The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 14 of 23.

Sport and delinquency: an examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study | 1997
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Marshall, S.W. « Hide
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1997, 30(30), 335-341.
Our ref: RO292
Show abstract » Objective-To determine whether involvement in sporting activity in midadolescence would deter delinquent behaviour in late adolescence. Methods-Members of a longitudinal cohort study were interviewed at ages 15 and 18 years and, among other topics, were asked questions relating to involvement in physical activity and delinquent behaviour. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relation between sports involvement and delinquency at age 15 years and delinquency at age 18. Results-After controlling for delinquent behaviour and psychosocial factors at age 15, females with moderate or high levels of sporting activity, and males with high levels of sporting activity, were significantly more likely to be delinquent at age 18 years than those with low levels of sporting activity. No significant association was found between sporting activity and aggressive behaviour, team sport participation and delinquency, and team sport participation and aggressive behaviour. Conclusions-This study did not support the deterrence hypothesis and showed that high involvement in sporting activity, but not team sport, was associated with a subsequent increase in delinquent behaviour.
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Access to alcohol from licensed premises during adolescence: a longitudinal study | 1997
Casswell, S., Zhang, J.F.
Addiction, 1997, 92(92), 737-745.
Our ref: RO291
Show abstract » Abstract: Control of young people's access to alcohol via licensed premises has been shown to be an effective alcohol harm reduction strategy in the United States. In a longitudinal study of young New Zealanders their access to alcohol at the ages of 15 and 18 years was shown to be significantly predictive of the quantities of alcohol they consumed during a drinking occasion both then and in subsequent years. In turn the quantities of alcohol consumed were predictive of the respondents' experience of intoxication related adverse consequences. The impact of access via licensed premises on drinking and related problems was greater in this cohort of young people than the impact of peer or parental influences.
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Good teeth, bad teeth and fear of the dentist | 1997
Poulton, R., Thomson, W.M., Davies, ... Show all » S., Kruger, E., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 327-334.
Our ref: RO290
Show abstract » Studies of dental fear and oral disease suggest that conditioning processes are important in the acquisition of dental fear. At this time, however, definitive conclusions are premature as all research on the etiology of dental fear has been retrospective in design, with most confined to analogue or clinic samples. This study redressed these limitations by prospectively investigating the relationship between oral health (i.e. caries experience) at age 5 and 15 yr and the report of dental fear at age 18 in a large, unselected birth cohort. Caries experience at age 5 was not related to the development of dental fear in late adolescence. In contrast, caries experience at age 15 was significantly, and specifically, related to the report of dental fear at age 18. A ratio of caries severity at age 15, indicating the extent of multisurface involvement, was inversely related to dental fear at age 18. This intriguing finding suggests that relatively brief dental treatment occasioned by low levels of dental disease may result in the incubation of dental fear in some individuals and that longer episodes of treatment may facilitate fear habituation. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Level of education, age of bearing children and mental health of women | 1997
Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Olaman, ... Show all » S., Knight, R.G. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1997, 45(45), 827-836.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO289
Show abstract » The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between women's mental health and both their level of education and age at which they had their first child. The women were divided into four groups depending on whether or not they had further education after leaving school and whether or not they had a baby before the age of 21. Longitudinal data collected over a 19-year period from this group of women suggested that psychological morbidity was relatively stable across this time span. Women who left school without proceeding to further education and those who became mothers before the age of 21 had higher psychological symptom scores than the other groups throughout this period. These two factors were associated with poorer mental health in an additive fashion. The women were also more likely to have separated from the father of their child and continued to be economically disadvantaged into mid-life.
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The (in)stability of adolescent fears | 1997
Poulton, R., Trainor, P., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., McGee, R., Davies, S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 159-163.
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Our ref: RO285
Show abstract » This study examined change in different types of fear in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort from age 13-15 years. When viewed cross-sectionally there were few differences in the frequency and content of fears reported at these ages with the exception of an increase in social fears at age 15. When viewed longitudinally, however, few adolescents who reported fears at age 13 continued to report fears 2 years later. Implications for developmental theories of fear and phobia are discussed.
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Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: Results from Northern and Southern Hemispheres | 1997
Gortmaker, S., Kagan, J., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Psychobiology, 1997, 31(31), 107-144.
Our ref: RO284
Show abstract » This study looked at daylength during pregnancy (measured by the month the children were born) and shyness in children. Data from the Dunedin Study and also a United States study indicated that maternal exposure to short daylength during pregnancy, especially at the midpoint of gestation, predicted an increased risk of subsequent shy behaviour in the children. Some possible factors influencing this observation were discussed.
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Inattentive and hyperactive behaviors and driving offences in adolescence | 1997
Nada-Raja, S., Langley, J.D., McGee, ... Show all » R., Williams, S.M., Begg, D.J., Reeder, A.I. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1997, 36(36), 515-522.
Our ref: RO280
Show abstract » Objective: The associations between symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, anxiety, or depression and no disorder in relation to driving offenses were examined in 916 adolescents. Method: Self-report and parent report were used to assess a birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents' mental health status at age 15 years. Adolescents who scored 1.5 SD above the mean on the DSM-III total ADHD symptom scale were identified as reporting significant ADHD symptomatology. Self-report data and official traffic conviction records were used to identify adolescents who had committed driving offenses between ages 15 and 18 years. Results: ADHD symptomatology and conduct disorder were strongly associated with driving offenses. ADHD symptomatology in females was significantly associated with driving offenses and more traffic crashes compared with other disorder or no disorder. Conclusions: Adolescents with a history of ADHD and conduct problems are significantly more likely than their peers to commit traffic offenses. Research in ADHD and risky driving should include female adolescents, as those with attentional difficulties are at a high risk for being involved in traffic crashes than females who do not experience attentional difficulties.
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Do partners agree about abuse in their relationship? A psychometric evaluation of interpartner agreement | 1997
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Krueger, ... Show all » R.F., Magdol, L., Margolin, G., Silva, P.A., Sydney, R. « Hide
Psychological Assessment, 1997, 9(9), 47-56.
Our ref: RO278
Show abstract » This study tested whether partners can be relied on to provide congruent reports about abuse in their relationship. The authors examined whether interpartner agreement (IA) varies as a function of whether the perpetrator is the man or the woman, and by whether the abusive behavior being reported is physical or psychological. Guided by psychometric test theory, the authors examined whether weak IA about specific behaviors can be improved by aggregating behavior items into scales and by controlling for random measurement error. A representative sample of 360 young couples was studied. IA did not vary with the perpetrator's gender or with the nature of the abusive behaviors, but victims (both men and women) reported somewhat more abuse than did their perpetrators. IA about specific abusive behaviors was only poor to fair,but it became very good when items were aggregated into scales and even better when measurement errors were removed from the reports. The findings suggest that reports of abuse can be aggregated to form internally consistent scales that show strong IA, thereby fulfilling criteria for reliability. Moreover under research conditions that guarantee confidentiality, either abuser reports or victim reports are suitable methods for use in research on partner abuse.
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Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21-year-olds: bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches | 1997
Magdol, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Newman, D.L., Fagan, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1997, 65(65), 68-78.
Our ref: RO277
Show abstract » This study describes partner violence in a representative sample of young adults. Physical violence perpetration was reported by 37.2% of women and 21.8% of man. Correlates of involvement in severe physical violence differed by gender. Severe physical violence was more strongly associated with unemployment, low educational attainment, few social support resources, polydrug use, antisocial personality disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and violence toward strangers for men than for women. Women who were victims of severe physical violence were more likely than men who were victims to experience symptoms of anxiety. The findings converge with community studies showing that more women than men are physically violent toward a partner and with clinical studies highlighting violence perpetrated against women by mm with deviant characteristics.
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Sun behaviour and perceptions of risk for melanoma among 21-year-old New Zealanders | 1997
Douglass, H.M., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1997, 21(21), 329-334.
Our ref: RO272
Show abstract » This study investigated perceived risk of previous melanoma, sunscreen use and frequency of sunburn in a large sample of young New Zealanders. A self-report questionnaire was administered to a sample of 909 21-year-olds to survey their perception of how sun behaviours affect their risk of getting previous melanoma, how often they get sunburn, how often they use sunscreen and what factors would get them to use sunscreen more often. Knowledge of previous melanoma was high, but myths concerning 'safe tanning' persisted. Many young adults believed that sunbathing regularly using a sunscreen and obtaining a good base tan from gradual sun exposure decreased their risk of getting previous melanoma. They were unsure about the use of artificial sun beds and if their use would increase or decrease their risk. Males and females differed significantly on many aspects of their sun behaviour. Most used sunscreen only 'sometimes' and its use was linked to knowledge of previous melanoma and perceptions of risk. The best way to modify the sun behaviour of young adults is to target both their knowledge of previous melanoma risk factors and their perceptions of risk.
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The use of general practice services by 18 year olds in New Zealand | 1996
Murdoch, J.C., Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1996, 109(109), 113-115.
Our ref: NZ72
Show abstract » Aims. To ascertain the opinions of 861 eighteen year olds about their use and opinion of health services. Methods. A computer generated questionnaire delivered to 440 males and 421 females at or around their eighteenth birthday. Results. General practice was the overwhelmingly predominant provider of health services to this group with 69% of males and 86% of females having consulted. Satisfaction with the service given by general practitioners was high, as it was with other less common providers. Female users were significantly more likely than males to have problems of embarrassment with the doctor or a worry that their parents might be told of the consultation. While only 4% of females preferred to discuss their health problems with a male doctor, 88% had a male doctor. For 50% of the females, choice of doctor depends on the nature of the problem for which they consult. Conclusions. General practice is seen by these adolescents as providing a highly satisfactory service and the general practitioner is by far the most commonly consulted health professional. There is, however, no doubt that more choice in the gender of the doctor would improve satisfaction with the service. The study also demonstrates that having the same doctor for all problems is not necessarily acceptable to adolescent female patients.
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The lifetime occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases among a cohort aged 21 | 1996
Dickson, N., Paul, C., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., McNoe, B., Silva, P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1996, 109(109), 308-312.
download pdf Our ref: NZ70
Show abstract » This study estimated the lifetime occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among a cohort aged 21. Among the sexually experienced, 8.6% of the men and 17.3% of the women reported ever having had an STD. The implications of these findings were discussed.
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Does smoking worsen asthma or add a new disease? [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), .
Our ref: RO304
Show abstract » This study examined whether smoking makes asthma worse or is an indicator of the development of a new disease. It was concluded that smoking does not significantly worsen adolescent asthma but rather adds features of early chronic bronchitis.
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Parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma in children [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), 466s.
Our ref: RO303
Show abstract » This report describes some parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma in children.
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Asthma, respiratory symptoms and cigarette smoking in adolescents [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., , Holdaway, M.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), 149s.
Our ref: RO302
Show abstract » This study examined whether smoking makes asthma worse or is an indicator of the development of a new disease. It was concluded that smoking does not significantly worsen adolescent asthma but rather adds features of early chronic bronchitis.
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Comparison of asthma prevalence reported in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies [Abstract] | 1996
Sears, M.R., Lewis, S., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P., Robson, B., Flannery, E.M., Holdaway, M.D., Pearce, N., Crane, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
European Respiratory Journal, 1996, 9(9), 24s.
Our ref: RO301
Show abstract » See RO300 for the full report.
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Adolescents' needs for parenting education: Is there a role for the health professions? | 1996
Stanton, W.R., Fisher, K.J., Calvert, ... Show all » B. « Hide
Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 1996, 6(6), 57-59.
Our ref: RO298
Show abstract » This paper examined what information needs are reported by adolescents and what communication channels are used to obtain parenting information. The study found that adolescents are in need of information about parenting and may seek assistance from health professionals.
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Rider training, reasons for riding and the social context of riding among young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand | 1996
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1996, 20(20), 369-374.
Our ref: RO293
Show abstract » Serious injuries to young motorcyclists represent an important public health problem. Little is known about the opinions and behaviours of the young riders at risk. We document the training experiences of young motorcyclists, and their reasons for riding or discontinuing riding, and identify the role models and sources of disapproval of motorcycling. The research was part of a longitudinal study of health, development, attitudes and behaviours of a birth cohort. At age 18 years, cohort members who had ridden a motorcycle during the past year completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Initial riding instruction was rarely received from a qualified instructor but was usually informal, from a male friend or father, and occurred off the load, usually on a farm. The most commonly given reasons for riding were excitement and economy. Most motorcyclists who had ceased riding attributed this to the lack of access to a motorcycle, and few mentioned safety. Mothers were the main source of disapproval. The young riders were not a homogeneous group. More licensed than unlicensed riders said manoeuvrability in traffic and ease of parking were reasons for riding. Licensed motor-cyclists had more friends who rode and were more likely than unlicensed riders to have received paternal instruction. Early informal training off the road may establish attitudes and behaviours inappropriate in a traffic contest. The main reasons for motor cycling (excitement, economical and manoeuvrable transport, freedom from supervision) and for discontinuing riding (lack of access) indicate motivations that should be considered before implementation of injury prevention interventions.
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Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21 | 1996
Fawcett, J.P., Williams, S.M., Heydon, ... Show all » J.L., Walmsley, T.A., Menkes, D.B. « Hide
Environmental Health Perspectives, 1996, 104(104), 1332-1335.
Our ref: RO288
Show abstract » Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 g/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 g/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 g/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 g/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 g/dl; p<0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 g/dl; p<0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p<0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure.
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Measuring children's antisocial behaviors [Editorial] | 1996
Moffitt, T.E.
JAMA, 1996, 275(275), 403-404.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO287
Show abstract » This editorial questions the accuracy of Needleman et al's measures of children's antisocial behavior in their study of the association of bone lead and young boys' attention problems, aggression and delinquency.
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Behavioral distinctions between children identified with reading disabilities and/or ADHD | 1996
Pisecco, S., Baker, D.B., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brooke, M. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996, 35(35), 1477-1484.
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Our ref: RO286
Show abstract » Objective: To investigate behavioral distinctions between children with reading disabilities (RD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A four-group mixed design consisting of children with reading disabilities only (RD only), reading disabilities and ADHD (RD/ADHD), ADHD only, and a comparison group was used. Differences between parent reports, from age 5 to 15 years, and teacher reports, from age 5 to 13 years, were examined on measures of hyperactive and antisocial behaviors. Results: The analyses indicated that, at home, children from the ADHD only and RD/ADHD groups exhibited significantly more hyperactive behaviors than children from the RD only and comparison groups. At school, children from the RD only, ADHD only, and RD/ADHD groups typically exhibited significantly more hyperactive and antisocial behaviors than children from the comparison group. With regard to antisocial behaviors, children from the RD/ADHD group exhibited significantly more antisocial behaviors than children from any other group. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that children from these groups may exhibit either a ''pervasive'' or ''situational'' presentation of behavioral problems, a finding which suggests that in conducting an evaluation of ADHD it is important to obtain both parent and teacher reports of problem behaviors.
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Prevalence, reliability and bias of adolescents' reports of smoking and quitting | 1996
Stanton, W.R., McClelland, M., Elwood, ... Show all » C., Ferry, D.G., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Addiction, 1996, 91(91), 1705-1714.
Our ref: RO283
Show abstract » A follow-up of smoking behaviour to age 18 in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort enabled an assessment of the prevalence of smoking and quitting among adolescents approaching adulthood. There was a dramatic increase in number of daily smokers (15% at age 15 years to 31% at age 18 years), and in a climate of expected decreases in smoking, a history of never smoking to age 15 years was not as protective against future smoking as anticipated. Among 15-year-olds who had experimented with smoking, only 11% per year stopped by age 18 years. Cessation rates for adolescent daily smokers were low (3% had nor smoked in the last year at age 18 years), and previously have not been widely reported. We also examined some methodological issues related to self-reported prevalence rates, in particular reliability, validity and sources of bias, finding confirmation of the accuracy of information from prospective longitudinal studies and supporting the conclusion that adolescents' recall for information beyond a 1-year period is inconsistent.
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Behavioral observations at age 3 predict adult psychiatric disorders: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort | 1996
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Newman, ... Show all » D.L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1996, 53(53), 1033-1039.
download pdf Our ref: RO282
Show abstract » Background: This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. Methods: In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-III-R criteria. Results: Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless, and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Under-controlled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings. Conclusion: Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.
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Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder | 1996
Bardone, A.M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Dickson, N., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 811-829.
download pdfLink to full publication »
Our ref: RO281
Show abstract » Follow-up studies of adolescent depression and conduct disorder have pointed to homotypic continuity, but less information exists about outcomes beyond mental disorders and about the extent to which adolescents with different disorders experience different versus similar difficulties during the transition to adulthood. We assessed the continuity of adolescent disorder by following girls in a complete birth cohort who at age 15 were depressed (n = 27), conduct disordered (n = 37), or without a mental health disorder (n = 341) into young adulthood (age 21) to identify their outcomes in three domains: mental health and illegal behavior, human capital, and relationship and family formation. We found homotypic continuity; in general, depressed girls became depressed women and conduct disordered girls developed antisocial personality disorder symptoms by age 21. Conduct disorder exclusively predicted at age 21: antisocial personality disorder, substance dependence, illegal behavior, dependence on multiple welfare sources, early home leaving, multiple cohabitation partners, and physical partner violence. Depression exclusively predicted depression at age 21. Examples of equifinality (where alternate pathways lead to the same outcome) surfaced, as both adolescent disorders predicted at age 21: anxiety disorder, multiple drug use, early school leaving, low school attainment, any cohabitation, pregnancy, and early child bearing.
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Parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma | 1996
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, ... Show all » E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1996, 75(75), 392-398.
Our ref: RO279
Show abstract » Background-Previous studies have not resolved the importance of several potential risk factors for the development of childhood atopy, airway responsiveness, and wheezing, would allow the rational selection of interventions to reduce morbidity from asthma. Risk factors for these disorders were examined in a birth cohort of 1037 New Zealand children. Methods-Responses to questions on respiratory symptoms and measurements of lung function and airway responsiveness were obtained every two to three years throughout childhood and adolescence, with over 85% cohort retention at age 18 years. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests at age 13 years. Relations between parental and neonatal factors, the development of atopy, and features of asthma were determined by comparison of proportions and logistic regression. Results-Male sex was a significant independent predictor for atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, hay fever, and asthma. A positive family history, especially maternal, of asthma strongly predicted childhood atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and hay fever. Maternal smoking in the last trimester was correlated with the onset of childhood asthma by the age of 1 year. Birth in the winter season increased the risk of sensitisation to cats. Among those with a parental history of asthma or hay fever, birth in autumn and winter also increased the risk of sensitisation to house dust mites. The number of siblings, position in the family, socioeconomic status, and birth weight were not consistently predictive of any characteristic of asthma. Conclusions-Male sex, parental atopy, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for asthma in young children. Children born in winter exhibit a greater prevalence of sensitisation to cats and house dust mites. These data suggest possible areas for intervention in children at risk because of parental atopy.
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The risky and protective motorcycling opinions and behaviours of young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand | 1996
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1996, 42(42), 1297-1311.
Our ref: RO276
Show abstract » This research documented the frequency of protective and risky motorcycling opinions and behaviours and investigated whether these opinions and behaviours were more frequently expressed by licensed than unlicensed riders and by riders with high rather than low exposure to motorcycling. Areas where there was scope for improvement were identified to help guide the promotion of protective strategies. As part of a broader study of a birth cohort, 217 18 year old motorcyclists were administered a motorcycling computer questionnaire. Evidence of positive protective opinions was found, but there was considerable scope for behavioural improvements. While 92% had worn a helmet, optimal protection was reported less frequently for other body areas: most often for the feet (54%), hands (47%) and upper body (35%) and least often for the legs (8%). Most (87%) riders considered conspicuity increased safety, 68% favoured mandatory day-time headlight use, and 66% used dipped headlights in day-time. While 55% favoured mandatory wearing of high-visibility clothing, only 15% of day-time and 20% of night-time riders reported doing this. During the past month, 16% had driven within two hours of drinking alcohol and 6% when too tired to be fully in control. Overall, 22% had been penalized for a motorcycle driving offence, most often speeding. While 46% said they agreed with the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS), most licensed under that system reported breaking licence conditions and most were not apprehended. Licensed motorcyclists were significantly more likely than the unlicensed to favour mandatory day-time headlight usage, report using dipped headlights in day-time, and wear better protection for the head, upper body and hands, but were also more likely to report drinking and driving and traffic convictions-probably because of their greater exposure. Other, non-significant, results were in the same direction, except that fewer licensed than unlicensed riders were in favour of mandatory high visibility clothing or the GDLS. A similar pattern of more protective attitudes and behaviours was found for high rather than low exposure riders, though it was generally weaker, and high exposure was associated with drinking and driving, driving while tired and traffic convictions. The issues of representativeness and reliability are discussed and some implications for public policies towards motorcycling by young people are considered. Further research is recommended in order to determine which are the best predictors of motorcycling opinions and behaviours: personal characteristics, the formal training associated with licensure, or exposure to motorcycling.
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Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in a birth cohort of 21-year-old New Zealanders | 1996
Fawcett, J.P., Shaw, J.P., Cockburn, ... Show all » M., Brooke, M., Barbezat, G.O. « Hide
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1996, 8(8), 365-369.
Our ref: RO275
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To determine the previous seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in a subset of a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21 and examine the association with risk factors and digestion-related symptoms. DESIGN: Assay of serum collected from members of a longitudinal study during 1993-94 and a survey of risk factors and digestion-related symptoms by interview and questionnaire. METHODS: Serum from 785 sample members (413 males, 372 females) of the 950 participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) at age 21 was analysed for H. pylori antibodies. Serum samples (n = 579) from the cohort at age 11 collected in 1983 were analysed for those who were seropositive at age 21. RESULTS: The previous seroprevalence of H. pylori at age 21 was 4.1% (32/785), with proportionally more males in the seropositive group (chi 2 = 6.7, P < 0.01). Serum samples taken at age 11 were available for 19 of the seropositive group and 74% of these (11 males, three females) were seropositive. The seropositive group at age 21 was no different in the size of their families, but at age 5 contained proportionally more individuals from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) (chi 2 = 6.1, P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, recent use of medications, smoking or alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: The previous seroprevalence of H. pylori among a birth cohort of 21-year-old New Zealanders is significantly lower than among most populations of about the same age in other countries. Seropositivity is higher in males and among families of lower SES, and is not associated with digestion-related symptoms. The seroconversion rate after age 11 appears to be low.
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Childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset antisocial conduct in males: Natural history from age 3 to 18 | 1996
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 399-424.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO274
Show abstract » We report data that support the distinction between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset type conduct problems. Natural histories are described from a representative birth cohort of 457 males studied longitudinally from age 3 to 18 years. Childhood- and adolescent-onset cases differed on temperament as early as age 3 years, but almost half of childhood-onset cases did not become seriously delinquent. Type comparisons were consistent with our contention that males whose antisocial behavior follows a life-course-persistent path differ from males who follow an adolescence-limited path. As adolescents, the two types differed on convictions for violent crime, personality profiles, school leaving, and bonds to family. These differences can be attributed to developmental history because the two groups were well matched on measures of antisocial conduct at age 18 years: parent-reports, self-reports, and adjudication records. By age 18 years, many conduct-problem boys had encountered factors that could ensnare them in an antisocial future: substance dependence, unsafe sex, dangerous driving habits, delinquent friends, delinquent perceptions, and unemployment. Implications for theory, research design, prevention, and therapeutic treatment of conduct problems are highlighted. [Abstracted in Youth Update, 14; No.2, 1996, J. Shamsie (Ed.), Institute for the Study of Antisocial Behaviour in Youth (IAY), Canada]
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A developmental approach to influences on adolescents' smoking and quitting | 1996
Stanton, W.R., Currie, G.D., Oei, ... Show all » T.P.S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1996, 17(17), 307-319.
Our ref: RO271
Show abstract » Research in the area of adolescent smoking has shown strong support for the social influence role of friends and to some extent the influence of parents. The aim of this study was to determine if a developmental model designed for smoking education and prevention could be suitably applied to the influences on smoking and nonsmoking behavior. This study followed the smoking behavior of a sample of 937 New Zealand adolescents from 15 to 18 years old in order to determine if the sources of social influence changed over time and if they were different for smoking and quitting behavior. The results indicated that peer influence declined in late adolescence. Unadjusted for earlier smoking status, the predictors of adolescents' smoking status at 18 years old were (a) close friend smoked; (b) girlfriend, boyfriend, or spouse smoked; and (c) the majority of people they mix with daily were smokers. However, when the change in smoking between 15 and 18 years old was examined, the influence of a close friend who is a smoker was less evident. The influence of a celebrity also increased in late adolescence. The results of this study are discussed with reference to future research and smoking education and prevention programs.
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The Life History Calendar: A research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data | 1996
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Thornton, ... Show all » A., Freedman, D., Amell, J.W., Harrington, H. L., Smeijers, J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 1996, 6(6), 101-114.
Our ref: RO269
Show abstract » This article describes the Life History Calendar (LHC), a data-collection method for obtaining reliable retrospective data about life events and activities. The LHC method was developed in the context of longitudinal research to record central events that can occur in a respondent's life. The LHC can be used as both a research and a clinical assessment method. As a research instrument, the LHC can be used to collect detailed event-history data for analyzing life-course dynamics. As a clinical instrument, the LHC can be used both as an assessment tool and as a therapeutic guide. In this article, we explain the need for a LHC when studying life-course dynamics; describe the advantages of the LHC method; present data about the validity of the LHC; describe research and clinical uses of the LHC; and discuss the design of the LHC and offer suggestions about how to tailor LHC's for unique research and clinical purposes.
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Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multi-trait/multi-diagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort | 1996
Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1996, 105(105), 299-312.
download pdf Our ref: RO268
Show abstract » The authors assessed the relation between personality and mental disorder in a representative birth cohort of 897 men and women. Personality was assessed at age 18 with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1982), and 4 types of mental disorder (affective, anxiety, substance dependence, and conduct disorder) were assessed at ages 15, 18, and 21, using age-appropriate standardized diagnostic interviews. All disorder groups had MPQ profiles that were very different from those of controls. When comorbid cases were excluded, fewer significant differences between diagnosed cases and controls remained. Relations between personality and mental disorder were not affected by the measurement of disorder as continuous versus discrete, gender, or the age at which disorder was diagnosed. Relations between personality and mental disorders appear to be robust, and individual personality differences may be particularly relevant to understanding the most severe (comorbid) expressions of psychopathology.
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Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance and new case incidence from age 11 to 21 | 1996
Newman, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Magdol, L., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. « Hide
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1996, 64(64), 552-562.
download pdf Our ref: RO267
Show abstract » Mental health data were gathered at ages 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21 in an epidemiological sample using standardized diagnostic assessments. Prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. revised; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) mental disorders increased longitudinally from late childhood (18%) through mid- (22%) to late-adolescence (41%)and young adulthood (40%). Nearly half of age-21 cases had comorbid diagnoses; and comorbidity was associated with severity of impairment. The incidence of cases with adult onset was only 10.6%: 73.8% of adults diagnosed at age 21 had a developmental history of mental disorder. Relative to new cases, those with developmental histories were more severely impaired and more likely to have comorbid diagnoses. The high prevalence rate and significant impairment associated with a diagnosis of mental disorder suggests that treatment resources need to target the young adult sector of the population. The low new-case incidence in young adulthood, however, suggests that primary prevention and etiological research efforts need to target children and adolescents.
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Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and non-violent criminal convictions: from age 3 to age 18. | 1996
Henry, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 1996, 32(32), 614-623.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO265
Show abstract » This study examined the relations between family characteristics, childhood temperament, and convictions for violent and nonviolent offenses at age 18 in a representative birth cohort of men who are part of a longitudinal study. Three groups of men were identified on the basis of their conviction status at age 18: Participants who had never been convicted (n = 404), participants who had been convicted for nonviolent offenses only (n = 50),and participants who had been convicted for violent offenses (n = 21). Multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses indicated that family factors were associated with both types of conviction outcomes, whereas childhood temperament was associated primarily with convictions for violent offenses. The potentially distinct roles of social- and self-regulation in the development of antisocial behavior are discussed.
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The (artefactual) remission of reading difficulties: Psychometric lessons in the study of stability and change in behavioral development | 1996
Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 1996, 32(32), 132-140.
Our ref: RO250
Show abstract » Patterns of reading disability were examined in 2 longitudinal studies. The major findings were (a) that on the basis of the observed data, remission of reading disability was relatively common with up to 37% of reading-disabled children showing remission of this disability within a 2-year period, and (b) when the data were analyzed with a latent Markov model that took account of measurement errors in test scores, the estimated true rate of remission of reading disability was between 15% and 19% over a 2-year period. The presence of measurement error in reading disability classifications may lead to an inflated and misleading impression of the rate of remission of these problems. General implications of these findings for interpreting patterns of stability and change in longitudinal-developmental data were discussed.
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The New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System: teenagers' attitudes towards and experiences with this car driver licensing system | 1995
Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Reeder, ... Show all » A.I., Chalmers, D.J. « Hide
Injury Prevention, 1995, 1(1), 177-181.
Our ref: RO273
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: This study examined the attitudes of teenagers towards the New Zealand graduated driver licensing system (GDLS), and the extent to which it affected them. METHOD: Teenagers, who are members of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, were interviewed at 15 years of age when the GDLS was first introduced and before they had begun licensure, and again at 18 years of age after they had experience with this licensing system. RESULTS: At both ages the majority (over 70%) agreed with the driving restrictions imposed by this system. After experience with the restrictions, however, significantly more reported being affected a lot by them, than had expected to be at age 15. This was especially true of the restrictions on the carrying of passengers and the night time curfew (10 pm - 5 am). However, few reported that they were affected by the alcohol restriction. Sixty eight per cent of those with a graduated licence reported breaking at least one of the conditions, most frequently carrying passengers. Very few were penalised by the police for this. CONCLUSIONS: Generally these young drivers were positively disposed towards the driving restrictions, but noncompliance was common. A full evaluation of all aspects of this licensing system is recommended.
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Identification of personality types at risk for poor health and injury in late adolescence | 1995
Caspi, A., Begg, D.J., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, T.E., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 1995, 5(5), 330-350.
doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1995.5.4.330
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Our ref: RO270
Show abstract » In an unselected general birth cohort of 862 18-year-olds, we sought to identify the personality characteristics associated with involvement in each of five different health-risk behaviours (unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners, dangerous driving habits, violent crime, alcohol dependence and marijuana dependence) as well as the personality characteristics associated with a syndrome of multiple health-risk behaviours. A unique configuration of traits differentiated youth involved in any given single health-risk behaviour from youth who were not. These youth were more impulsive, aggressive, alienated and tended to experience negative emotions in response to daily hassles. A different unique configuration of traits differentiated youth involved in a syndrome of multiple health-risk behaviours from youth involved in a single or in no health-risk behaviours. These youth were distinguished by a rejection of social norms, danger-seeking, impulsivity, a very low threshhold for negative emotional responses such as anger, irritability und nervous tension, and by little need or capacity for connection to other people. In planning health campaigns, health professionals need to consider the unique psychological make-up of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviours and design programmes that will appeal to them.
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Young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand: age of licensure, unlicensed riding and motorcycle borrowing | 1995
Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D. « Hide
Injury Prevention, 1995, 1(1), 103-108..
Our ref: RO266
Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of unlicensed riding and motorcycle borrowing among young motorcyclists, and to document their perceptions of how they would be affected if the minimum age of licensure were raised. METHODS: Motorcycling was investigated as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a broad longitudinal study of the health, development, attitudes, and behaviours of a birth cohort. Young motorcyclists, who had ridden on-road during the year before their interview at age 18 years, completed a computer administered questionnaire containing questions about licensure, riding frequency, and motorcycle borrowing. RESULTS: Of the 217 motorcyclists identified, 36% were licensed, 54% had ridden once a month or less frequently, and 72% had usually ridden a borrowed motorcycle during the one year recall period. Significantly more licensed than unlicensed riders and owners than borrowers reported higher exposure and significantly more licensed than unlicensed riders were owners. Most licensed riders (86%) had ridden on public roads before licensure, and many (54%) thought that they would have been much affected by a higher minimum age of licensure. CONCLUSIONS: More stringent enforcement of existing licensing regulations, tougher penalties for breaching graduated driver licensing restrictions, raising the minimum age for motorcycle licensure, and prohibiting the sale or lending of motorcycles to unlicensed riders are possible injury prevention strategies.
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Relation of the course of bronchial responsiveness from age 9 to age 15 to allergy | 1995
Burrows, B., Sears, M.R., Flannery E.M., ... Show all » Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1995, 152(152), 1302-1308.
Our ref: RO264
Show abstract » Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was measured in a birth cohort of New Zealand children at ages 9, 11, 13, and 15. Overall bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) decreased with age. While the response at age 9 was significantly related to responsiveness, symptom severity, and low lung function at age 15, these relationships were much closer when bronchial response levels after age 9 were taken into account. Also, among children who were unresponsive to methacholine at age 15, those with previous BHR had more frequent wheeze and lower lung function than those whose previous tests were ail unresponsive. Both the overall tendency to BHR and the tendency to retain BHR were closely related to high serum IgE levels (determined at age 11) and to positive allergy skin tests (determined at age 13). These evidences of allergy, closely related to the severity and course of methacholine response, appeared to be important determinants of the frequency of wheeze and the degree of impairment of lung function at the end of follow-up. In view of the variability in BHR, a single estimate of bronchial responsiveness taken at an arbitrary point in time may not be an accurate index of the overall tendency to BHR.
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Predicting resting blood pressure at 18 years: the Dunedin Study | 1995
St George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Macfarlane, ... Show all » D.J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Adolescent Health, 1995, 17(17), 133-139.
Our ref: RO263
Show abstract » Purpose: To examine the value of repeated blood pressure screening during childhood, and exercise testing in adolescence, for predicting resting blood pressure at eighteen years. Method: Regular measures of blood pressure and other variables in a birth cohort from 7 to 18 years. Cardiovascular responses to exercise testing at 15 and 18 years. Results: The best predictors of resting blood pressure at 18 years were body size at 18 years and resting blood pressure at 15 years. Neither exercise and recovery blood pressures at 15 years, nor the way blood pressure had tracked through childhood, added importantly to the prediction. Conclusions: We question the value of screening for hypertension during childhood, either by regular resting measures or by exercise testing in adolescence.
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Growth, development and behaviour in adolescents born small-for-gestational age | 1995
Pryor, J., Silva, P.A., Brooke, ... Show all » M. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1995, 31(31), 151-157.
Our ref: RO262
Show abstract » Objective: To examine the effects on adolescents of being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Methodology: The sample are members of a cohort longitudinal study in which growth, cognitive development and behaviour are being studied into adulthood. Ninety-one SGA subjects were available for comparison with the rest of the sample (n = 1037) on measures of height, weight, head circumference, cognitive performance and behavioural variables to the age of 18 years old. Results: SGA subjects were shorter and lighter at 18 years of age than their appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) counterparts despite age of onset of menarche being the same in both groups. At age 13, SGA subjects scored significantly lower than the AGA group on the WISC-R scales. They were rated by parents as having more behaviour problems at age of 15. Conclusions: SGA birth appears to be a potential problem which extends beyond childhood in its effects on growth, behaviour and cognitive performance.
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