The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 14 of 23.

Comparison of two commercial test kits for quantification of serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin | 1997
Stowell, L.I., Fawcett, J.P., Brooke, ... Show all » M., Robinson, G.M., Stanton, W.R. « Hide
Alcohol and Alcoholism, 1997, 32(32), 507-516.
Our ref: RO332
Show abstract » Serum levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) were measured in subjects of two independent studies using two different commercial kits. The kits measure CDT either as a percentage of total transferrin (AXIS %CDT(TM), AXIS Biochemicals AS, Norway), or as the absolute amount (CDTect(TM), Pharmacia, Sweden). In a population of males (mean age 41 years) consisting of alcoholics, heavy, moderate and non-drinkers, a strong correlation was found between AXIS %CDT and CDTect results (r = 0.92, n = 58, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity in detecting chronic alcoholic drinking of over 60 g/day were 78 and 94% for the AXIS assay, and 83 and 88% for the CDTect assay, respectively. In a population from a birth cohort study, consisting of 21-year-old males and females with less excessive alcohol consumption, the correlation between AXIS %CDT and CDTect CDT was weaker but still statistically significant (r = 0.46, n = 212, P < 0.001). In this population with specificities >83% in detecting alcohol consumption levels of greater than or equal to 6 drinks per week, the sensitivities were low with both CDT assays (<43% for greater than or equal to 6 drinks per week, and <44% for greater than or equal to 16 drinks per week). These results suggest that (a) both assays are equally effective in detecting chronic drinking over 60 g/day in older alcoholic males, and (b) both assays are similarly ineffective in detecting less excessive regular drinking in young males and females.
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Epidemiology of childhood asthma | 1997
Sears, M.R.
Lancet, 1997, 350(350), 1015-1020.
Our ref: RO329
Show abstract » Asthma is a growing medical concern at the end of the 20th century. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of risk factors for this disease has not reduced the prevalence of childhood asthma, which appears to be increasing. This review highlights recent studies of the epidemiology of childhood asthma, risk factors associated with the development and persistence of the illness, and strategies which may contribute to its control.
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Associations between atopy, hyperresponsiveness and persistence of childhood asthma. [Abstract] | 1997
Sears, M.R., Willan, A., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal , 1997, 10(10), 162s.
Our ref: RO326
Show abstract » This abstract concluded that house dust mite and cat sensitivity, and early measures of airway responsiveness are predictive of persistence of asthma to age 21.
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Psychological and social predictors of motorcycle use by young adult males in New Zealand | 1997
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Marshall, ... Show all » S.W., Langley, J.D. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1997, 45(45), 1357-1376.
Our ref: RO307
Show abstract » This study focussed on psychological and social predictors of motorcycle use by young adult males. A number of predictors were identified.
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Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study | 1997
Caspi, A., Begg, D.J., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Harrington, H. L., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997, 73(73), 1052-1063.
Our ref: RO306
Show abstract » In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into distinct temperament groups. Results showed that a similar constellation of adolescent personality traits, with developmental origins in childhood, is linked to different health-risk behaviors at 21. Associations between the same personality traits and different health-risk behaviors were not an artifact of the same people engaging in different health-risk behaviors; rather, these associations implicated the same personality type in different but related behaviors. In planning campaigns, health professionals may need to design programs that appeal to the unique psychological makeup of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviors.
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Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a sample of women in middle life | 1997
Knight, R.G., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Olaman, S. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 373-380.
Our ref: RO305
Show abstract » The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was completed by 675 women taking part in a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues. The data were submitted to confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 7 and a 4-factor model was found to fit the data moderately well. A second-order depression factor was also identified. The results provide support for the construct validity of the total and subscale scores from this measure. The scale was found to have good reliability. Evidence was found that scores on the subscale measuring somatic features of depression may be inflated in women who have experienced a chronic health problem in the past 12 months.
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Comparison of reported prevalences of recent asthma in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies | 1997
Sears, M.R., Lewis, S., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Robson, B., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D., Pearce, N., Crane, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1997, 10(10), 51-54.
Our ref: RO300
Show abstract » A potential source of bias in prevalence rates reported for symptoms and diagnoses of asthma in longitudinal studies could arise if repeated questioning of subjects or previous experience of lung function and airway responsiveness tests increased awareness of respiratory symptoms. We wished to determine the extent of any such bias by comparing reported prevalence rates from a longitudinal and cross-sectional study within similar populations. The prevalences of wheezing in the last year, waking with chest tightness, waking with shortness of breath, waking with coughing, having an attack of asthma in the last year, and current use of medications for asthma were determined using identical questions in two populations, Self-completed questionnaire responses of 946 subjects, 21 yrs of age, participating in the seventh respiratory assessment in the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Study were compared with responses provided by 991 subjects, aged 20-22 yrs, completing a postal questionnaire on one occasion only for the New Zealand section of the European Community Respiratory Health Study. The prevalence rates were not significantly different between the two populations, for all of the reported symptoms and for medication use, Differences in responses between genders were similar in each study, with all responses being more common in females. We conclude that repeated questioning regarding respiratory symptoms and repeated lung function and bronchial challenge testing in a asthma did not bias prevalence rates compared with those population of the same age studied on only one occasion.
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Changes in self-reported dental anxiety in New Zealand adolescents from age 15 to 18 | 1997
Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R., Kruger, ... Show all » E., Davies, S., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 1997, 76(76), 1287-1291.
download pdf Our ref: RO299
Show abstract » Little is understood of the natural history of dental anxiety. The aim of this study was to examine three-year changes in self-reported dental anxiety among adolescent participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Dental anxiety was estimated at ages 15 and 18 by means of the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). A DAS score of 13+ defined high dental anxiety. Participants were assigned to one of four dental-anxiety study groups (Chronic, Incident, Remitted, or Never) on the basis of changes in reported level of anxiety from ages 15 to 18. Results are reported for the 691 participants who completed the DAS at both ages. The sample's overall dental anxiety score decreased significantly from age 15 (mean, 8.79) to 18 (8.52) (paired t test, t = 2.37; P < 0.05). The Chronic and Never groups had small negative DAS increments, the Incident group showed a substantial positive increment, and the Remitted group recorded an even larger negative increment. Multivariate analysis showed that the DAS score at age 15 was the sole predictor of the change in DAS score for the Chronic and Remitted groups, and was a co-predictor for the Incident and Never groups. An episodic dental visiting pattern was a strong predictor of a positive change in DAS score for the Incident group; and for the Never group, a higher DMFS score at age 15 predicted a positive change in DAS score at 18, but being female was predictive of a decrement. This study indicates lower stability of dental anxiety in late adolescence than has been reported from other age groups.
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Physical assault among 21-year-olds by partners | 1997
Langley, J.D., Martin, J., Nada-Raja, ... Show all » S. « Hide
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1997, 12(12), 675-684.
Our ref: RO296
Show abstract » Abstract: The authors sought to answer the following question: Are more women than men physically assaulted by a partner? Do a disproportionate number of physical assaults against women involve a partner?Are women subjected to more physical assaults from partners than are men? Are physical assaults on women by partners more severe in terms of physical harm than physical assaults on men by partners? Using a semistructured face-to-face interview, information on assault was obtained from Study members when they turned 21 years of age. Our results showed that more women than men reported being assaulted by a partner, assaults by men represented a greater percentage of womens assault experiences, the partner assault rate was higher for women, and the assaults against women tended to result in more serious injury.
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Is age important? Testing general versus developmental theories of antisocial behavior | 1997
Jeglum Bartusch, D.R., Lynam, D.R., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 1997, 35(35), 13-47.
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Our ref: RO295
Show abstract » We tested competing hypotheses derived from Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory and Moffitt's (1993a) developmental theory of antisocial behavior. The developmental theory argues that different factors give rise to antisocial behavior at different points in the life course. In contrast the general theory maintains that the factor underlying antisocial behavior (i.e., criminal propensity) is the same at all ages. To test these competing predictions, we used longitudinal data spanning from age 5 to age 18 for the male subjects in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Using reports from three sources (parents, teachers, and the boys themselves), we estimated second-order confirmatory factor models of antisocial behavior. These models provided consistent support for the developmental theory, showing that separate latent factors underlie childhood and adolescent antisocial behavior Moreover, we found that these childhood and adolescent factors related in ways predicted by Moffitt's developmental theory to four correlates of antisocial behavior: Childhood antisocial behavior was related more strongly than adolescent antisocial behavior to low verbal ability, hyperactivity, and negative/impulsive personality, whereas adolescent antisocial behavior was related more strongly than childhood antisocial behavior to peer delinquency. The two underlying latent factors also showed the predicted differential relations to later criminal convictions: Childhood antisocial behavior was significantly more strongly associated with convictions for violence, while adolescent antisocial behavior was significantly more strongly associated with convictions for nonviolent offenses.
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Antecedents of adult interpersonal functioning: Effects of individual differences in age-3 temperament | 1997
Newman, D.L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 1997, 33(33), 206-217.
Our ref: RO294
Show abstract » We examined whether temperamental differences at age 3 are linked to interpersonal functioning in young adulthood. In a sample of over 900 children, we identified 5 distinct groups of children based on behavioral observations: Well-adjusted, undercontrolled, reserved, confident, and inhibited. At age 21, we assessed the children's interpersonal functioning in 4 social contexts: in the social network, at home, in romantic relationships, and at work. We found three patterns of relations: (a) Well-adjusted, reserved, and confident children defined a heterogeneous range of normative adult interpersonal behavior, (b) inhibited children had lower levels of social support but normative adjustment in romantic relationships and at work, and (c) undercontrolled children had lower levels of adjustment and greater interpersonal conflict across adult social contexts.
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Sport and delinquency: an examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study | 1997
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Marshall, S.W. « Hide
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1997, 30(30), 335-341.
Our ref: RO292
Show abstract » Objective-To determine whether involvement in sporting activity in midadolescence would deter delinquent behaviour in late adolescence. Methods-Members of a longitudinal cohort study were interviewed at ages 15 and 18 years and, among other topics, were asked questions relating to involvement in physical activity and delinquent behaviour. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relation between sports involvement and delinquency at age 15 years and delinquency at age 18. Results-After controlling for delinquent behaviour and psychosocial factors at age 15, females with moderate or high levels of sporting activity, and males with high levels of sporting activity, were significantly more likely to be delinquent at age 18 years than those with low levels of sporting activity. No significant association was found between sporting activity and aggressive behaviour, team sport participation and delinquency, and team sport participation and aggressive behaviour. Conclusions-This study did not support the deterrence hypothesis and showed that high involvement in sporting activity, but not team sport, was associated with a subsequent increase in delinquent behaviour.
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Access to alcohol from licensed premises during adolescence: a longitudinal study | 1997
Casswell, S., Zhang, J.F.
Addiction, 1997, 92(92), 737-745.
Our ref: RO291
Show abstract » Abstract: Control of young people's access to alcohol via licensed premises has been shown to be an effective alcohol harm reduction strategy in the United States. In a longitudinal study of young New Zealanders their access to alcohol at the ages of 15 and 18 years was shown to be significantly predictive of the quantities of alcohol they consumed during a drinking occasion both then and in subsequent years. In turn the quantities of alcohol consumed were predictive of the respondents' experience of intoxication related adverse consequences. The impact of access via licensed premises on drinking and related problems was greater in this cohort of young people than the impact of peer or parental influences.
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Good teeth, bad teeth and fear of the dentist | 1997
Poulton, R., Thomson, W.M., Davies, ... Show all » S., Kruger, E., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 327-334.
download pdf Our ref: RO290
Show abstract » Studies of dental fear and oral disease suggest that conditioning processes are important in the acquisition of dental fear. At this time, however, definitive conclusions are premature as all research on the etiology of dental fear has been retrospective in design, with most confined to analogue or clinic samples. This study redressed these limitations by prospectively investigating the relationship between oral health (i.e. caries experience) at age 5 and 15 yr and the report of dental fear at age 18 in a large, unselected birth cohort. Caries experience at age 5 was not related to the development of dental fear in late adolescence. In contrast, caries experience at age 15 was significantly, and specifically, related to the report of dental fear at age 18. A ratio of caries severity at age 15, indicating the extent of multisurface involvement, was inversely related to dental fear at age 18. This intriguing finding suggests that relatively brief dental treatment occasioned by low levels of dental disease may result in the incubation of dental fear in some individuals and that longer episodes of treatment may facilitate fear habituation. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Level of education, age of bearing children and mental health of women | 1997
Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Olaman, ... Show all » S., Knight, R.G. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1997, 45(45), 827-836.
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Our ref: RO289
Show abstract » The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between women's mental health and both their level of education and age at which they had their first child. The women were divided into four groups depending on whether or not they had further education after leaving school and whether or not they had a baby before the age of 21. Longitudinal data collected over a 19-year period from this group of women suggested that psychological morbidity was relatively stable across this time span. Women who left school without proceeding to further education and those who became mothers before the age of 21 had higher psychological symptom scores than the other groups throughout this period. These two factors were associated with poorer mental health in an additive fashion. The women were also more likely to have separated from the father of their child and continued to be economically disadvantaged into mid-life.
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The (in)stability of adolescent fears | 1997
Poulton, R., Trainor, P., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., McGee, R., Davies, S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 159-163.
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Our ref: RO285
Show abstract » This study examined change in different types of fear in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort from age 13-15 years. When viewed cross-sectionally there were few differences in the frequency and content of fears reported at these ages with the exception of an increase in social fears at age 15. When viewed longitudinally, however, few adolescents who reported fears at age 13 continued to report fears 2 years later. Implications for developmental theories of fear and phobia are discussed.
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Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: Results from Northern and Southern Hemispheres | 1997
Gortmaker, S., Kagan, J., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Psychobiology, 1997, 31(31), 107-144.
Our ref: RO284
Show abstract » This study looked at daylength during pregnancy (measured by the month the children were born) and shyness in children. Data from the Dunedin Study and also a United States study indicated that maternal exposure to short daylength during pregnancy, especially at the midpoint of gestation, predicted an increased risk of subsequent shy behaviour in the children. Some possible factors influencing this observation were discussed.
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Inattentive and hyperactive behaviors and driving offences in adolescence | 1997
Nada-Raja, S., Langley, J.D., McGee, ... Show all » R., Williams, S.M., Begg, D.J., Reeder, A.I. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1997, 36(36), 515-522.
download pdf Our ref: RO280
Show abstract » Objective: The associations between symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, anxiety, or depression and no disorder in relation to driving offenses were examined in 916 adolescents. Method: Self-report and parent report were used to assess a birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents' mental health status at age 15 years. Adolescents who scored 1.5 SD above the mean on the DSM-III total ADHD symptom scale were identified as reporting significant ADHD symptomatology. Self-report data and official traffic conviction records were used to identify adolescents who had committed driving offenses between ages 15 and 18 years. Results: ADHD symptomatology and conduct disorder were strongly associated with driving offenses. ADHD symptomatology in females was significantly associated with driving offenses and more traffic crashes compared with other disorder or no disorder. Conclusions: Adolescents with a history of ADHD and conduct problems are significantly more likely than their peers to commit traffic offenses. Research in ADHD and risky driving should include female adolescents, as those with attentional difficulties are at a high risk for being involved in traffic crashes than females who do not experience attentional difficulties.
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Do partners agree about abuse in their relationship? A psychometric evaluation of interpartner agreement | 1997
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Krueger, ... Show all » R.F., Magdol, L., Margolin, G., Silva, P.A., Sydney, R. « Hide
Psychological Assessment, 1997, 9(9), 47-56.
Our ref: RO278
Show abstract » This study tested whether partners can be relied on to provide congruent reports about abuse in their relationship. The authors examined whether interpartner agreement (IA) varies as a function of whether the perpetrator is the man or the woman, and by whether the abusive behavior being reported is physical or psychological. Guided by psychometric test theory, the authors examined whether weak IA about specific behaviors can be improved by aggregating behavior items into scales and by controlling for random measurement error. A representative sample of 360 young couples was studied. IA did not vary with the perpetrator's gender or with the nature of the abusive behaviors, but victims (both men and women) reported somewhat more abuse than did their perpetrators. IA about specific abusive behaviors was only poor to fair,but it became very good when items were aggregated into scales and even better when measurement errors were removed from the reports. The findings suggest that reports of abuse can be aggregated to form internally consistent scales that show strong IA, thereby fulfilling criteria for reliability. Moreover under research conditions that guarantee confidentiality, either abuser reports or victim reports are suitable methods for use in research on partner abuse.
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Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21-year-olds: bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches | 1997
Magdol, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Newman, D.L., Fagan, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1997, 65(65), 68-78.
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Our ref: RO277
Show abstract » This study describes partner violence in a representative sample of young adults. Physical violence perpetration was reported by 37.2% of women and 21.8% of man. Correlates of involvement in severe physical violence differed by gender. Severe physical violence was more strongly associated with unemployment, low educational attainment, few social support resources, polydrug use, antisocial personality disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and violence toward strangers for men than for women. Women who were victims of severe physical violence were more likely than men who were victims to experience symptoms of anxiety. The findings converge with community studies showing that more women than men are physically violent toward a partner and with clinical studies highlighting violence perpetrated against women by mm with deviant characteristics.
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Sun behaviour and perceptions of risk for melanoma among 21-year-old New Zealanders | 1997
Douglass, H.M., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1997, 21(21), 329-334.
Our ref: RO272
Show abstract » This study investigated perceived risk of previous melanoma, sunscreen use and frequency of sunburn in a large sample of young New Zealanders. A self-report questionnaire was administered to a sample of 909 21-year-olds to survey their perception of how sun behaviours affect their risk of getting previous melanoma, how often they get sunburn, how often they use sunscreen and what factors would get them to use sunscreen more often. Knowledge of previous melanoma was high, but myths concerning 'safe tanning' persisted. Many young adults believed that sunbathing regularly using a sunscreen and obtaining a good base tan from gradual sun exposure decreased their risk of getting previous melanoma. They were unsure about the use of artificial sun beds and if their use would increase or decrease their risk. Males and females differed significantly on many aspects of their sun behaviour. Most used sunscreen only 'sometimes' and its use was linked to knowledge of previous melanoma and perceptions of risk. The best way to modify the sun behaviour of young adults is to target both their knowledge of previous melanoma risk factors and their perceptions of risk.
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The use of general practice services by 18 year olds in New Zealand | 1996
Murdoch, J.C., Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1996, 109(109), 113-115.
Our ref: NZ72
Show abstract » Aims. To ascertain the opinions of 861 eighteen year olds about their use and opinion of health services. Methods. A computer generated questionnaire delivered to 440 males and 421 females at or around their eighteenth birthday. Results. General practice was the overwhelmingly predominant provider of health services to this group with 69% of males and 86% of females having consulted. Satisfaction with the service given by general practitioners was high, as it was with other less common providers. Female users were significantly more likely than males to have problems of embarrassment with the doctor or a worry that their parents might be told of the consultation. While only 4% of females preferred to discuss their health problems with a male doctor, 88% had a male doctor. For 50% of the females, choice of doctor depends on the nature of the problem for which they consult. Conclusions. General practice is seen by these adolescents as providing a highly satisfactory service and the general practitioner is by far the most commonly consulted health professional. There is, however, no doubt that more choice in the gender of the doctor would improve satisfaction with the service. The study also demonstrates that having the same doctor for all problems is not necessarily acceptable to adolescent female patients.
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The lifetime occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases among a cohort aged 21 | 1996
Dickson, N., Paul, C., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., McNoe, B., Silva, P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1996, 109(109), 308-312.
download pdf Our ref: NZ70
Show abstract » This study estimated the lifetime occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among a cohort aged 21. Among the sexually experienced, 8.6% of the men and 17.3% of the women reported ever having had an STD. The implications of these findings were discussed.
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Does smoking worsen asthma or add a new disease? [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), .
Our ref: RO304
Show abstract » This study examined whether smoking makes asthma worse or is an indicator of the development of a new disease. It was concluded that smoking does not significantly worsen adolescent asthma but rather adds features of early chronic bronchitis.
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Parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma in children [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), 466s.
Our ref: RO303
Show abstract » This report describes some parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma in children.
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Asthma, respiratory symptoms and cigarette smoking in adolescents [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., , Holdaway, M.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), 149s.
Our ref: RO302
Show abstract » This study examined whether smoking makes asthma worse or is an indicator of the development of a new disease. It was concluded that smoking does not significantly worsen adolescent asthma but rather adds features of early chronic bronchitis.
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Comparison of asthma prevalence reported in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Lewis, S., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Robson, B., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D., Pearce, N., Crane, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), 24s.
Our ref: RO301
Show abstract » See RO300 for the full report.
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Adolescents' needs for parenting education: Is there a role for the health professions? | 1996
Stanton, W.R., Fisher, K.J., Calvert, ... Show all » B. « Hide
Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 1996, 6(6), 57-59.
Our ref: RO298
Show abstract » This paper examined what information needs are reported by adolescents and what communication channels are used to obtain parenting information. The study found that adolescents are in need of information about parenting and may seek assistance from health professionals.
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Rider training, reasons for riding and the social context of riding among young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand | 1996
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1996, 20(20), 369-374.
Our ref: RO293
Show abstract » Serious injuries to young motorcyclists represent an important public health problem. Little is known about the opinions and behaviours of the young riders at risk. We document the training experiences of young motorcyclists, and their reasons for riding or discontinuing riding, and identify the role models and sources of disapproval of motorcycling. The research was part of a longitudinal study of health, development, attitudes and behaviours of a birth cohort. At age 18 years, cohort members who had ridden a motorcycle during the past year completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Initial riding instruction was rarely received from a qualified instructor but was usually informal, from a male friend or father, and occurred off the load, usually on a farm. The most commonly given reasons for riding were excitement and economy. Most motorcyclists who had ceased riding attributed this to the lack of access to a motorcycle, and few mentioned safety. Mothers were the main source of disapproval. The young riders were not a homogeneous group. More licensed than unlicensed riders said manoeuvrability in traffic and ease of parking were reasons for riding. Licensed motor-cyclists had more friends who rode and were more likely than unlicensed riders to have received paternal instruction. Early informal training off the road may establish attitudes and behaviours inappropriate in a traffic contest. The main reasons for motor cycling (excitement, economical and manoeuvrable transport, freedom from supervision) and for discontinuing riding (lack of access) indicate motivations that should be considered before implementation of injury prevention interventions.
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Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21 | 1996
Fawcett, J.P., Williams, S.M., Heydon, ... Show all » J.L., Walmsley, T.A., Menkes, D.B. « Hide
Environmental Health Perspectives, 1996, 104(104), 1332-1335.
Our ref: RO288
Show abstract » Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 g/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 g/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 g/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 g/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 g/dl; p<0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 g/dl; p<0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p<0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure.
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Measuring children's antisocial behaviors [Editorial] | 1996
Moffitt, T.E.
JAMA, 1996, 275(275), 403-404.
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Our ref: RO287
Show abstract » This editorial questions the accuracy of Needleman et al's measures of children's antisocial behavior in their study of the association of bone lead and young boys' attention problems, aggression and delinquency.
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Behavioral distinctions between children identified with reading disabilities and/or ADHD | 1996
Pisecco, S., Baker, D.B., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brooke, M. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996, 35(35), 1477-1484.
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Our ref: RO286
Show abstract » Objective: To investigate behavioral distinctions between children with reading disabilities (RD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A four-group mixed design consisting of children with reading disabilities only (RD only), reading disabilities and ADHD (RD/ADHD), ADHD only, and a comparison group was used. Differences between parent reports, from age 5 to 15 years, and teacher reports, from age 5 to 13 years, were examined on measures of hyperactive and antisocial behaviors. Results: The analyses indicated that, at home, children from the ADHD only and RD/ADHD groups exhibited significantly more hyperactive behaviors than children from the RD only and comparison groups. At school, children from the RD only, ADHD only, and RD/ADHD groups typically exhibited significantly more hyperactive and antisocial behaviors than children from the comparison group. With regard to antisocial behaviors, children from the RD/ADHD group exhibited significantly more antisocial behaviors than children from any other group. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that children from these groups may exhibit either a ''pervasive'' or ''situational'' presentation of behavioral problems, a finding which suggests that in conducting an evaluation of ADHD it is important to obtain both parent and teacher reports of problem behaviors.
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Prevalence, reliability and bias of adolescents' reports of smoking and quitting | 1996
Stanton, W.R., McClelland, M., Elwood, ... Show all » C., Ferry, D.G., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Addiction, 1996, 91(91), 1705-1714.
Our ref: RO283
Show abstract » A follow-up of smoking behaviour to age 18 in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort enabled an assessment of the prevalence of smoking and quitting among adolescents approaching adulthood. There was a dramatic increase in number of daily smokers (15% at age 15 years to 31% at age 18 years), and in a climate of expected decreases in smoking, a history of never smoking to age 15 years was not as protective against future smoking as anticipated. Among 15-year-olds who had experimented with smoking, only 11% per year stopped by age 18 years. Cessation rates for adolescent daily smokers were low (3% had nor smoked in the last year at age 18 years), and previously have not been widely reported. We also examined some methodological issues related to self-reported prevalence rates, in particular reliability, validity and sources of bias, finding confirmation of the accuracy of information from prospective longitudinal studies and supporting the conclusion that adolescents' recall for information beyond a 1-year period is inconsistent.
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Behavioral observations at age 3 predict adult psychiatric disorders: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort | 1996
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Newman, ... Show all » D.L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1996, 53(53), 1033-1039.
download pdf Our ref: RO282
Show abstract » Background: This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. Methods: In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-III-R criteria. Results: Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless, and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Under-controlled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings. Conclusion: Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.
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Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder | 1996
Bardone, A.M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Dickson, N., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 811-829.
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Our ref: RO281
Show abstract » Follow-up studies of adolescent depression and conduct disorder have pointed to homotypic continuity, but less information exists about outcomes beyond mental disorders and about the extent to which adolescents with different disorders experience different versus similar difficulties during the transition to adulthood. We assessed the continuity of adolescent disorder by following girls in a complete birth cohort who at age 15 were depressed (n = 27), conduct disordered (n = 37), or without a mental health disorder (n = 341) into young adulthood (age 21) to identify their outcomes in three domains: mental health and illegal behavior, human capital, and relationship and family formation. We found homotypic continuity; in general, depressed girls became depressed women and conduct disordered girls developed antisocial personality disorder symptoms by age 21. Conduct disorder exclusively predicted at age 21: antisocial personality disorder, substance dependence, illegal behavior, dependence on multiple welfare sources, early home leaving, multiple cohabitation partners, and physical partner violence. Depression exclusively predicted depression at age 21. Examples of equifinality (where alternate pathways lead to the same outcome) surfaced, as both adolescent disorders predicted at age 21: anxiety disorder, multiple drug use, early school leaving, low school attainment, any cohabitation, pregnancy, and early child bearing.
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Parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma | 1996
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1996, 75(75), 392-398.
Our ref: RO279
Show abstract » Background-Previous studies have not resolved the importance of several potential risk factors for the development of childhood atopy, airway responsiveness, and wheezing, would allow the rational selection of interventions to reduce morbidity from asthma. Risk factors for these disorders were examined in a birth cohort of 1037 New Zealand children. Methods-Responses to questions on respiratory symptoms and measurements of lung function and airway responsiveness were obtained every two to three years throughout childhood and adolescence, with over 85% cohort retention at age 18 years. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests at age 13 years. Relations between parental and neonatal factors, the development of atopy, and features of asthma were determined by comparison of proportions and logistic regression. Results-Male sex was a significant independent predictor for atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, hay fever, and asthma. A positive family history, especially maternal, of asthma strongly predicted childhood atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and hay fever. Maternal smoking in the last trimester was correlated with the onset of childhood asthma by the age of 1 year. Birth in the winter season increased the risk of sensitisation to cats. Among those with a parental history of asthma or hay fever, birth in autumn and winter also increased the risk of sensitisation to house dust mites. The number of siblings, position in the family, socioeconomic status, and birth weight were not consistently predictive of any characteristic of asthma. Conclusions-Male sex, parental atopy, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for asthma in young children. Children born in winter exhibit a greater prevalence of sensitisation to cats and house dust mites. These data suggest possible areas for intervention in children at risk because of parental atopy.
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The risky and protective motorcycling opinions and behaviours of young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand | 1996
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1996, 42(42), 1297-1311.
Our ref: RO276
Show abstract » This research documented the frequency of protective and risky motorcycling opinions and behaviours and investigated whether these opinions and behaviours were more frequently expressed by licensed than unlicensed riders and by riders with high rather than low exposure to motorcycling. Areas where there was scope for improvement were identified to help guide the promotion of protective strategies. As part of a broader study of a birth cohort, 217 18 year old motorcyclists were administered a motorcycling computer questionnaire. Evidence of positive protective opinions was found, but there was considerable scope for behavioural improvements. While 92% had worn a helmet, optimal protection was reported less frequently for other body areas: most often for the feet (54%), hands (47%) and upper body (35%) and least often for the legs (8%). Most (87%) riders considered conspicuity increased safety, 68% favoured mandatory day-time headlight use, and 66% used dipped headlights in day-time. While 55% favoured mandatory wearing of high-visibility clothing, only 15% of day-time and 20% of night-time riders reported doing this. During the past month, 16% had driven within two hours of drinking alcohol and 6% when too tired to be fully in control. Overall, 22% had been penalized for a motorcycle driving offence, most often speeding. While 46% said they agreed with the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS), most licensed under that system reported breaking licence conditions and most were not apprehended. Licensed motorcyclists were significantly more likely than the unlicensed to favour mandatory day-time headlight usage, report using dipped headlights in day-time, and wear better protection for the head, upper body and hands, but were also more likely to report drinking and driving and traffic convictions-probably because of their greater exposure. Other, non-significant, results were in the same direction, except that fewer licensed than unlicensed riders were in favour of mandatory high visibility clothing or the GDLS. A similar pattern of more protective attitudes and behaviours was found for high rather than low exposure riders, though it was generally weaker, and high exposure was associated with drinking and driving, driving while tired and traffic convictions. The issues of representativeness and reliability are discussed and some implications for public policies towards motorcycling by young people are considered. Further research is recommended in order to determine which are the best predictors of motorcycling opinions and behaviours: personal characteristics, the formal training associated with licensure, or exposure to motorcycling.
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Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in a birth cohort of 21-year-old New Zealanders | 1996
Fawcett, J.P., Shaw, J.P., Cockburn, ... Show all » M., Brooke, M., Barbezat, G.O. « Hide
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1996, 8(8), 365-369.
Our ref: RO275
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To determine the previous seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in a subset of a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21 and examine the association with risk factors and digestion-related symptoms. DESIGN: Assay of serum collected from members of a longitudinal study during 1993-94 and a survey of risk factors and digestion-related symptoms by interview and questionnaire. METHODS: Serum from 785 sample members (413 males, 372 females) of the 950 participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) at age 21 was analysed for H. pylori antibodies. Serum samples (n = 579) from the cohort at age 11 collected in 1983 were analysed for those who were seropositive at age 21. RESULTS: The previous seroprevalence of H. pylori at age 21 was 4.1% (32/785), with proportionally more males in the seropositive group (chi 2 = 6.7, P < 0.01). Serum samples taken at age 11 were available for 19 of the seropositive group and 74% of these (11 males, three females) were seropositive. The seropositive group at age 21 was no different in the size of their families, but at age 5 contained proportionally more individuals from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) (chi 2 = 6.1, P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, recent use of medications, smoking or alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: The previous seroprevalence of H. pylori among a birth cohort of 21-year-old New Zealanders is significantly lower than among most populations of about the same age in other countries. Seropositivity is higher in males and among families of lower SES, and is not associated with digestion-related symptoms. The seroconversion rate after age 11 appears to be low.
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Childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset antisocial conduct in males: Natural history from age 3 to 18 | 1996
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 399-424.
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Our ref: RO274
Show abstract » We report data that support the distinction between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset type conduct problems. Natural histories are described from a representative birth cohort of 457 males studied longitudinally from age 3 to 18 years. Childhood- and adolescent-onset cases differed on temperament as early as age 3 years, but almost half of childhood-onset cases did not become seriously delinquent. Type comparisons were consistent with our contention that males whose antisocial behavior follows a life-course-persistent path differ from males who follow an adolescence-limited path. As adolescents, the two types differed on convictions for violent crime, personality profiles, school leaving, and bonds to family. These differences can be attributed to developmental history because the two groups were well matched on measures of antisocial conduct at age 18 years: parent-reports, self-reports, and adjudication records. By age 18 years, many conduct-problem boys had encountered factors that could ensnare them in an antisocial future: substance dependence, unsafe sex, dangerous driving habits, delinquent friends, delinquent perceptions, and unemployment. Implications for theory, research design, prevention, and therapeutic treatment of conduct problems are highlighted. [Abstracted in Youth Update, 14; No.2, 1996, J. Shamsie (Ed.), Institute for the Study of Antisocial Behaviour in Youth (IAY), Canada]
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A developmental approach to influences on adolescents' smoking and quitting | 1996
Stanton, W.R., Currie, G.D., Oei, ... Show all » T.P.S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1996, 17(17), 307-319.
Our ref: RO271
Show abstract » Research in the area of adolescent smoking has shown strong support for the social influence role of friends and to some extent the influence of parents. The aim of this study was to determine if a developmental model designed for smoking education and prevention could be suitably applied to the influences on smoking and nonsmoking behavior. This study followed the smoking behavior of a sample of 937 New Zealand adolescents from 15 to 18 years old in order to determine if the sources of social influence changed over time and if they were different for smoking and quitting behavior. The results indicated that peer influence declined in late adolescence. Unadjusted for earlier smoking status, the predictors of adolescents' smoking status at 18 years old were (a) close friend smoked; (b) girlfriend, boyfriend, or spouse smoked; and (c) the majority of people they mix with daily were smokers. However, when the change in smoking between 15 and 18 years old was examined, the influence of a close friend who is a smoker was less evident. The influence of a celebrity also increased in late adolescence. The results of this study are discussed with reference to future research and smoking education and prevention programs.
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