The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 21 of 23.

Lack of long term effect of method of infant feeding on growth | 1985
Birkbeck, J.A., Buckfield, P.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition, 1985, 39(39), 39-44.
Our ref: RO55
Show abstract » Although we have found that, at 7 years of age, children who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life are significantly taller and slightly heavier than those exclusively formula-fed, correction for a variety of other familial factors can explain most of the differences. The breast-fed were longer at birth, had taller mothers, and came from families of higher socioeconomic status, although the last appears to act via maternal stature. There was no difference between the groups at age 7 in skeletal maturity, nor in fatness as measured by combined triceps plus subscapular fatfold. Apparent associations between the method of infant feeding and findings in later childhood must thus be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect differences between the characteristics of families choosing different methods of feeding rather than an effect of the feeding method itself.
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Family Environment Scale: A Dunedin (New Zealand) pilot study | 1985
Parnicky, J.J., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Australian Psychologist, 1985, 20(20), 195-204.
Our ref: RO54
Show abstract » This paper describes the results from the Family Environment Scale obtained with Dunedin mothers, and compares these with American results.
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Some factors associated with reading ability: a longitudinal study | 1985
Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A.
Educational Research, 1985, 27(27), 159-168.
Our ref: RO53
Show abstract » This paper describes the contribution of a wide range of variables to reading ability at age seven and nine.
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Children's attitudes to alcohol and awareness of alcohol related problems | 1985
Casswell, S., Brasch, P.E., Gilmore, ... Show all » L.L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Addiction, 1985, 80(80), 191-194.
Our ref: RO52
Show abstract » This paper describes the drinking patterns of children and associations between these and parental drinking patterns. Attitudes to alcohol and alcohol related problems are also reported.
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The Rutter Scale for completion by teachers: factor structure and relationship with cognitive abilities and family adversity for a sample of New Zealand children | 1985
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Bradshaw, ... Show all » J., Chapel, J.L., Robins, A.J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1985, 26(26), 727-739.
Our ref: RO51
Show abstract » A large sample of 7-year-old children (n = 940) was rated by teachers using the Rutter Child Scale B, a 26-item questionnaire covering a variety of behavioural problems. A factor analysis of the data revealed three main factors of interest, identified as aggressiveness, hyperactivity and anxiety-fearfulness. Measures based upon these factors had a reasonably high level of reliability and were moderately stable over a 2-year interval. An analysis of the relationship between these three behavioural measures and some cognitive measures indicated that only hyperactivity was negatively associated with cognitive ability. However, both hyperactivity and aggressiveness were related to adversity in the child's family background. The findings suggest the usefulness of distinguishing between aggressive and hyperactive dimensions of behaviour.
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Laterality, cognitive ability and motor performance in a sample of seven year olds | 1985
Clymer, P.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1985, 11(11), 59-68.
Our ref: RO50
Show abstract » SUMMARY This study examined hand, eye, and foot laterality in a sample of 890 7-yr-old children to determine whether the degree of left and right congruence between hand, eye, and foot preference related to a variety of measures of cognitive ability or motor performance or whether there was an association between hand, eye, and foot preferences and differences in cognitive ability and motor performance. With regard to left and right congruence, the only significant difference found related to a test of target throwing. There was a decrease in target throwing ability with decreased total left or right congruence. When the sample was grouped according to strength of left or right preference and all the measures were compared, there were no significant differences. Overall, this study found no significant association between any aspect of laterality studied and cognitive ability and only one significant association between laterality and a measure of motor performance. The implications of these results are discussed.
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Some characteristics of nine year old boys with general reading backwardness and specific reading retardation | 1985
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1985, 26(26), 407-421.
Our ref: RO44
Show abstract » In 1975 Rutter and Yule distinguished between 'specific reading retardation' and 'general reading backwardness'. In a sample of 952 9-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, 4.2% were identified as specific reading retarded and 4.1% as having general reading backwardness. Boys from each problem group were compared with boys without reading delay. General reading backwardness was associated with a history of long-term cognitive and motor delay. Specific reading retardation was only associated with lower verbal IQ and poor speech articulation. A number of differences between the findings of Rutter and Yule and the present results were noted.
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The prevalence of smoking among nine year olds | 1984
Oei, T.P.S., Brasch, P.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1984, 77(77), 528-531.
Our ref: NZ39
Show abstract » This study reported the results of a survey on smoking conducted by the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit of 779 nine year old children in their sample. By the age of nine, 275 (35.3%) of the children had tried to smoke a cigarette, even just a few puffs, and 636 (81.7%) did not have any friends who smoked. Most of these children knew about the adverse effects of smoking on health and most of this information did not come from their parents. They also reported that 63% of the mothers and 75% of the fathers did not give them information on smoking. The findings suggested (1) that health education programmes for the prevention of smoking by children should start prior to age nine (2) that a programme focusing on the negative aspects of smoking on health would probably not be very beneficial and (3) that parents should be recruited as health educators and used more efficiently in giving children more information about smoking.
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Vision and eye problems in seven year olds: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit | 1984
Simpson, A., Kirkland, C., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1984, 97(97), 445-449.
download pdf Our ref: NZ38
Show abstract » An eye examination, including tests of distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, cover tests, and an examination of pupils, eyes, adnexia, and eye movements, was carried out on 988 Dunedin children within approximately one month of their seventh birthday. Information concerning glasses and patching of one eye was obtained by questionnaire. Eye defects were noted in 9.4% of the children with several having more than one problem. Eye defects noted included 5.1% with unaided distance visual acuity of 6/12 or worse in one or both eyes, 4.4% with near visual acuity of the equivalent of N8 or worse in one or both eyes, 3.9% had manifest strabismus, 2.9% had had occlusion of one eye for amblyopia, and 1.2% had other important eye defects. Glasses had been prescribed for 3.6%.
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Two safety aspects of public playground climbing equipment | 1984
Langley, J.D., Crosado, B.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1984, 97(97), 404-406.
Our ref: NZ37
Show abstract » This paper describes the height of and surface under public playground climbing equipment in Dunedin. These findings, among others, led to revision of the New Zealand Standard for Playgrounds.
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Eysenck Personality Inventory Scores from 1011 New Zealand women: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1984
McKerracher, D.W., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1984, 19(19), 82.
Our ref: NZ26
Show abstract » This report describes results from use of the Eysenck Personality Inventory with mothers. Form B was recommended as superior to Form A.
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Bronchial reactivity in children without asthma [Abstract] | 1984
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, ... Show all » C.J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 1984, 14(14), 542.
Our ref: RO61
Show abstract » This paper describes bronchial reactivity to methacholine in children who did not have asthma.
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Injury control - psychosocial considerations | 1984
Langley, J.D.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1984, 25(25), 349-356.
Our ref: RO49
Show abstract » This paper presents a critical review of the literature on associations between psychosocial factors and injuries in children.
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Factors associated with the initiation of smoking in nine year old children | 1984
Oei, T.P.S., Egan, A.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Addictive Diseases (fmr Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse), 1984, 5(5), 79-89.
Our ref: RO48
Show abstract » The present study examined the relationship between 787 (415 boys and 372 girls) nine year old children's reported experience with cigarettes and the parents, home environment, peers, socioeconomic status, school performance and behavior or emotional problems and delinquency factors which had in the past been found to be influential during the formative stages of initiation into the use of tobacco. The 787 children (415 boys and 372 girls) were classified as either puffers (those who had puffed on a cigarette) or nonpuffers. The results suggest than, at age nine, puffers were more likely than nonpuffers to: intend to smoke in the future; have one or both parents smoking; have one, or more, smoking friend(s); do less well at maths and school work in general; misbehave more often; and be taken to see a psychologist regarding a behavioral or emotional problem.
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Academic self-concept: Some developmental and emotional correlates in nine-year-old children | 1984
Chapman, J.W., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1984, 54(54), 284-292.
Our ref: RO47
Show abstract » Eight hundred 9-year-old children being studied by the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit were assessed in terms of academic self-concept, intelligence, and school performance. A short form of the Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was used to estimate academic self-concept. Intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), reading by the Burt Word Reading Test, spelling by a short form of the Dunedin Spelling Test, comprehension and expression by the respective subscales in the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), and school achievement by parents' perceptions of current attainment levels. The results indicate that the SPAS Short Form yields means, standard deviations, and internal reliability estimates that are consistent with other studies. In addition, sex differences were noted, with girls reporting slightly higher self-perceptions of ability than boys. In terms of correlations between academic self-concept and school-related ability and performance, it was found that SPAS subject-specific subscale scores correlated moderately with corresponding subject area performance, but weakly or negligibly with WISC-Rand ITPA Comprehension and Expression scores. Perceptions of ability, therefore, appear to be relatively independent of intelligence,
and more related to success levels in school. It was also found that children identified as reading retarded had significantly lower self-perceptions of ability than normal readers. Similarly, depressed children indicated relatively negative self-concepts compared to past depressed and non-depressed children.

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A longitudinal study of enuresis from five to nine years | 1984
McGee, R., Makinson, T.L., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1984, 20(20), 39-42.
Our ref: RO45
Show abstract » The prevalence of primary and secondary enuresis was examined longitudinally in a large sample of New Zealand children at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. While the prevalence of primary enuresis fell over time, secondary enuresis increased in prevalence between 5 and 7 years. There were no sex differences. An examination of some of the developmental and background characteristics of the sample indicated that enuresis was not associated with neurodevelopmental delay or 'psychosocial' factors. However, there were strong, long term associations between secondary enuresis and behavioural deviance. The behavioural results suggested that behaviour problems did not arise as a consequence of enuresis, but rather preceded it.
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A longitudinal study of the intelligence and behaviour of children who were pre-term and children who were small for gestational age | 1984
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Developmental and Behavioural Paediatrics, 1984, 5(5), 1-5.
Our ref: RO43
Show abstract » A large sample of children (n = 850) from Dunedin, New Zealand, were classified into three groups, preterm (n = 31), small for gestational age (SGA; n = 71), and full-term, normal birth weight (n = 748). These groups were compared on intelligence measures taken at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of age and parent and teacher behavior reports at 5, 7, and 9 years. The SGA group but not the preterm group had significantly lower IQ scores than the normal birth weight children. In addition, the mothers of the SGA children reported more behavior problems. These differences were not attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage in the SGA group. The results suggest it is better to be born too early than too small.
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A seven year follow-up of the cognitive development of children who experienced common perinatal problems | 1984
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1984, 20(20), 23-28.
download pdf Our ref: RO42
Show abstract » The prevalence of perinatal problems in a sample of 1037 children was described. There was no significant association between perinatal problems and socio-economic status. The association between perinatal problems and cognitive development was examined by stepwise regression analyses of the more common perinatal problems on cognitive factor scores, using measures of language and intelligence taken when the children were aged 3, 5, and 7 years. Of 14 perinatal problems analysed in this manner, only two, being a twin or being small for gestational age, were found to be consistently associated with a significantly lower cognitive factor score.
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Description and classification of childhood burns | 1984
Langley, J.D.
Burns, 1984, 10(10), 231-235.
Our ref: RO41
Show abstract » This paper describes shortcomings in the ICD codes for describing burn injuries and argues for the need for better methods of describing the sequence of events resulting in burn injuries.
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Some developmental and behavioural characteristics of seven year old children with delayed speech development | 1984
Silva, P.A., Justin C., McGee, R., ... Show all » Williams, S.M. « Hide
European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1984, 19(19), 147-154.
Our ref: RO40
Show abstract » This report describes some characteristics of seven year old children with delayed speech development.
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The relationship between fluoridation and socio-economic status on dental caries experience in 5-year-old New Zealand children | 1984
Evans, R.W., Beck, D.J., Brown, ... Show all » R.H., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 1984, 12(12), 5-9.
Our ref: RO39
Show abstract » This article examines the relationship between previous fluoridation and socioeconomic status on caries experience, as measured by the dmf index, in 5-yr-old New Zealand children in the city of Dunedin (fluoridated in 1967) and in adjacent non-fluoride communities. The children were subdivided into six socioeconomic status groups (SES 1, professional and managerial-SES 6, unskilled workers), but then for simplicity they were combined to form three groups. A two-way analysis of variance demonstrated that interaction between fluoride history and socioeconomic status was not significant. In all three SES groups, dmf was higher in non-fluoride communities, but the difference was significant only in SES group (5&6) (P less than 0.01). Caries experience increased with decreasing socioeconomic status in both fluoride and non-fluoride communities, but this effect was only significant between SES groups (1&2) and (3&4) in the fluoridated community (P less than 0.05), and between SES groups (3&4) and (5&6) in non-fluoride communities (P less than 0.01). These results are compared with those of similar studies, and it is concluded that so far, the relationship between previous fluoridation and socioeconomic status on caries experience remains equivocal. A note of caution is sounded regarding the interpretation of such results, and the difficulties faced when comparing studies is discussed.
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Some biological, developmental and social correlates of gross and fine motor development | 1984
Silva, P.A., Birkbeck, J.A., Russell, ... Show all » D.G., Wilson, J. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1984, 10(10), 35-51.
Our ref: RO38
Show abstract » This paper presents an analysis of factors contributing to gross and fine motor development.
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Background characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys | 1984
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1984, 23(23), 280-284.
Our ref: RO37
Show abstract » In a previous study by the authors (1984), the behavioral and developmental characteristics of aggressive boys, hyperactive boys and boys who were both aggressive and hyperactive were examined. This report investigates the perinatal histories, maternal and family characteristics of these same groups, and a comparison group not identified as aggressive or hyperactive. The four groups did not differ in terms of their perinatal histories. While boys with problems differed from those without, clear differences among the problem groups did not emerge. The results did suggest, however, that quality of family life varied to some degree among the problem groups.
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Behavioural and developmental characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys | 1984
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1984, 23(23), 270-274.
Our ref: RO36
Show abstract » This paper examines the behavioural and developmental characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys.
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Perinatal, neurological, environmental and developmental characteristics of seven year old children with stable behaviour problems | 1984
McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1984, 25(25), 573-586.
Our ref: RO31
Show abstract » From a large sample of 7-yr-olds in Dunedin, New Zealand, a group of 52 boys and 32 girls with stable behaviour problems was selected and compared with the remainder of the sample. The groups did not differ in terms of perinatal problems except for a higher prevalence of being small for gestational age in the problem group. The mothers of the problem children tended to be younger, to have lower mental ability and poorer health than the rest of the sample. The families of the problem children were rated as having poorer relationships, and there was more parental separation and solo parenting in this group. Finally, the children with stable problems showed cognitive delays at age 7 yr.
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Behaviour problems in a population of seven year old children: prevalence, stability and types of disorder | 1984
McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1984, 25(25), 251-259.
Our ref: RO29
Show abstract » A sample of 951 children in Dunedin, New Zealand was assessed at age 7 years to examine the prevalence, nature and stability of behaviour problems. The identification of children with behaviour problems was based upon reports of parents and teachers. About 30% of the sample were identified by the parent and/or teacher as having a high level of problem behaviour. The most prevalent problem reported was antisocial behaviour, which was more common among boys than girls. Over 9% of the sample were identified as having a stable behaviour problem. Such stable problems were associated with specific reading retardation, independent ratings of behaviour during psychological testing and use of professional services for help. These children, together with those identified by both parent and teacher at age 7 years, should be regarded as having a significant behaviour disorder.
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The Otago photoscreener, a method for the mass screening of infants to detect squint and refractive errors | 1983
Molteno, A.C.B., Hoare-Nairne, J., Parr, ... Show all » J.L., Simpson, A., Hodgkinson, I.J., O'Brien, N.E., Watts, S.D. « Hide
Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of New Zealand, 1983, 35(35), 43-49.
download pdf Our ref: NZ36
Show abstract » This paper describes the development of a photographic method for screening for vision disorders and some results from a comparison of this method and conventional diagnosis.
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Early experiences with alcohol: a survey of an eight and nine year old sample | 1983
Casswell, S., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brasch, P.E. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 1001-1003.
Our ref: NZ35
Show abstract » This paper describes the nine year children's experience of drinking alcoholic beverages, their sources of information about alcohol, and their knowledge about the effects of alcohol.
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Fencing of private swimming pools in New Zealand | 1983
Langley, J.D.
Community Health Studies, 1983, 7(7), 285-289.
Our ref: NZ34
Show abstract » This paper advocates the fencing of private swimming pools as a means of preventing drowning accidents.
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Childhood burns | 1983
Langley, J.D., Tobin, P.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 681-684.
Our ref: NZ33
Show abstract » This reports describes a five year retrospective study of children admitted to Dunedin Hospital for treatment of burn injuries.
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A preliminary evaluation of the use of an automatic tympanometer in the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion in children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit | 1983
Stewart, I.A., Jenkin, L., Kirkland, ... Show all » C., Silva, P.A., Simpson, A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 252-255.
Our ref: NZ32
Show abstract » Microscopic examination by two trained examiners, conventional impedance tympanometry by a trained audiometrist, automatic impedance tympanometry by a person with minimal training and puretone audiometry by trained audiometrists were compared in 468 ears, studied blind. There was complete examiner agreement in microscopic examination in 465 (99.3%) ears, minor disagreement in three (0.7%) ears. There was a more complex relationship between examination methods, with microscopic evidence of effusion being present in 88.2% of ears showing B tympanograms to conventional tympanometry and in 66.7% of ears to automatic tympanometry. Automatic tympanometry provides a reasonably accurate method of detecting middle ear effusion, but tends to overdiagnose this condition compared to alternate methods.
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Blood pressure in a cohort of Dunedin seven year olds | 1983
Simpson, A., Birkbeck, J.A., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Spears, G.F., Williams, S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 116-118.
Our ref: NZ31
Show abstract » Blood pressure, pulse measurements, socio-economic status, and anthropometric data were recorded in 982 children within approximately one month of their seventh birthdays. The means, standard deviations, and 95th centiles are reported for systolic, diastolic phase IV, and diastolic phase V blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the socio-economic levels for any measure of blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in boys than in girls; this difference disappeared after correction for height. There were small but significant correlations between blood pressure and pulse rate, weight, height, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and indices of obesity and body size. After adjustment for weight, the associations of systolic blood pressure with height, body mass index, and arm circumference were no longer significant.
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Student's perception of ability scale: development of a short form | 1983
Chapman, J.W., Silva, P.A., Boersma, ... Show all » F.J. « Hide
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1983, 57(57), 799-802.
Our ref: RO46
Show abstract » This paper describes the technical properties of the short form of the Students Perception of Ability Scale.
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Socio-economic status and childhood accidents | 1983
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1983, 19(19), 237-240.
Our ref: RO35
Show abstract » This study found no significant relationship between four measures of socio-economic status and child injuries.
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Depression in a sample of nine year old children: prevalence and associated characteristics | 1983
Kashani, J., McGee, R., Clarkson, ... Show all » S.E., Anderson, J., Walton, L.A., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A., Robins, A.J., Cytryn, M.D., McKnew, M.D. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983, 40(40), 1217-1223.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO34
Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of depression in a sample of 9-year-old children from the general population being studied longitudinally. Current point prevalences of major and minor depressive disorder were estimated at 1.8% and 2.5%, respectively. A comparison of children with depression and a nondepressed group disclosed no significant differences by sex, nor any significant association between depression and socioeconomic status, teacher reports of behavior problems, and cognitive or motor development. The children with current depression were reported by a parent to have had a history of more behavioral problems, had been referred more often for assessment or treatment of behavioral or emotional problems, and had more negative self-perceptions of their academic ability. The results suggested that parents may be more sensitive than teachers to the behavior problems exhibited by depressed children.
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Developmental language delay from three to seven years and its significance for low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven | 1983
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1983, 25(25), 783-793.
Our ref: RO33
Show abstract » A large sample of Dunedin (New Zealand) children was assessed at three, five and seven years to study the prevalence and stability of language delay, and to investigate the association between language delay at each age and low intelligence and reading problems at age seven. The prevalence of specific comprehension delay, specific expressive delay, and general language delay varied from 2.0 to 4.3 per cent. General language delays were the most stable. Every type of language delay at each age, particularly earlier, general and stable delay was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of low intelligence or reading difficulties at age seven than among the total sample.
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Prevalence of self reported depressive symptoms and associated social factors in a sample of mothers in Dunedin | 1983
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Kashani, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 143(143), 473-479.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO32
Show abstract » A large sample of women (n = 899) from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a self-report questionnaire on depressive symptoms. On this basis, about 8 per cent of the sample were identified as having major depressive disorder. These women tended to have a history of previously reported psychological symptoms and formal treatment for depression. A significantly high proportion of the depressed group had been young at first pregnancy and had since been separated from their partners. The depressed women also reported more behaviour problems in their children, but these reports were not confirmed by teachers' reports or by the children's self-reports, suggesting a response bias in depressed women towards reporting problems.
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Parents' and teachers' perceptions of behaviour problems in seven year old children | 1983
McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
The Exceptional Child, 1983, 30(30), 151-161.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO30
Show abstract » This study investigated the characteristics of children identified as having behaviour problems by a parent, by a teacher, or by both parent and teacher. Characteristics studied included those of the mother, the family, and the child him/herself. Results indicated differential associations between these background characteristics and problem behaviour, depending upon whether the parent, the teacher, or both perceived a problem. The findings point to the need for a careful description of children with behaviour problems based upon both parent and teacher reports.
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The incidence of attachment objects and oral habits at bedtime in two longitudinal samples of children aged 1.5 to 7 years | 1983
Mahalski, P.A.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1983, 24(24), 283-295.
Our ref: RO18
Show abstract » The incidence of emotional attachment to soft toys and blankets, and sucking habits was studied in two samples of children. Mothers of one sample were interviewed when the children were 1.5, 2 and 2.5 years old, and mothers of the other sample answered questionnaires when their children were 3.5, 5 and 7 years old. Strong emotional attachment to objects, and thumb or finger sucking were most prevalent around 2 years of age. There was a positive association between sucking and attachment to objects at all ages. Clinging, sucking and movement habits merge into one another and serve the same function of easing the transition from waking to sleeping, from high arousal to low arousal.
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Interpreting Stanford Binet and WISC(R) IQ's in New Zealand: Research Notice | 1982
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1982, 17(17), 195.
Our ref: NZ30
Show abstract » This report shows that the mean IQs of Dunedin children were considerably higher than those obtained from the norm samples of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale at age five and the WISC-R Intelligence Scale at age six and seven. Caution in the interpretation of IQs obtained in New Zealand was urged.
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