The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 21 of 22.

Early experiences with alcohol: a survey of an eight and nine year old sample | 1983
Casswell, S., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brasch, P.E. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 1001-1003.
Our ref: NZ35
Show abstract » This paper describes the nine year children's experience of drinking alcoholic beverages, their sources of information about alcohol, and their knowledge about the effects of alcohol.
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Fencing of private swimming pools in New Zealand | 1983
Langley, J.D.
Community Health Studies, 1983, 7(7), 285-289.
Our ref: NZ34
Show abstract » This paper advocates the fencing of private swimming pools as a means of preventing drowning accidents.
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Childhood burns | 1983
Langley, J.D., Tobin, P.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 681-684.
Our ref: NZ33
Show abstract » This reports describes a five year retrospective study of children admitted to Dunedin Hospital for treatment of burn injuries.
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A preliminary evaluation of the use of an automatic tympanometer in the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion in children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit | 1983
Stewart, I.A., Jenkin, L., Kirkland, ... Show all » C., Silva, P.A., Simpson, A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 252-255.
Our ref: NZ32
Show abstract » Microscopic examination by two trained examiners, conventional impedance tympanometry by a trained audiometrist, automatic impedance tympanometry by a person with minimal training and puretone audiometry by trained audiometrists were compared in 468 ears, studied blind. There was complete examiner agreement in microscopic examination in 465 (99.3%) ears, minor disagreement in three (0.7%) ears. There was a more complex relationship between examination methods, with microscopic evidence of effusion being present in 88.2% of ears showing B tympanograms to conventional tympanometry and in 66.7% of ears to automatic tympanometry. Automatic tympanometry provides a reasonably accurate method of detecting middle ear effusion, but tends to overdiagnose this condition compared to alternate methods.
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Blood pressure in a cohort of Dunedin seven year olds | 1983
Simpson, A., Birkbeck, J.A., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Spears, G.F., Williams, S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 116-118.
Our ref: NZ31
Show abstract » Blood pressure, pulse measurements, socio-economic status, and anthropometric data were recorded in 982 children within approximately one month of their seventh birthdays. The means, standard deviations, and 95th centiles are reported for systolic, diastolic phase IV, and diastolic phase V blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the socio-economic levels for any measure of blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in boys than in girls; this difference disappeared after correction for height. There were small but significant correlations between blood pressure and pulse rate, weight, height, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and indices of obesity and body size. After adjustment for weight, the associations of systolic blood pressure with height, body mass index, and arm circumference were no longer significant.
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Student's perception of ability scale: development of a short form | 1983
Chapman, J.W., Silva, P.A., Boersma, ... Show all » F.J. « Hide
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1983, 57(57), 799-802.
Our ref: RO46
Show abstract » This paper describes the technical properties of the short form of the Students Perception of Ability Scale.
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Socio-economic status and childhood accidents | 1983
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1983, 19(19), 237-240.
Our ref: RO35
Show abstract » This study found no significant relationship between four measures of socio-economic status and child injuries.
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Depression in a sample of nine year old children: prevalence and associated characteristics | 1983
Kashani, J., McGee, R., Clarkson, ... Show all » S.E., Anderson, J., Walton, L.A., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A., Robins, A.J., Cytryn, M.D., McKnew, M.D. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983, 40(40), 1217-1223.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO34
Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of depression in a sample of 9-year-old children from the general population being studied longitudinally. Current point prevalences of major and minor depressive disorder were estimated at 1.8% and 2.5%, respectively. A comparison of children with depression and a nondepressed group disclosed no significant differences by sex, nor any significant association between depression and socioeconomic status, teacher reports of behavior problems, and cognitive or motor development. The children with current depression were reported by a parent to have had a history of more behavioral problems, had been referred more often for assessment or treatment of behavioral or emotional problems, and had more negative self-perceptions of their academic ability. The results suggested that parents may be more sensitive than teachers to the behavior problems exhibited by depressed children.
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Developmental language delay from three to seven years and its significance for low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven | 1983
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1983, 25(25), 783-793.
Our ref: RO33
Show abstract » A large sample of Dunedin (New Zealand) children was assessed at three, five and seven years to study the prevalence and stability of language delay, and to investigate the association between language delay at each age and low intelligence and reading problems at age seven. The prevalence of specific comprehension delay, specific expressive delay, and general language delay varied from 2.0 to 4.3 per cent. General language delays were the most stable. Every type of language delay at each age, particularly earlier, general and stable delay was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of low intelligence or reading difficulties at age seven than among the total sample.
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Prevalence of self reported depressive symptoms and associated social factors in a sample of mothers in Dunedin | 1983
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Kashani, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 143(143), 473-479.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO32
Show abstract » A large sample of women (n = 899) from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a self-report questionnaire on depressive symptoms. On this basis, about 8 per cent of the sample were identified as having major depressive disorder. These women tended to have a history of previously reported psychological symptoms and formal treatment for depression. A significantly high proportion of the depressed group had been young at first pregnancy and had since been separated from their partners. The depressed women also reported more behaviour problems in their children, but these reports were not confirmed by teachers' reports or by the children's self-reports, suggesting a response bias in depressed women towards reporting problems.
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Parents' and teachers' perceptions of behaviour problems in seven year old children | 1983
McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
The Exceptional Child, 1983, 30(30), 151-161.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO30
Show abstract » This study investigated the characteristics of children identified as having behaviour problems by a parent, by a teacher, or by both parent and teacher. Characteristics studied included those of the mother, the family, and the child him/herself. Results indicated differential associations between these background characteristics and problem behaviour, depending upon whether the parent, the teacher, or both perceived a problem. The findings point to the need for a careful description of children with behaviour problems based upon both parent and teacher reports.
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The incidence of attachment objects and oral habits at bedtime in two longitudinal samples of children aged 1.5 to 7 years | 1983
Mahalski, P.A.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1983, 24(24), 283-295.
Our ref: RO18
Show abstract » The incidence of emotional attachment to soft toys and blankets, and sucking habits was studied in two samples of children. Mothers of one sample were interviewed when the children were 1.5, 2 and 2.5 years old, and mothers of the other sample answered questionnaires when their children were 3.5, 5 and 7 years old. Strong emotional attachment to objects, and thumb or finger sucking were most prevalent around 2 years of age. There was a positive association between sucking and attachment to objects at all ages. Clinging, sucking and movement habits merge into one another and serve the same function of easing the transition from waking to sleeping, from high arousal to low arousal.
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Interpreting Stanford Binet and WISC(R) IQ's in New Zealand: Research Notice | 1982
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1982, 17(17), 195.
Our ref: NZ30
Show abstract » This report shows that the mean IQs of Dunedin children were considerably higher than those obtained from the norm samples of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale at age five and the WISC-R Intelligence Scale at age six and seven. Caution in the interpretation of IQs obtained in New Zealand was urged.
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Family size, ordinal position, socio-economic status and child development | 1982
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 371-373.
Our ref: NZ29
Show abstract » This paper shows relationships between family size, ordinal position, socio-economic status, and height, intelligence, and reading ability in children. In contrast to overseas findings, no significant effects attributable to family size or ordinal position were found.
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A descriptive study of socio-economic status and child development in Dunedin five year olds: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1982
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Thomas, ... Show all » J., Williams, S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1982, 17(17), 21-32.
Our ref: NZ28
Show abstract » This report shows relationships between socio-economic status and various family background and child development measures. There were large differences in psychological characteristics attributable to socio-economic status but no significant differences in physical or health measures.
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Asthma in seven year old children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1982
Sears, M.R., Jones D.T., Silva, P.A., ... Show all » Simpson, A., Williams, S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 533-536.
Our ref: NZ27
Show abstract » The prevalence of asthma between birth and seven years was determined by questionnaire in 875 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. From the combinations of asthma and/or wheezing reported in association with bronchitis, hayfever, eczema and allergies, a diagnosis of certain or probable asthma was made in 12.6 percent of these children. A further 22.6 percent admitted to wheezing, but a diagnosis of asthma could not be made with any certainty. Bronchitis was reported frequently, usually associated with wheezing. Children with more obvious asthma showed a male preponderance and significant differences in body build and school attendance compared with asymptomatic children.
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Behaviour problems and otitis media with effusion: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1982
McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Stewart, ... Show all » I.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 655-657.
Our ref: NZ25
Show abstract » The relationship between behaviour problems at age seven and occurrence of otitis media with effusion (OME) at age five was examined in a large sample of Dunedin children. It was found that children with a significant degree of problem behaviour at seven were twice as likely to have had OME at five when compared with children without behaviour problems. Furthermore, there was a significant association between hyperactive behaviour in boys and bilateral OME.
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Neurological dysfunction in a large sample of three year old children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1982
McGee, R., Clarkson, J.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Williams, S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 693-696.
Our ref: NZ24
Show abstract » The prevalence of neurological abnormalities was examined in a large sample of Dunedin three-year-old children. About 10 percent of those assessed had one or more abnormalities at three and 2 percent had abnormalities which were judged to have an effect on the child's functioning. The presence of abnormalities at three was associated with language and motor delays at that age and predictive of later IQ deficit. However, abnormalities were not stable over time and their significance for predictive purposes with individual cases is questioned.
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School playground climbing equipment - safe or unsafe? | 1982
Langley, J.D., Crosado, B.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 540-542.
Our ref: NZ23
Show abstract » This report describes a survey of school playground climbing equipment. The majority of the equipment was considered to be unsafe because it was either too high or mounted over non impact absorbing surfaces. This paper led to revision of the New Zealand Standards for playgrounds.
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Relationships between dental health behaviour and oral health status of 5-year-old children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1982
Evans, R.W., Silva, P.A., Beck, ... Show all » D.J., Brown, R.H. « Hide
New Zealand Dental Journal, 1982, 78(78), 42675.
Our ref: NZ22
Show abstract » The management of dental caries by the dental profession is largely concerned with water fluoridation, the treatment of teeth affected by caries, health education in the fields of nutrition and oral hygiene, and the encouragement of early introduction to regular incremental care. Where water supplies are fluoridated a dramatic reduction in caries is apparent. Treatment and restoration of carious teeth by dentists and school dental nurses in a programme of regular incremental care has achieved a very high level of dental fitness among children and young adolescents in New Zealand. However, the supposed benefits of taking up better dental health behaviour patterns promoted by dental health education have not been widely investigated. It was clearly shown in the 1973 International Collaborative Study of Dental Manpower Systems by the World Health Organization' that considerable variations in oral health occur between countries and that some of this variation was due to factors other than fluoridation and the provision of dental services. During the dental survey of 5-year-old children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study, the relationship between dental health behaviour advocated by the dental profession and the oral health of the children was investigated.
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Clinical assessment of the performance on the Basic Motor Ability Test of seven year old children | 1982
Wilson, J., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 8(8), 195-203.
Our ref: RO28
Show abstract » This paper describes some clinical aspects of motor performance and how these related to objective assessment on the Basic Motor Ability Test.
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A prospective study of the association between delayed motor development at ages three and five, and low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven | 1982
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 8(8), 187-193.
Our ref: RO27
Show abstract » This study showed that early motor delays were predictive of later low intelligence and reading difficulties.
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The predictive significance of slow walking and talking | 1982
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1982, 17(17), 133-139.
Our ref: RO26
Show abstract » This study found that, compared with children who were slow to talk, children who were slow to walk were a high risk group for later low intelligence or reading difficulties. This paper was summarised in the New Scientist.
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Childhood accidents - parents' attitudes to prevention | 1982
Langley J.D., Silva, P.A.
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1982, 18(18), 247-249.
Our ref: RO25
Show abstract » This study showed that neither a previous history of accidents nor socio-economic status was related to parental attitudes to accident prevention. Many parents viewed accidents as being beyond their control.
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The accident-prone child - the perpetration of a myth | 1982
Langley J.D.
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1982, 18(18), 243-246.
Our ref: RO24
Show abstract » This paper argues that the concept of accident proneness is a myth and that the widespread acceptance of the myth hinders the development of effective injury control measures.
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Breast-feeding and cognitive development in the first seven years of life | 1982
Fergusson, D.M., Beautrais, A.L., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1982, 16(16), 1705-1708.
Our ref: RO23
Show abstract » The relationship between previous breast-feeding practices and childhood intelligence and language development at ages 3, 5 and 7 years was examined in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The results showed that even when a number of control factors including maternal intelligence, maternal education, maternal training in child rearing, childhood experiences, family socio-economic status, birth weight and gestational age were taken into account, there was a tendency for previous breast-fed children to have slightly higher test scores than bottle-fed infants. On average, previous breast-fed children scored approximately two points higher on scales with a standard deviation of 10 than bottle-fed infants when all control factors were taken into account. It was concluded that previous breast-feeding may be associated with very small improvements in intelligence and language development or, alternatively, that the differences may have been due to the effects of other confounding factors not entered into the analysis.
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Evidence of decrease in the prevalence of dental caries in New Zealand | 1982
Brown, R.H.
Journal of Dental Research, 1982, 61(61), 1327-1330.
Our ref: RO22
Show abstract » This paper reviews a number of dental studies, including the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, in order to describe the decrease in the prevalence of dental caries in New Zealand. Fluoridation of public water supplies and the widespread use of fluoride toothpastes were considered to be as important as the emphasis on preventive measures given by the school dental service.
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An assessment of motor ability in seven year olds | 1982
Wilson, J., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 7(7), 221-232.
Our ref: RO21
Show abstract » As part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study, seven year old children were tested for motor co-ordination using the Basic Motor Ability Test (Arnheim & Sinclair 1974). Dunedin norms established for this test are presented and sex differences found in the performance of tests requiring different motor skills are described. Relationships between test items and a failure cut-off point are also presented.
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The growth and development of twins compared with singletons at ages five and seven. A follow-up report from The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1982
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Powell, ... Show all » J. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1982, 18(18), 35-36.
Our ref: RO20
Show abstract » This is a continuation of the study of twins and extends the findings reported in publication RO5. The physical growth and intelligence of the twins remained disadvantaged at ages five and seven but their language development and reading did not differ significantly from that of singletons. See RO70 for an update of twin's development at age 9 and 11.
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Some developmental and behavioural characteristics associated with bilateral otitis media with effusion | 1982
Silva, P.A., Kirkland, C., Simpson, ... Show all » A., Stewart, I.A., Williams, S.M. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1982, 15(15), 417-421.
Our ref: RO19
Show abstract » This paper shows that five year old children with bilateral otitis media with effusion were significantly disadvantaged in speech articulation ability, verbal comprehension, motor development, and intelligence and had significantly more behaviour problems than children with normal ears.
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Child behaviour and accidents | 1982
Langley, J.D., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Williams, S.M. « Hide
Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 1982, 8(8), 181-189.
Our ref: RO16
Show abstract » This study investigated the relationship between child accidents and behaviour problems. Although there were some significant associations, these were considered to be of little practical significance for those involved in injury control.
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A follow up of inattentive and/or hyperactive children from birth to 7 years of age | 1982
Chapel, J.L., Robins, A.J., McGee, ... Show all » R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 1982, 13(13), 17-26.
Our ref: RO14
Show abstract » This study describes the prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorder with and without hyperactivity at age three, identification of the problem, perinatal and background characteristics, characteristics differentiating between problem and non-problem children, and the stability of the problem to age seven.
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Immunisations in the fifth year of life: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1981
Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M., Stewart, ... Show all » A.C. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1981, 93(93), 180-181.
Our ref: NZ21
Show abstract » Of a sample of 988 Dunedin children whose mothers were interviewed after the children's fifth birthday, 7.4 percent had not received a combined diphtheria and tetanus booster and 10.6 percent had not received a rubella immunisation. Only 57.9 percent of mothers gave a correct answer to a question about why rubella immunisations are necessary, 17.0 percent gave a partially correct answer, and 25.1 percent were unable to answer the question correctly. There were no significant associations between immunisation status and maternal education level, socioeconomic status, or knowledge of the need for rubella immunisation in this sample. Knowledge of the need for immunisation was significantly associated with maternal educational background and socio-economic status. Strong and positive action to ensure greater immunisation coverage, such as suggested by Shannon and co-workers, is supported.
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The predictive validity of a simple two item developmental screening test for three year olds | 1981
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1981, 93(93), 39-41.
Our ref: NZ20
Show abstract » A simple two item developmental screening test for three year old children is described, together with its predictive validity when used with 937 children being followed in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. Data are presented to show that the test screened out 6.9 percent of the three year old children and more than half of them gained very low scores on at least one test of intelligence, motor or language development two years later. The screening test successfully identified from one half to three-quarters of all the children who gained very low five year scores in intelligence, motor or language development at age five. The two item screening test is recommended for use by doctors, nurses, teachers or social workers, as a simple method of identifying three year old children in need of further assessment because of suspected developmental delays.
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Accidental injuries in the sixth and seventh years of life: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1981
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1981, 93(93), 344-347.
Our ref: NZ19
Show abstract » Two hundred and thirty-two (22 percent) of a sample of 1072 children in their sixth and seventh years of life had 273 injuries. Thirty-seven of the children had two or more accidents and 20 children were admitted to hospital as a result of their injuries. Forty-four percent of all the injuries were described as open wounds and the most common site of injury was the head. Falls were the most common type of accident and accounted for 44 percent of all injuries. The most common fall was from playground equipment.
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Swimming abilities and experiences of seven year olds | 1981
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1981, 14(14), 45-46.
Our ref: NZ18
Show abstract » This report describes the swimming experiences and abilities of seven year olds.
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Primary school accidents | 1981
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1981, 94(94), 336-339.
Our ref: NZ17
Show abstract » Five hundred and eighteen Otago primary school accidents are described. Falls and accidents described as striking against or struck by a person or object, represented 82 percent of all the accidents. Nearly a third of all accidents resulted in fractures; the upper limb being the most common site of injury. Playthings and sports equipment were involved in over a quarter of the accidents. Of the accidents described, falls from playground equipment offer the best potential for the prevention of injury. Reprinted in the Newsletter of the International Association for the Child's Right to Play, Vol. 8, No. 4, February 1983, p. 7-11.
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Scalds to preschool children | 1981
Langley, J.D., Dodge, J.S., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1981, 93(93), 84-87.
Our ref: NZ16
Show abstract » A survey of scalds to 64 children under five years of age was undertaken. The results showed that there was a wide variety of circumstances which resulted in these injuries. The significance of developmental aspects is demonstrated, as is the need to modify the child's environment. Poor supervision was not a significant factor in the incidents described. The problems associated with implementing various preventive strategies are discussed. It is concluded that more attention needs to be given to improving the effectiveness of active countermeasures due to the lack of practical passive countermeasures.
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The role of dairy products in the New Zealand diet | 1981
Birkbeck, J.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1981, 94(94), 386-389.
Our ref: NZ15
Show abstract » This paper describes and discusses the role of dairy products and other foods in the diets of New Zealand children and adults.
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The International Classification of Diseases codes for describing injuries and circumstances surrounding injuries: A critical comment and suggestions for improvement | 1981
Langley, J.D.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1981, 14(14), 195-197.
Our ref: RO15
Show abstract » This paper highlights some of the shortcomings of the International Classification of Diseases Codes for describing injuries and the circumstances surrounding them. It contains a number of suggestions for improvement, so that information recorded would be of more value for injury prevention programmes.
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