning also appeared to impact on later academic success. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the poorer verbal performance was unlikely to have resulted from cumulative attacks and may be due to developmental factors beginning in utero.
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Long-term relation between breast-feeding and development of atopy and asthma in children and young adults: a longitudinal study | 2002
Sears, M.R., Greene, J.M., Willan, ... Show all » A., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, E.M., Cowan, J.O., Herbison, G.P., Poulton, R. « Hide
Lancet, 2002, 360(360), 901-07.
download pdf Our ref: RO420
Show abstract » Background: Breastfeeding is widely advocated to reduce risk of atopy and asthma, but the evidence for such an effect is conflicting. We aimed to assess long-term outcomes of asthma and atopy related to breastfeeding in a New Zealand birth cohort. Methods: Our cohort consisted of 1037 of 1139 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April, 1972, and March, 1973, and residing in Otago province at age 3 years. Children were assessed every 2-5 years from ages 9 to 26 years with respiratory questionnaires, pulmonary function, bronchial challenge, and allergy skin tests. History of breastfeeding had been independently recorded in early childhood. Findings: 504 (49%) of 1037 eligible children were breastfed (4 weeks or longer) and 533 (51%) were not. More children who were breastfed were atopic at all ages from 13 to 21 years to cats (p=0'0001), house dust mites (p=0'0010), and grass pollen (p<0'0001) than those who were not. More children who were breastfed reported current asthma at each assessment between age 9 (p=0'0008) and 26 years (p=0'0008) than those who were not. Breastfeeding effects were not affected by parental history of hayfever or asthma. Multifactor analysis controlling for socioeconomic status, parental smoking, birth order, and use of sheepskin bedding in infancy, showed odds ratios of 1'94 (95% CI 1'42-2'65, p<0'0001) for any allergen positive at age 13 years, 2'40 (1'36-4'26, p=0'0003) for current asthma at 9 years, and 1'83 (1'35-2'47, p<0'0001) for current asthma at 9-26 years by repeated-measures analysis. Interpretation: Breastfeeding does not protect children against atopy and asthma and may even increase the risk.
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Low fear in childhood is associated with sporting prowess in adolescence and young adulthood | 2002
Poulton, R., Milne, B.J.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(40), 1191-1197.
Our ref: RO419
Show abstract » This study sought to establish if low levels of childhood fear were associated with high level sports performance in adolescence and young adulthood. Parent and teacher reports of fearfulness at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 and self-reports of sporting achievements at age 26 were obtained for members of the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Findings indicated a dose-response relation between levels of childhood fear and later sports achievement such that low levels of fear were associated with the greatest likelihood of playing representative sport. Low levels of fear early in life may be associated with elite sports performance in adulthood.
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Relationship of serum ferritin with cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in young men and women | 2002
Williams, M.J.A., Poulton, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Atherosclerosis, 2002, 165(165), 179-184.
Our ref: RO418
Show abstract » Elevated ferritin levels have been reported as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in Finnish and Italian studies. Studies in other populations have found no association between ferritin and cardiovascular disease raising the possibility of confounding with other cardiovascular risk factors. We determined ferritin levels, metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in 815 men and women aged 26 years. In women serum ferritin correlated with CRP, waist measurement, body mass index (BMI), and triglycerides. In multiple regression analysis CRP alone was independently associated with serum ferritin. Serum ferritin in men correlated with waist measurement, BMI, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. After adjustment for the other variables, waist measurement was the only independent predictor of ferritin. Ferritin levels in young men and women are associated with obesity and serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol in men and inflammation in women. Confounding may contribute to reports of associations between ferritin and cardiovascular disease.
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Personal and situational influences on drink-driving and sober-driving among a cohort of young adults | 2002
Morrison, L., Begg, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Injury Prevention, 2002, 8(8), 111-115.
Our ref: RO417
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: To compare personal and situational influences on incidents involving drink driving with those involving sober driving. METHODS: Information on a range of road safety practices was sought in face to face interviews conducted with 969 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort at age 26 years. A total of 750 study members reported an incident that involved the opportunity to consume alcohol and also travel by motor vehicle. Of these, 87 were classified as drink drive incidents and 663 as sober drive incidents. RESULTS: Study members who were male, of lower socioeconomic status, had no school qualifications, or were dependent on alcohol or marijuana at age 21 were significantly more likely to report a drink drive incident at age 26. Compared with the sober drive incidents, the drink drive incidents were more commonly associated with driving alone, drinking at bars, and no advanced planning. For drink drive incidents the amount of alcohol consumed was influenced by the conviviality of the occasion, whereas for sober drive incidents it was the need to drive. One quarter of those reporting drink drive incidents stated they had used marijuana and/or LSD at the event at which they drank. CONCLUSIONS: Drink drive and sober drive incidents differed, particularly with regard to decisions made before the event. Prevention efforts could usefully be targeted toward these decisions.
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A longitudinal study of the effects of tobacco and cannabis exposure on lung function in young adults | 2002
Taylor, D.R., Fergusson, D.M., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Horwood, L.J., Moffitt, T.E., Sears, M.R., Poulton, R. « Hide
Addiction, 2002, 97(97), 1055-1061.
download pdf Our ref: RO416
Show abstract » Aim: To assess the possible effects of tobacco and cannabis smoking on lung function in young adults between the ages of 18 and 26. Setting and participants: A group of over 900 young adults derived from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/73 were studied at age 18, 21 and 26 years. Measurements: Cannabis and tobacco smoking were documented at each age using a standardized interview. Lung function, as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second/vital capacity (FEV1/VC) ratio, was obtained by simple spirometry. A fixed effects regression model was used to analyse the data to take account of confounding factors. Findings When the sample was stratified for cumulative use, there was evidence of a linear relationship between cannabis use and FEV1/VC (P<0.05). In the absence of adjusting for other variables, increasing cannabis use over time was associated with a decline in FEV1/VC with time; the mean FEV1/VC among subjects using cannabis on 900 or more occasions was 7.2%, 2.6% and 5.0% less than non-users at ages 18, 21 and 26, respectively. After controlling for potential confounding factors (age, tobacco smoking and weight) the negative effect of cumulative cannabis use on mean FEV1/VC was only marginally significant (P<0.09). Age (P<0.001), cigarette smoking (P<0.05) and weight (P<0.001) were all significant predictors of FEV1/VC. Cannabis use and daily cigarette smoking acted additively to influence FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Longitudinal observations over 8years in young adults revealed a dose-dependent relationship between cumulative cannabis consumption and decline in FEV1/VC. However, when confounders were accounted for the effect was reduced and was only marginally significant, but given the limited time frame over which observations were made, the trend suggests that continued cannabis smoking has the potential to result in clinically important impairment of lung function.
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Medications taken by 26-year-olds | 2002
Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R.
Internal Medicine Journal, 2002, 32(32), 305-310.
Our ref: RO415
Show abstract » Background: Most descriptive pharmacoepidemiological reports are from studies of older people, and little is known about medication use by younger adults. Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of medication usage in the previous 2 weeks among young adults. Methods: Detailed information was collected on medications taken by 26-year-old participants in the longstanding Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Results: At age 26, 980 (96.2%) of the surviving cohort participated; medication data were available for 978 individuals, of whom 78.1% had taken one or more prescribed or over-the-counter medications. Medication use was higher among females. The most prevalent drug categories were analgesics (taken by 22.8% of the sample), hormonal contraceptives (21.9%; 44.7% of females), nutrient supplements (17.6%) and anti-asthma drugs (11.1%). Conclusions: The prevalence and pattern of medication use among younger adults differ from those reported for older age groups. Asthma appears to be the most prevalent chronic medical condition requiring pharmacological intervention (and for which medical care has been sought) among younger adults. The low rates of use of antidepressants and anxiolytics suggest that common psychiatric disorders may currently go unrecognized or untreated among young adults, and the high prevalence of 'third generation' oral contraceptive use among females is of particular concern.
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Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children | 2002
Caspi, A. , McClay, J., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Mill, J.S., Martin, J., Craig, I., Taylor, A., Poulton, R. « Hide
Science, 2002, 297(297), 851-854.
download pdf Our ref: RO414
Show abstract » We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) was found to moderate the effect of maltreatment. Maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of MAOA expression were less likely to develop antisocial problems. These findings may partly explain why not all victims of maltreatment grow up to victimise others, and they provide epidemiological evidence that genotypes can moderate children's sensitivity to environmental insults.
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Risk factors for airway remodeling in asthma manifested by a low postbronchodilator FEV1/vital capacity ratio: A longitudinal population study from childhood to adulthood | 2002
Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Cowan, J.O., Greene, J.M., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2002, 165(165), 1480-1488.
Our ref: RO413
Show abstract » Airway remodeling may lead to irreversible loss of lung function in asthma. The impact of childhood asthma, airway responsiveness, atopy, and smoking on airway remodeling was investigated in a birth cohort studied longitudinally to age 26. A low postbronchodilator ratio of forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) to vital capacity (VC) at age 18 or 26 was used as a marker of airway remodeling. Normal study members with no history of asthma ever, no wheezing in the last year, and no smoking ever were used to determine sex- and age-specific reference values for this ratio. The lower limit of normal was defined as the mean ratio minus 1.96 standard deviation, delimiting the 2.5% of the normal population with the lowest FEV1/VC ratio. A low postbronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio was found in 7.4% and 6.4% of study members at ages 18 and age 26 and 4.6% at both assessments. Lung function was low throughout childhood in those with a consistently low postbronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio at both ages. Those with consistently low postbronchodilator ratios also showed a greater decline in the prebronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio from ages 9 to 26 compared with those with normal postbronchodilator ratios at both ages (males, -12% versus -6%, p < 0.0001; females, -10.5% versus -5.5%, p < 0.01). Asthma, male sex, airway hyperresponsiveness, and low lung function in childhood were each independently associated with a low postbronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio, which in turn was associated with an accelerated decline in lung function and decreased reversibility. These data suggest that airway remodeling in asthma, as manifested by impaired lung function, begins in childhood and continues into adult life.
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Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort | 2002
Cannon, M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. , Harrington, H. L. , Taylor, A. , Murray, R. M. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 449-56.
download pdf Our ref: RO412
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Childhood developmental abnormalities have been previously described in schizophrenia. It is not known, however, whether childhood developmental impairment is specific to schizophrenia or is merely a marker for a range of psychiatric outcomes. METHODS: A 1-year birth cohort (1972-1973) of 1037 children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study was assessed at biennial intervals between ages 3 and 11 years on emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems, motor and language development, and intelligence. At age 11 years, children were asked about psychotic symptoms. At age 26 years, DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Study members having schizophreniform disorder (n = 36 [3.7%]) were compared with healthy controls and also with groups diagnosed as having mania (n = 20 [2%]) and nonpsychotic anxiety or depression disorders (n = 278 [28.5%]) on childhood variables. RESULTS: Emotional problems and interpersonal difficulties were noted in children who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for any of the adult psychiatric outcomes assessed. However, significant impairments in neuromotor, receptive language, and cognitive development were additionally present only among children later diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder. Developmental impairments also predicted self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 years. These impairments were independent of the effects of socioeconomic, obstetric, and maternal factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence for an early-childhood, persistent, pan- developmental impairment that is specifically associated with schizophreniform disorder and that predicts psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood.
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Birth size, growth and blood pressure between the ages 7 and 26 years: Failure to support the Fetal Origins Hypothesis | 2002
Williams, S.M., Poulton, R.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 2002, 155(155), 849-852.
Our ref: RO411
Show abstract » The fetal origins hypothesis asserts that birth weight is inversely related to later blood pressure. Data from a cohort of 891 infants born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-1973 whose blood pressure was measured at 2-yearly intervals from age 7 years to age 15 years and at ages 18 and 26 years was used to test this hypothesis. Three regression models based on standardized scores for weight and height were used. The first showed that at any of the ages at which the cohort was assessed, an increase in birth weight of one z score (one standard deviation) was commensurate with a decrease of 0.29 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 0.76) in blood pressure. The second model showed that a one-z-score increase in weight between birth and a subsequent age was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 0.96 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.38). This estimate applied to all ages. The third model showed that the effect of an interaction between birth weight and later weight was not significant; thus, there was no evidence to suggest that children with a low birth weight who became overweight or obese had extra high blood pressure. Similar results were obtained for height. These results fail to support the fetal origins hypothesis.
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The dopamine D4 receptor and the hyperactivity phenotype: A developmental-epidemiological study | 2002
Mill, J.S., Caspi, A., McClay, ... Show all » J., Sugden, K., Purcell, S., Asherson, P., Craig, I., McGuffin, P., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Molecular Psychiatry, 2002, 7(7), 383-391.
Our ref: RO410
Show abstract » Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 26% of school-age children and is a precursor of behavioural problems in adolescence and adulthood. Underlying the categorical definition of ADHD are the quantitative traits of activity, impulsivity, and inattention which vary continuously in the population. Both ADHD and quantitative measures of hyperactivity are heritable, and influenced by multiple genes of small effect. Several studies have reported an association between clinically defined ADHD and the seven-repeat allele of a 48-bp tandem repeat polymorphism in the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). We tested this association in a large, unselected birth cohort (n = 1037) using multiple measures of the hyperactivity phenotype taken at multiple assessment ages across 20 years. This longitudinal approach allowed us to ascertain whether or not DRD4 has a general effect on the diagnosed (n = 49) or continuously distributed hyperactivity phenotype, and related personality traits. We found no evidence to support this association.
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Pathways to adversity in young adulthood among early childbearers | 2002
Jaffee, S.R.
Journal of Family Psychology, 2002, 16(16), 38-49.
Our ref: RO407
Show abstract » Women who give birth as teens differ from those who delay childbearing before and after a birth. These preexisting differences may account for the adverse outcomes faced by early childbearers in young adulthood. This study tested whether a history of conduct disorder, low IQ and educational attainment, and low childhood socioeconomic status accounted for poor psychosocial adjustment at age 26 among early childbearers. Study members were 482 women in a birth cohort, 26% of whom had given birth by age 26 in 1999. Findings supported the hypothesis that individual and family background factors partially accounted for the adverse socioeconomic, mental health, and interpersonal outcomes faced by young mothers. However, early childbearing exacerbated the difficulties associated with these risk factors.
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Physical health correlates of overprediction of physical discomfort during exercise | 2002
Poulton, R., Trevena, J., Reeder, ... Show all » A.I., Richards, R. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(40), 401-414.
Our ref: RO406
Show abstract » This study sought to determine if overprediction of physical discomfort prior to and following exercise was related to a number of self-report and objective measures of physical health status in a general population sample. Cross-sectional findings indicated a significant and specific relation between patterns of discomfort overprediction (vs under- or accurate prediction) and negative self-reported health status and attitudes to exercise, lower levels of physical activity, as well as poorer scores for resting heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (but not waist:hip ratio). Females were more likely to overpredict discomfort, were less active and had poorer physical health than males. The potential usefulness of the prediction match-mismatch paradigm for studying exercise-related appraisal processes as proximal determinants of physical activity are discussed. Information obtained from such studies could prove useful in public health education campaigns aimed at increasing levels of physical activity in the general population, particularly among the less active.
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