The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

Antisocial Behaviour

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Associations between life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour and brain structure in a population-representative longitudinal birth cohort | 2020
Christina O Carlisi, Terrie E Moffitt, Annchen R Knodt, Honalee Harrington, David Ireland, ... Show all » Tracy R Melzer, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Avshalom Caspi, Ahmad R Hariri, Essi Viding « Hide
Lancet Psychiatry , 2020, 7 245-53.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30002-X
download pdf Our ref: RO731
Show abstract » Summary
Background Studies with behavioural and neuropsychological tests have supported the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour, which specifies abnormal brain development as a fundamental aspect of life-coursepersistent antisocial behaviour, but no study has characterised features of brain structure associated with lifecourse-persistent versus adolescence-limited trajectories, as defined by prospective data. We aimed to determine whether life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour is associated with neurocognitive abnormalities by testing the hypothesis that it is also associated with brain structure abnormalities.
Methods
We used structural MRI data collected at 45 years of age from participants in the Dunedin Study, a populationrepresentative longitudinal birth cohort of 1037 individuals born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were resident in the province and who participated in the first assessment at 3 years of age. Participants underwent MRI, and mean global cortical surface area and cortical thickness were extracted for each participant. Participants had been previously subtyped as exhibiting life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, or no history of persistent antisocial behaviour (ie, a low trajectory group) based on informant-reported and self-reported conduct problems from the ages of 7 years to 26 years. Study personnel who processed the MRI images were masked to antisocial group membership. We used linear estimated ordinary least squares regressions to compare each antisocial trajectory group (life-course persistent and adolescence limited) with the low trajectory group to examine whether antisocial behaviour was related to abnormalities in mean global surface area and mean cortical thickness. Next, we used parcel-wise linear regressions to identify antisocial trajectory group differences in surface area and cortical thickness. All results were controlled for sex and false discovery rate corrected. Findings Data from 672 participants were analysed, and 80 (12%) were classified as having life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, 151 (23%) as having adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, and 441 (66%) as having low antisocial behaviour. Individuals on the life-course-persistent trajectory had a smaller mean surface area (standardised β=–0·18 [95% CI –0·24 to –0·11]; p<0·0001) and lower mean cortical thickness (standardised β=–0·10 [95% CI –0·19 to –0·02]; p=0·020) than did those in the low group. Compared with the low group, the life-course-persistent group had reduced surface area in 282 of 360 anatomically defined parcels and thinner cortex in 11 of 360 parcels encompassing circumscribed frontal and temporal regions associated with executive function, affect regulation, and motivation. Widespread differences in brain surface morphometry were not observed for the adolescence-limited group compared with either non-antisocial behaviour or life-course-persistent groups.
Interpretation
These analyses provide initial evidence that differences in brain surface morphometry are associated with life-course-persistent, but not adolescence-limited, antisocial behaviour. As such, the analyses are consistent with the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour and highlight the importance of using prospective longitudinal data to define different patterns of antisocial behaviour development.

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Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study | 2016
Cerda, M., Moffitt, T.E., Meier, ... Show all » M.H., /Harrington, H. L., Houts, R., Ramrakha, S., Hogan, S., Poulton, R., Caspi, A. « Hide
Clinical Psychological Science, 2016, Published online before print 22 March 2016, DOI: 10.1177/2167702616630958.
DOI: 10.1177/2167702616630958
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Our ref: RO685
Show abstract » With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18 and 38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (N = 1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than was alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.
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Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted? | 2016
Beckley, A.L., Caspi, A., Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Houts, R., McGee, T.R., Morgan, N., Schroeder, F., Ramrakha, S., Poulton, R. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Journal of Criminal Justice, 2016, 46 64-81.
doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2016.03.001
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Our ref: RO681
Show abstract » Purpose: To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods: We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results: Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders' histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions: A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders.
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Childhood and adolescent television viewing and antisocial behavior in early adulthood | 2013
Robertson, L.A., McAnally, H.M., Hancox, ... Show all » R. J. « Hide
Pediatrics, 2013, 131(131), 439-446.
10.1542/peds.2012-1582
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Our ref: RO633
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972'1773, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day.
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Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? | 2008
Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A., Nagin, ... Show all » D.S., Piquero, A.R., Slutske, W., Milne, B.J., Dickson, N., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Psychological Science, 2008, 19(19), 1037-1044.
download pdf Our ref: RO568
Show abstract » Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk.
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Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes | 2008
Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Harrington, H. L., Thomson, W.M., Broadbent, J. M. , Hancox, R. J. , Dickson, N., Paul, C., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 2008, 20(20), 673-716.
download pdf Our ref: RO556
Show abstract » This article reports on the childhood origins and adult outcomes of female versus male antisocial behavior trajectories in the Dunedin longitudinal study. Four antisocial behavior trajectory groups were identified among females and males using general growth mixture modeling and included life-course persistent (LCP), adolescent-onset, childhood-limited, and low trajectory groups. During childhood, both LCP females and males were characterized by social, familial and neurodevelopmental risk factors, whereas those on the adolescent-onset pathway were not. At age 32, women and men on the LCP pathway were engaging in serious violence and experiencing significant mental health, physical health, and economic problems. Females and males on the adolescent-onset pathway were also experiencing difficulties at age 32, although to a lesser extent. Although more males than females followed the LCP trajectory, findings support similarities across gender with respect to developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior and their associated childhood origins and adult consequences. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
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A replicated molecular genetic basis for subtyping antisocial behavior in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder | 2008
Caspi, A., Langley, K., Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Moffitt, T. E. , O'Donovan, M., Owen, M.J., Polo-Tomas, M. , Poulton, R., Rutter, M. , Taylor, A. , Williams, B. S., Thapar, A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2008, 65(65), 203-210.
download pdf Our ref: RO552
Show abstract » CONTEXT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that in some cases is accompanied by antisocial behavior. OBJECTIVE: To test if variations in the catechol O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) would prove useful in identifying the subset of children with ADHD who exhibit antisocial behavior. DESIGN: Three independent samples composed of 1 clinical sample of ADHD cases and 2 birth cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the clinical sample were drawn from child psychiatry and child health clinics in England and Wales. The 2 birth cohort studies included 1 sample of 2232 British children born in 1994-1995 and a second sample of 1037 New Zealander children born in 1972-1973. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of ADHD and measures of antisocial behavior. RESULTS: We present replicated evidence that the COMT valine/methionine polymorphism at codon 158 (COMT Val158Met) was associated with phenotypic variation among children with ADHD. Across the 3 samples, valine/valine homozygotes had more symptoms of conduct disorder, were more aggressive, and were more likely to be convicted of criminal offenses compared with methionine carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm the presence of genetic heterogeneity in ADHD and illustrate how genetic information may provide biological evidence pointing to clinical subtypes.
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Predicting prognosis for the conduct-problem boy: Can family history help? | 2007
Odgers, C.L., Milne, B.J., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Crump, R., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007, 46(46), 1240-1249.
doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e31813c6c8d
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Our ref: RO540
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Many children with conduct disorder develop life-course persistent antisocial behavior; however, other children exhibit childhood-limited or adolescence-limited conduct disorder symptoms and escape poor adult outcomes. Prospective prediction of long-term prognosis in pediatric and adolescent clinical settings is difficult. Improved prognosis prediction would support wise allocation of limited treatment resources. The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether family history of psychiatric disorder can statically predict long-term prognosis among conduct-problem children. METHOD: Participants were male members of the Dunedin Study, a birth cohort of 1,037 children (52% male). Conduct-problem subtypes were defined using prospective assessments between ages 7 and 26 years. Family history interviews assessed mental disorders for three generations: the participants' grandparents, parents, and siblings. RESULTS: Family history of externalizing disorders distinguished life-course persistent antisocial males from other conduct-problem children and added significant incremental validity beyond family and child risk factors. A simple three-item family history screen of maternal-reported alcohol abuse was associated with life-course persistent prognosis in our research setting and should be evaluated in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Family history of externalizing disorders distinguished between life-course persistent versus childhood-limited and adolescent-onset conduct problems. Brief family history questions may assist clinicians in pediatric settings to refine the diagnosis of conduct disorder and identify children who most need treatment in pediatric settings to refine the diagnosis of CD and identify children who need treatment most.
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Childhood behaviour problems linked to sexual risk taking in young adulthood: a birth cohort study | 2007
Ramrakha, S., Paul, C., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Bell, M.L.., Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007, 46(46), 1272-1279.
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Our ref: RO539
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE::To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. METHOD:: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n = 1,037), a prospective, longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort born in 1972-1973. Data obtained at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 21 years were used. Adjustment was made for gender, socioeconomic status, parenting factors, and residence changes. RESULTS:: High levels of antisocial behavior between age 5 and 11 years were associated with increased odds of early sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence [CI] 1.34-3.54) and risky sex (AOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.04-3.40). No relationship was observed between hyperactivity and later sexual health outcomes. In contrast, high levels of anxiety were associated with reduced odds of risky sex (AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.80) and sexually transmitted infections (AOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.70). Involvement with delinquent peers explained some of the association between antisocial behavior and early sexual debut and risky sex. A poor relationship with parents also explained some of the association between antisocial behavior and early sexual debut. CONCLUSIONS:: The findings demonstrate links between behavioral and emotional problems occurring early in life and later deleterious sexual health outcomes. Targeting antisocial behavior and teaching accurate appraisals of danger during childhood may help mitigate these negative consequences.
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Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males | 2007
Odgers, C.L., Caspi, A. , Broadbent, ... Show all » J. M. , Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. , Harrington, H. L., Poulton, R., Sears, M.R., Thomson, W. M. , Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2007, 64(64), 476-484.
download pdf Our ref: RO528
Show abstract » Context A cardinal feature of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder is the distinction between childhood- vs adolescent-onset subtypes. Whether such developmental subtypes exist in the population and have different prognoses should be rigorously tested to inform the DSM-V. Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological validity of childhood- vs adolescent-onset conduct problems in a prospective birth cohort, and to assess whether life-course-persistent conduct problems are associated with a greater adult health burden. Design, Setting, and Participants Our sample includes 526 male study members in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a 1-year birth cohort (April 1, 1972, through March 30, 1973). Developmental trajectories were defined using prospective ratings of conduct problems at 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Health burden was assessed as mental and physical health problems at 32 years of age measured via diagnostic interviews and physical examinations. Results We identified the following 4 developmental subtypes of conduct problems through general growth mixture modeling: (1) childhood-onset/life-course-persistent, (2) adolescent onset, (3) childhood limited, and (4) low. At 32 years of age, study members with the life-course-persistent subtype experienced the worst health burden. To a lesser extent, those with the adolescent-onset subtype also experienced health problems. A childhood-limited subtype not specified by DSM-IV was revealed; its adult health outcomes were within the range of the cohort norm. Conclusions Results support the epidemiological validity of the DSM-IV conduct disorder distinction based on age of onset but highlight the need to also consider long-term persistence to refine diagnosis. Preventing and treating conduct problems has the potential to reduce the adult health burden.
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No negative outcomes of childhood middle ear disease in adulthood | 2007
Welch, D. , Dawes, P. J.
Laryngoscope, 2007, 117(117), 466-69.
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Our ref: RO526
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To test the hypothesis that childhood middle-ear disease may have disadvantageous long-term psychosocial consequences in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study of a general-population birth cohort. METHODS: One thousand thirty-seven people born in 1972/73 were studied from birth to age 26 when 1,019 (96% of survivors) were followed up. Childhood otitis media was assessed, and effects of it have previously been observed in childhood and adolescence. We considered outcome measures that were plausible adult counterparts of the childhood constructs shown to be impaired by otitis media: socioeconomic status, employment status, educational outcomes, personality, mental health, antisocial and criminal behavior, and subjective ratings of personal health (SF-36). RESULTS: No outcome measure was predicted by severity of childhood otitis media. CONCLUSIONS: Adult psychological and socioeconomic outcomes are not related to childhood otitis media when appropriate treatment is available.
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Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort | 2007
Koenen, K., Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, ... Show all » R., Martin, J. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 181-192.
download pdf Our ref: RO522
Show abstract » Background. Childhood factors have been associated with increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies assessed only a limited number of childhood factors retrospectively. We examined the association between childhood neurodevelopmental, temperamental, behavioral and family environmental characteristics assessed before age 11 years and the development of PTSD up to age 32 years in a birth cohort.Method. Members of a 1972-73 New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) who were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years for PTSD as defined by DSM-IV.Results. We identified two sets of childhood risk factors. The first set of risk factors was associated both with increased risk of trauma exposure and with PTSD assessed at age 26. These included childhood externalizing characteristics and family environmental stressors, specifically maternal distress and loss of a parent. The second set of risk factors affected risk for PTSD only and included low IQ and chronic environmental adversity. The effect of cumulative childhood factors on risk of PTSD at age 26 was substantial; over 58% of cohort members in the highest risk quartile for three developmental factors had PTSD as compared to only 25% of those not at high risk on any factors. Low IQ at age 5, antisocial behavior, and poverty before age 11 continued to predict PTSD related to traumatic events that occurred between the ages of 26 and 32.Conclusions. Developmental capacities and conditions of early childhood may increase both risk of trauma exposure and the risk that individuals will respond adversely to traumatic exposures. Rather than being solely a response to trauma, PTSD may have developmental origins.
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When parents have a history of conduct disorder: how is the caregiving environment affected? | 2006
Jaffee, S.R., Belsky, J., Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115(115), 309-319.
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Our ref: RO507
Show abstract » Individuals with early-emerging conduct problems are likely to become parents who expose their children to considerable adversity. The current study tested the specificity of and alternative explanations for this trajectory. The sample included 246 members of a prospective, 30-year cohort study and their 3-year-old children. Parents who had a history of conduct disorder were specifically at elevated risk for socioeconomic disadvantage and relationship violence, but suboptimal parenting and offspring temperament problems were common to parents with any history of disorder. Recurrent disorder, comorbidity, and adversity in the family of origin did not fully account for these findings. The cumulative consequences of early-onset conduct disorder and assortative mating for antisocial behavior may explain the long-term effects of conduct disorder on young adult functioning.
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Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood | 2006
Trzesniewski, K. H. , Donnellan, M. B. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Robins, R. W. , Poulton, R. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 2006, 42(42), 381-90.
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Our ref: RO506
Show abstract » Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term consequences of self-esteem could not be explained by adolescent depression, gender, or socioeconomic status. Moreover, the findings held when the outcome variables were assessed using objective measures and informant reports; therefore, the findings cannot be explained by shared method variance in self-report data. The findings suggest that low self-esteem during adolescence predicts negative real-world consequences during adulthood.
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Mental disorder and violent victimisation in a total birth cohort | 2005
Silver, E., Arseneault, L., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
American Journal of Public Health, 2005, 95(95), 2015-2021.
download pdf Our ref: RO494
Show abstract » We examined the association between mental disorder and violent victimization in a general population sample. We performed a multivariate analysis of violent victimization in a 12-month period on a total birth cohort with follow-up data that assessed, during their 21st year, males and females born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in the early 1970s. Compared with people with no mental disorder, (1) people with anxiety disorders experienced more sexual assaults, (2) people with schizophreniform disorders experienced more threatened and completed physical assaults, (3) people with alcohol dependence disorders experienced more completed physical assaults, and (4) people with marijuana dependence disorders experienced more attempted physical assaults. These results held after control for psychiatric comorbidity, demographic characteristics, and the study participants' own violent behavior. Mentally disordered young adults tend to experience more violent victimization in the community than those without a mental disorder.
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Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency | 2005
Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, ... Show all » R. W., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Science, 2005, 16(16), 328-35.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15828981
download pdf Our ref: RO480
Show abstract » The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.
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Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene x environment interaction | 2005
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Cannon, ... Show all » M., McClay, J., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B.S., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Craig, I. « Hide
Biological Psychiatry, 2005, 57(57), 1117-1127.
download pdf Our ref: RO478
Show abstract » Background: Recent evidence documents that cannabis use by young people is a modest statistical risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as clinically significant schizophrenia. The vast majority of cannabis users do not develop psychosis, however, prompting us to hypothesize that some people are genetically vulnerable to the deleterious effects of cannabis. Methods: In a longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort followed to adulthood, we tested why cannabis use is associated with the emergence of psychosis in a minority of users, but not in others. Results: A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene moderated the influence of adolescent cannabis use on developing adult psychosis. Carriers of the COMT valine allele were most likely to exhibit psychotic symptoms and to develop schizophreniform disorder if they used cannabis. Cannabis use had no such adverse influence on individuals with two copies of the methionine allele. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of a gene ' environment interaction and suggest that a role of some susceptibility genes is to influence vulnerability to environmental pathogens.
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Specialization and the propensity to violence: support from self-reports but not official records | 2004
Lynam, D.R., Piquero, A.R., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. « Hide
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 2004, 20(20), 215-228.
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Our ref: RO472
Show abstract » The degree to which the propensity to commit violence is distinct from the propensity to commit other nonviolent acts informs theory, research, and practice. This research examines whether there are individuals who tend to specialize in violent versus nonviolent crimes and whether these individuals differ from one another on other measures. Building off prior research, a distributional approach to specialization that examines offenses within individuals' careers was applied to both self-reported and official crime data from a large birth cohort from Dunedin, New Zealand. Whereas analyses of official reports were consistent with previous research in documenting little specialization, analyses using self-reports indicated that individuals differed in their propensities to commit violent crime. Further, individuals with some violent crimes in their offense distribution differ from those with no violent crimes in terms of previous histories of behavior problems and personality. Implications for current theory and future directions are discussed.
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Substance abuse ensnares young adults in trajectories of antisocial behavior | 2004
Hussong, A., Curran, P.J., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Caspi, A., Carrig, M.M. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 2004, 16(16), 1029-1046.
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Our ref: RO471
Show abstract » We examined two hypotheses about the developmental relation between substance abuse and individual differences in desistance from antisocial behavior during young adulthood. The 'snares' hypothesis posits that substance abuse should result in time-specific elevations in antisocial behavior relative to an individual's own developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior, whereas the 'launch' hypothesis posits that substance abuse early in young adulthood slows an individual's overall pattern of crime desistance relative to the population norm during this developmental period. We conducted latent trajectory analyses to test these hypotheses using interview data about antisocial behaviors and substance abuse assessed at ages 18, 21, and 26 in men from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (N = 461). We found significant individual variability in initial levels and rates of change in antisocial behavior over time as well as support for both the snares hypothesis and the launch hypothesis as explanations for the developmental relation between substance abuse and crime desistance in young men.
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Clinically abusive relationships in an unselected birth cohort: men's and women's participation and developmental antecedents | 2004
Ehrensaft, M. K. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2004, 113(113), 258-70.
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Our ref: RO458
Show abstract » In an unselected birth cohort (N=980, age 24-26 years), individuals in abusive relationships causing injury and/or official intervention (9% prevalence) were compared with participants reporting physical abuse without clinical consequences and with control participants who reported no abuse, on current characteristics and prospective developmental risks. In nonclinically abusive relationships, perpetrators were primarily women. In clinically abusive relationships, men and women used physical abuse, although more women needed medical treatment for injury. Women in clinically abusive relationships had childhood family adversity, adolescent conduct problems, and aggressive personality; men had disinhibitory psychopathology since childhood and extensive personality deviance. These findings counter the hibitory assumption that if clinical abuse was ascertained in epidemiological samples, it would be primarily man-to-woman, explained by patriarchy rather than psychopathology.
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Does the perceived risk of punishment deter criminally-prone individuals? Rational choice, self-control, and crime | 2004
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Paternoster, R. « Hide
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 2004, 41(41), 180-213.
download pdf Our ref: RO456
Show abstract » Society's efforts to deter crime with punishment may be ineffective because those individuals most prone to commit crime often act impulsively, with little thought for the future, and so they may be unmoved by the threat of later punishment. Deterrence messages they receive, therefore, may fall on deaf ears. This article examines this issue by testing the relationship between criminal propensity, perceived risks and costs of punishment, and criminal behavior. The authors analyzed data from the Dunedin (New Zealand) Study, a longitudinal study of individuals from birth through age26 (N = 1,002). They found that in fact, deterrence perceptions had their greatest impact on criminally prone study members.
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Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior disorders and adolescent delinquency: A cross-national replication | 2003
Broidy, L.M., Nagin, D.S., Tremblay, ... Show all » R.E., Brame, R., Dodge, K., Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., Loeber, R., Laird, R., Lynam, D.R., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 2003, 39(39), 222-245.
download pdf Our ref: RO449
Show abstract » This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood.
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The targets of violence committed by young offenders with alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: findings from a birth cohort | 2002
Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Taylor, A. « Hide
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 2002, 12(12), 155-168.
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Our ref: RO441
Show abstract » Background: Estimates of who is most at risk from violence by people with mental illness rest mainly on identified patient samples. This study, without such selection bias, examined the targets of violence committed by young adults with as-yet untreated alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, to determine the extent to which their victims were co-residents or non-household members. Methods: In a total birth cohort of 21-year-olds (n = 956), past-year prevalence of alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed using standardized DSM-III-R interviews. None of the people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder has been hospitalized in the past year. Past-year violence and victim targets were measured using self-reports. Results: Compared with controls, cohort members with substance dependence or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders had higher prevalence and frequency rates of assault against co-residents, against non-household members, and also robbery and gang fights. Out of 39, five individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder committed violent street crimes. Persons with substance dependence had similar proportions of violence against co-resident and non-household members, but persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders tended to victimize co-residents more than others. Conclusions: At the age when they are most likely to contribute to the community's violence burden, young untreated offenders with alcohol or marijuana dependence or with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders assault not only co-residents, but others as well, and commit violent street crimes. Families, schoolteachers and primary care physicians have an important potentially preventive role in early identification and treatment of the disorders.
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Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children | 2002
Caspi, A. , McClay, J., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Mill, J.S., Martin, J. , Craig, I., Taylor, A., Poulton, R. « Hide
Science, 2002, 297(297), 851-854.
download pdf Our ref: RO414
Show abstract » We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) was found to moderate the effect of maltreatment. Maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of MAOA expression were less likely to develop antisocial problems. These findings may partly explain why not all victims of maltreatment grow up to victimise others, and they provide epidemiological evidence that genotypes can moderate children's sensitivity to environmental insults.
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Males on the life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 | 2002
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Milne, B.J. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 2002, 14(14), 179-206.
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Our ref: RO403
Show abstract » This article reports a comparison on age-26 outcomes of males who were previously defined in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and matched on adolescent delinquent offending. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neuro-cognitive problems, under-controlled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most extreme on: psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 were less extreme but elevated on: impulsivity, mental disorders, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offences. A third group of males who had been aggressive as children but only moderately delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offending adults who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings are consistent with the theory of life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior, but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.
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The kids are alright: Growth and stability in personality development from adolescence to adulthood | 2001
Roberts, B.W., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001, 81(81), 670-683.
download pdf Our ref: RO402
Show abstract » This longitudinal study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in personality functioning from age 18 to age 26 in a birth cohort (N = 921) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, 1982). Data were analyzed using 4 different methods: differential continuity, mean-level change, individual differences in change, and ipsative change. Convergent evidence pointing toward personality continuity, as opposed to change, was found. The personality changes that did take place from adolescence to adulthood reflected growth in the direction of greater maturity; many adolescents became more controlled and socially more confident and less angry and alienated. Consistent with this, greater initial levels of maturity were associated with less personality change over time. The results indicate that the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is marked by continuity of personality and growth toward greater maturity.
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The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence | 2001
Pisecco, S., Swank, P., Wristers, ... Show all » K., Silva, P.A., Baker, D.B. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2001, 34(34), 450-461.
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Our ref: RO391
Show abstract » Using structural equation modeling techniques, we evaluated the effect of academic self-concept (ASC) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Participants (n = 445) were recruited from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and development Research study. Eligibility was determined by the presence of complete data for the following variables at the specified time periods: reading at age 7, teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 7, self-ratings of ASC at ages 9 and 11, and teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 13. The results indicated that ASC is an important construct that directly contributes to the development of antisocial behaviors rather than to symptoms of ADHD. The results also indicated that children's, early history of behavioral problems and academic performance contribute to the development of a more robust understanding of the impact of ASC on the development of disruptive behaviors in early adolescence.
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Predicting early fatherhood and whether young fathers live with their children: prospective findings and policy reconsiderations | 2001
Jaffee, S. R. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Taylor, A. , Dickson, N. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2001, 42(42), 803-815.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11583253
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Our ref: RO390
Show abstract » This prospective study of a birth cohort addressed three questions. Which individual and family-of-origin characteristics predict the age at which young men make the transition to fatherhood? Do these same characteristics predict how long young men live with their child? Are individual differences in the amount of time fathers spend living with their child associated with the father's psychosocial characteristics in young adulthood? In this unique study, it was found that by age 26, 19% of the 499 study men had become fathers. Individual and family-of- origin characteristics were assessed from birth until age 15 and contemporaneous characteristics were assessed at age 26. Young men who experienced a stressful rearing environment and a history of conduct problems were more likely to become fathers at an early age and to spend less time living with their child. Of those who experienced none of the risk factors, fewer than 10% had become fathers by age 26 compared to more than 60% of those who experienced five risk factors. Fathers who lived apart from their child reported the most social and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. These findings point to individual and family-of-origin characteristics that might be targeted in order to delay fatherhood and increase levels of paternal involvement. However, given their troubled life histories and poor social-psychological adjustment in young adulthood, some absent fathers might have difficulties providing positive parenting and partnering unless policy initiatives to promote intact families also support young fathers.
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Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females | 2001
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A.
Development and Psychopathology, 2001, 13(13), 355-375.
download pdf Our ref: RO378
Show abstract » This article reports a comparison on childhood risk factors of males and females exhibiting childhood-onset and adolescent-onset antisocial behavior, using data from the Dunedin longitudinal study. Childhood-onset delinquents had childhoods of inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, and temperament and behavior problems, whereas adolescent-onset delinquents did not have these pathological backgrounds. Sex comparisons showed a male to female ratio of 10:1 for childhood-onset, but a sex ratio of only 1.5:1 for adolescence-onset delinquency. Showing the same pattern as males, childhood-onset females had high-risk backgrounds, but adolescent-onset females did not. These findings are consistent with core predictions from the taxonomic theory of life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior.
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Psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviour in young adulthood: cross sectional study in birth cohort | 2000
Ramrakha, S., Caspi, A., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Moffitt, T. E, Paul, C. « Hide
BMJ, 2000, 321(321), 263-266.
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Our ref: RO354
Show abstract » Objective: To determine if risky sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual intercourse at an early age are associated with psychiatric disorder. Design: Cross sectional study of a birth cohort at age 21 years with assessments presented by computer (for sexual behaviour) and by trained interviewers (for psychiatric disorder). Setting: New Zealand in 1993-4. Participants: 992 study members (487 women) from the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Complete data were available on both measures for 930 study members. Main outcome measures: Psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorder, substance dependence, antisocial disorder, mania, schizophrenia spectrum) and measures of sexual behaviour. Results: Young people diagnosed with substance dependence, schizophrenia spectrum, and antisocial disorders were more likely to engage in risky sexual intercourse, contract sexually transmitted diseases, and have sexual intercourse at an early age (before 16 years). Unexpectedly, so were young people with depressive disorders. Young people with mania were more likely to report risky sexual intercourse and have sexually transmitted diseases. The likelihood of risky behaviour was increased by psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusions: There is a clear association between risky sexual behaviour and common psychiatric disorders. Although the temporal relation is uncertain, the results indicate the need to coordinate sexual medicine with mental health services in the treatment of young people.
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Partner abuse and general crime: How are they the same? How are they different? | 2000
Moffitt, T.E., Krueger, R.F., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Fagan, J. « Hide
Criminology, 2000, 38(38), 201-235.
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Our ref: RO353
Show abstract » Both partner abuse and general crime violate the rights and safety of victims. But are these phenomena the same or are they distinct, demanding their own research and intervention specialities? Are persons who abuse their partners the same people who commit other criminal behavior? Do partner abuse and general crime share the same correlates? We investigated these questions in a birth cohort of over 800 young adults, by testing whether a personality model known to predict general crime would also predict partner abuse. Personality data were gathered at age 18, and self-reported partner abuse and general criminal offending were measured at age 21. Results from modelling latent constructs showed that partner abuse and general crime represent different constructs that are moderately related; they are not merely two expressions of the same underlying antisocial propensity. Group comparisons showed many, but not all, partner abusers also engaged in violence against nonintimates. Personality analyses showed that partner abuse and general crime shared a strong propensity from a trait called Negative Emotionality. However, crime was related to weak Constraint (low self-control), but partner abuse was not. All findings applied to women as well as to men, suggesting that women's partner abuse may be motivated by the same intra-personal features that motivate men's abuse. The results are consistent with theoretical and applied arguments about the uniqueness of partner violence relative to other crime and violence.
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Reconsidering the relationship between SES and delinquency: causation but not correlation | 1999
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Miech, R.A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 1999, 37(37), 175-194.
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Our ref: RO336
Show abstract » Many theories of crime have linked low levels of socioeconomic status (SES) to high levels of delinquency. However, empirical studies have consistently found weak or nonexistent correlations between individuals' SES and their self-reported delinquent behavior. Drawing upon recent theoretical innovations (Hagan et al., 1985; Jensen, 1993; Tittle, 1995), we propose that this apparent contradiction between theory and data may be reconciled by recognizing that SES has both a negative and a positive indirect effect upon delinquency that, in tandem, results in little overall correlation between the two. We tested this proposal with longitudinal data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. We used measures of parental SES recorded at Study members' birth through age 15, social-psychological characteristics at age 18, and self-reported delinquency at ages 18 and 21. We found that low SES promoted delinquency by increasing individuals' alienation, financial strain and aggression, and by decreasing educational and occupational aspirations, whereas high SES promoted individuals' delinquency by increasing risk taking and social power, and by decreasing conventional values. These findings suggest a reconciliation between theory and data, and they underscore the conceptual importance of elucidating the full range of causal linkages between SES and delinquency.
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Staying in school protects boys with poor self-regulation in childhood from later crime: A longitudinal study | 1999
Henry, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Harrington, H. L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
International Journal of Behavioural Development, 1999, 23(23), 1049-1073.
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Our ref: RO334
Show abstract » Based on a theoretical model that emphasises the distinction between individual and contextual determinants of antisocial behaviour, the current study examined whether school attendance throughout adolescence acted as a protective factor for individuals at risk for criminal behaviour in early adulthood. Specifically, Lack of Control, an index of self-regulation which has previously been shown to predict later criminal behaviour, was expected to interact with early school leaving to predict self-reports and official records of criminal behaviour collected at age 21. Multivariate regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction between school attendance, self-regulation, and sex. Among males, after controlling for the effects of socioeconomic status and IQ, the main effects for Lack of Control and school attendance were found to be significant; additionally, the interaction between Lack of Control and school attendance was significant, indicating that the strength of the relation between Lack of Control and criminal outcomes was moderated by school attendance. The main effects for Lack of Control and school attendance were significant for females, but the interaction between Lack of Control and school attendance was not significant. The protective effect of school attendance among males could not be accounted for by differences in familial disruption or adolescent delinquency.
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Personality traits in late adolescence predict mental disorders in early adulthood: A prospective-epidemiological study | 1999
Krueger, R.F.
Journal of Personality, 1999, 67(67), 39-65.
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Our ref: RO318
Show abstract » Prospective relations between personality traits and mental disorders were assessed in a longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort of young men and women from Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality traits were assessed via self-report questionnaire at age 18, and mental disorders were assessed via diagnostic interview at both ages 18 and 21. High negative emotionality (a propensity to experience aversive affective states) at age 18 was linked with affective, anxiety, substance dependence, and antisocial personality disorders at age 21 when corresponding mental disorders at age 18 were controlled. Low constraint (difficulty inhibiting the expression of affect and impulse) at age 18 was linked with substance dependence and antisocial personality disorders at age 21 when corresponding mental disorders at age 18 were controlled. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development and treatment of mental disorders in young adulthood.
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Adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with conduct disorder, depression and anxiety | 1998
Bardone, A.M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Dickson, N., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1998, 37(37), 594-601.
download pdf Our ref: RO325
Show abstract » Objective: To examine the young adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with behavior problems. Method: Girls with conduct disorder, girls with depression, girls with anxiety, and healthy girls (N=459) who had been evaluated at age 15 years were followed up at age 21 when general physical health, substance dependence and reproductive health were assessed. Results: After control for potentially confounding variables including prior health, adolescent conduct disorder predicted more medical problems, poorer self-reported overall health, lower body mass index, alcohol and/or marijuana dependence, tobacco dependence, daily smoking, more lifetime sexual partners, sexually transmitted disease, and early pregnancy. Adolescent depression predicted only adult tobacco dependence and more medical problems; adolescent anxiety predicted more medical problems. Conclusions: The robust link between female adolescent conduct disorder and poor physical health in adulthood suggests that intervention with girls who have conduct disorder may be a strategy for preventing subsequent health problems.
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The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R): A longitudinal/epidemiological study | 1998
Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 216-227.
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Our ref: RO324
Show abstract » The latent structure and stability of 10 common mental disorders were examined in a birth cohort at ages 18 and 21. A 2-factor model, in which some disorders were presumed to reflect internalizing problems and others were presumed to reflect externalizing problems, provided a more optimal fit to the data than either a 1- or a 4-factor model. To a significant extent, persons in the sample retained their relative positions on the latent factors across the 3-year period from age 18 to age 21. Results offer potential clarification of the meaning of comorbidity in psychopathology research by suggesting that comorbidity may results from common mental disorders being reliable, covariant indicators of stable, underlying core psychopathological processes.
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Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications | 1998
Krueger, R.F., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Bleske, A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behavior Genetics, 1998, 28(28), 173-186.
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Our ref: RO323
Show abstract » Do people mate assortatively for antisocial behavior? If so, what are the implications for the development and persistence of antisocial behavior? We investigated assortative mating for antisocial behavior and its correlates in a sample of 360 couples from Dunedin, New Zealand. We found substantial assortative mating for self-reports of antisocial behavior per se and for self-reports of couple members' tendencies to associate with antisocial peers (0.54 on average). Perceptions about the likelihood of social sanctions for antisocial behavior (e.g., being caught by the authorities or losing the respect of one's family) showed moderate assortative mating (0.32 on average). However, assortative mating for personality traits related to antisocial behavior was low (0.15 on average). These findings suggest that, whereas assortative mating for many individual-difference variables (such as personality traits) is low, assortative mating for actual antisocial behaviors is substantial. We conclude that future family studies of antisocial behavior should endeavor to measure and understand the influence of assortative mating. In addition, we outline a testable behavior-genetic model for the development of antisocial behavior, in which genes and environments promoting or discouraging antisocial behavior become concentrated within families (due to assortative mating), giving rise to widely varying individual developmental trajectories that are, nevertheless, similar within families.
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Factors associated with doubled-up housing - a common precursor to homelessness | 1998
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Social Service Review, 1998, 72(72), 92-111.
download pdf Our ref: RO317
Show abstract » Previous research on housing problems has concentrated on the more visible homelessness rather than more intermediate forms of housing problems such as doubled-up housing. This article expands this research by analyzing entrance into doubled-up housing among a sample of adolescents. This common type of vulnerable housing has been linked to various social and psychological problems. It commonly precedes homelessness, and it potentially increases the risk of homelessness. We find that doubled-up housing frequently occurs during young adulthood and is predicted by insufficient human capital, broken social ties, and personal disabilities.
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Early failure in the labor market: Childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood | 1998
Caspi, A., Wright, B.R., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Sociological Review, 1998, 63(63), 424-451.
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Our ref: RO316
Show abstract » We investigate the childhood and adolescent predictors of youth unemployment in a longitudinal study of young adults who have been studied for the 21 years since their births in 1972-1973. We test hypotheses about the predictors of youth unemployment using information about each individual's human capital, social capital, and personal capital. In the human capital domain, lack of high-school qualifications, poor reading skills, low IQ scores, and limited parental resources significantly increased the risk of unemployment. In the social capital domain, growing up in a single-parent family, family conflict, and lack of attachment to school also increased the risk of unemployment. In the personal capital domain, children involved in antisocial behavior had an increased risk of unemployment. These predictors of unemployment reached back to early childhood suggesting that they began to shape labor-marker outcomes years before these youths entered the work force. In addition, these effects remained significant after controlling for the duration of education and educational attainment, suggesting that many early personal and family characteristics affect labor-market outcomes, not only because they restrict the accumulation of human capital (e.g., education), but also because they directly affect labor-market behaviors. Failure to account for prior social, psychological, and economic risk factors may lead to inflated estimates of the effects of unemployment on future outcomes.
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Comorbidity between abuse of an adult and DSM-III-R mental disorders: Evidence from an epidemiological Study | 1998
Danielson, K.K., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, 155(155), 131-133.
download pdf Our ref: RO315
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence, risk, and implications of comorbidity between partner violence and psychiatric disorders. METHOD: Data were obtained from a representative birth cohort of 941 young adults through use of the Conflict Tactics Scales and Diagnostic Interview Schedule. RESULTS: Half of those involved in partner violence had a psychiatric disorder; one-third of those with a psychiatric disorder were involved in partner violence. Individuals involved in severe partner violence had elevated rates of a wide spectrum of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the importance of mental health clinicians screening for partner violence and treating victims and perpetrators before injury occurs.
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