The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 19 of 21.

McGee, R., Makinson, T.L., Williams, S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, P.A. | 1984
A longitudinal study of enuresis from five to nine years

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1984, 20(20), 39-42.
Our ref: RO45

Show abstract » The prevalence of primary and secondary enuresis was examined longitudinally in a large sample of New Zealand children at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. While the prevalence of primary enuresis fell over time, secondary enuresis increased in prevalence between 5 and 7 years. There were no sex differences. An examination of some of the developmental and background characteristics of the sample indicated that enuresis was not associated with neurodevelopmental delay or 'psychosocial' factors. However, there were strong, long term associations between secondary enuresis and behavioural deviance. The behavioural results suggested that behaviour problems did not arise as a consequence of enuresis, but rather preceded it.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1984
A longitudinal study of the intelligence and behaviour of children who were pre-term and children who were small for gestational age

Developmental and Behavioural Paediatrics, 1984, 5(5), 1-5.
Our ref: RO43

Show abstract » A large sample of children (n = 850) from Dunedin, New Zealand, were classified into three groups, preterm (n = 31), small for gestational age (SGA; n = 71), and full-term, normal birth weight (n = 748). These groups were compared on intelligence measures taken at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of age and parent and teacher behavior reports at 5, 7, and 9 years. The SGA group but not the preterm group had significantly lower IQ scores than the normal birth weight children. In addition, the mothers of the SGA children reported more behavior problems. These differences were not attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage in the SGA group. The results suggest it is better to be born too early than too small.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1984
A seven year follow-up of the cognitive development of children who experienced common perinatal problems

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1984, 20(20), 23-28.
Our ref: RO42

Show abstract » The prevalence of perinatal problems in a sample of 1037 children was described. There was no significant association between perinatal problems and socio-economic status. The association between perinatal problems and cognitive development was examined by stepwise regression analyses of the more common perinatal problems on cognitive factor scores, using measures of language and intelligence taken when the children were aged 3, 5, and 7 years. Of 14 perinatal problems analysed in this manner, only two, being a twin or being small for gestational age, were found to be consistently associated with a significantly lower cognitive factor score.
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Langley, J.D. | 1984
Description and classification of childhood burns

Burns, 1984, 10(10), 231-235.
Our ref: RO41

Show abstract » This paper describes shortcomings in the ICD codes for describing burn injuries and argues for the need for better methods of describing the sequence of events resulting in burn injuries.
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Silva, P.A., Justin C., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1984
Some developmental and behavioural characteristics of seven year old children with delayed speech development

European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1984, 19(19), 147-154.
Our ref: RO40

Show abstract » This report describes some characteristics of seven year old children with delayed speech development.
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Evans, R.W., Beck, D.J., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. | 1984
The relationship between fluoridation and socio-economic status on dental caries experience in 5-year-old New Zealand children

Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 1984, 12(12), 5-9.
Our ref: RO39

Show abstract » This article examines the relationship between previous fluoridation and socioeconomic status on caries experience, as measured by the dmf index, in 5-yr-old New Zealand children in the city of Dunedin (fluoridated in 1967) and in adjacent non-fluoride communities. The children were subdivided into six socioeconomic status groups (SES 1, professional and managerial-SES 6, unskilled workers), but then for simplicity they were combined to form three groups. A two-way analysis of variance demonstrated that interaction between fluoride history and socioeconomic status was not significant. In all three SES groups, dmf was higher in non-fluoride communities, but the difference was significant only in SES group (5&6) (P less than 0.01). Caries experience increased with decreasing socioeconomic status in both fluoride and non-fluoride communities, but this effect was only significant between SES groups (1&2) and (3&4) in the fluoridated community (P less than 0.05), and between SES groups (3&4) and (5&6) in non-fluoride communities (P less than 0.01). These results are compared with those of similar studies, and it is concluded that so far, the relationship between previous fluoridation and socioeconomic status on caries experience remains equivocal. A note of caution is sounded regarding the interpretation of such results, and the difficulties faced when comparing studies is discussed.
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Silva, P.A., Birkbeck, J.A., Russell, D.G., Wilson, J. | 1984
Some biological, developmental and social correlates of gross and fine motor development

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1984, 10(10), 35-51.
Our ref: RO38

Show abstract » This paper presents an analysis of factors contributing to gross and fine motor development.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1984
Background characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1984, 23(23), 280-284.
Our ref: RO37

Show abstract » In a previous study by the authors (1984), the behavioral and developmental characteristics of aggressive boys, hyperactive boys and boys who were both aggressive and hyperactive were examined. This report investigates the perinatal histories, maternal and family characteristics of these same groups, and a comparison group not identified as aggressive or hyperactive. The four groups did not differ in terms of their perinatal histories. While boys with problems differed from those without, clear differences among the problem groups did not emerge. The results did suggest, however, that quality of family life varied to some degree among the problem groups.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1984
Behavioural and developmental characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1984, 23(23), 270-274.
Our ref: RO36

Show abstract » This paper examines the behavioural and developmental characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys.
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McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1984
Perinatal, neurological, environmental and developmental characteristics of seven year old children with stable behaviour problems

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1984, 25(25), 573-586.
Our ref: RO31

Show abstract » From a large sample of 7-yr-olds in Dunedin, New Zealand, a group of 52 boys and 32 girls with stable behaviour problems was selected and compared with the remainder of the sample. The groups did not differ in terms of perinatal problems except for a higher prevalence of being small for gestational age in the problem group. The mothers of the problem children tended to be younger, to have lower mental ability and poorer health than the rest of the sample. The families of the problem children were rated as having poorer relationships, and there was more parental separation and solo parenting in this group. Finally, the children with stable problems showed cognitive delays at age 7 yr.
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McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1984
Behaviour problems in a population of seven year old children: prevalence, stability and types of disorder

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1984, 25(25), 251-259.
Our ref: RO29

Show abstract » A sample of 951 children in Dunedin, New Zealand was assessed at age 7 years to examine the prevalence, nature and stability of behaviour problems. The identification of children with behaviour problems was based upon reports of parents and teachers. About 30% of the sample were identified by the parent and/or teacher as having a high level of problem behaviour. The most prevalent problem reported was antisocial behaviour, which was more common among boys than girls. Over 9% of the sample were identified as having a stable behaviour problem. Such stable problems were associated with specific reading retardation, independent ratings of behaviour during psychological testing and use of professional services for help. These children, together with those identified by both parent and teacher at age 7 years, should be regarded as having a significant behaviour disorder.
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Molteno, A.C.B., Hoare-Nairne, J., Parr, J.L., Simpson, A., Hodgkinson, I.J., O'Brien, N.E., Watts, S.D. | 1983
The Otago photoscreener, a method for the mass screening of infants to detect squint and refractive errors

Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of New Zealand, 1983, 35(35), 43-49.
Our ref: NZ36

Show abstract » This paper describes the development of a photographic method for screening for vision disorders and some results from a comparison of this method and conventional diagnosis.
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Casswell, S., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, P.A., Brasch, P.E. | 1983
Early experiences with alcohol: a survey of an eight and nine year old sample

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 1001-1003.
Our ref: NZ35

Show abstract » This paper describes the nine year children's experience of drinking alcoholic beverages, their sources of information about alcohol, and their knowledge about the effects of alcohol.
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Langley, J.D. | 1983
Fencing of private swimming pools in New Zealand

Community Health Studies, 1983, 7(7), 285-289.
Our ref: NZ34

Show abstract » This paper advocates the fencing of private swimming pools as a means of preventing drowning accidents.
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Langley, J.D., Tobin, P. | 1983
Childhood burns

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 681-684.
Our ref: NZ33

Show abstract » This reports describes a five year retrospective study of children admitted to Dunedin Hospital for treatment of burn injuries.
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Stewart, I.A., Jenkin, L., Kirkland, C., Silva, P.A., Simpson, A. | 1983
A preliminary evaluation of the use of an automatic tympanometer in the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion in children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 252-255.
Our ref: NZ32

Show abstract » Microscopic examination by two trained examiners, conventional impedance tympanometry by a trained audiometrist, automatic impedance tympanometry by a person with minimal training and puretone audiometry by trained audiometrists were compared in 468 ears, studied blind. There was complete examiner agreement in microscopic examination in 465 (99.3%) ears, minor disagreement in three (0.7%) ears. There was a more complex relationship between examination methods, with microscopic evidence of effusion being present in 88.2% of ears showing B tympanograms to conventional tympanometry and in 66.7% of ears to automatic tympanometry. Automatic tympanometry provides a reasonably accurate method of detecting middle ear effusion, but tends to overdiagnose this condition compared to alternate methods.
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Simpson, A., Birkbeck, J.A., Silva, P.A., Spears, G.F., Williams, S.M. | 1983
Blood pressure in a cohort of Dunedin seven year olds

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1983, 96(96), 116-118.
Our ref: NZ31

Show abstract » Blood pressure, pulse measurements, socio-economic status, and anthropometric data were recorded in 982 children within approximately one month of their seventh birthdays. The means, standard deviations, and 95th centiles are reported for systolic, diastolic phase IV, and diastolic phase V blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the socio-economic levels for any measure of blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure was slightly but significantly higher in boys than in girls; this difference disappeared after correction for height. There were small but significant correlations between blood pressure and pulse rate, weight, height, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and indices of obesity and body size. After adjustment for weight, the associations of systolic blood pressure with height, body mass index, and arm circumference were no longer significant.
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Chapman, J.W., Silva, P.A., Boersma, F.J. | 1983
Student's perception of ability scale: development of a short form

Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1983, 57(57), 799-802.
Our ref: RO46

Show abstract » This paper describes the technical properties of the short form of the Students Perception of Ability Scale.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1983
Socio-economic status and childhood accidents

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1983, 19(19), 237-240.
Our ref: RO35

Show abstract » This study found no significant relationship between four measures of socio-economic status and child injuries.
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Kashani, J., McGee, R., Clarkson, S.E., Anderson, J., Walton, L.A., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A., Robins, A.J., Cytryn, M.D., McKnew, M.D. | 1983
Depression in a sample of nine year old children: prevalence and associated characteristics

Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983, 40(40), 1217-1223.
Our ref: RO34

Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of depression in a sample of 9-year-old children from the general population being studied longitudinally. Current point prevalences of major and minor depressive disorder were estimated at 1.8% and 2.5%, respectively. A comparison of children with depression and a nondepressed group disclosed no significant differences by sex, nor any significant association between depression and socioeconomic status, teacher reports of behavior problems, and cognitive or motor development. The children with current depression were reported by a parent to have had a history of more behavioral problems, had been referred more often for assessment or treatment of behavioral or emotional problems, and had more negative self-perceptions of their academic ability. The results suggested that parents may be more sensitive than teachers to the behavior problems exhibited by depressed children.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1983
Developmental language delay from three to seven years and its significance for low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven

Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1983, 25(25), 783-793.
Our ref: RO33

Show abstract » A large sample of Dunedin (New Zealand) children was assessed at three, five and seven years to study the prevalence and stability of language delay, and to investigate the association between language delay at each age and low intelligence and reading problems at age seven. The prevalence of specific comprehension delay, specific expressive delay, and general language delay varied from 2.0 to 4.3 per cent. General language delays were the most stable. Every type of language delay at each age, particularly earlier, general and stable delay was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of low intelligence or reading difficulties at age seven than among the total sample.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Kashani, J., Silva, P.A. | 1983
Prevalence of self reported depressive symptoms and associated social factors in a sample of mothers in Dunedin

British Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 143(143), 473-479.
Our ref: RO32

Show abstract » A large sample of women (n = 899) from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a self-report questionnaire on depressive symptoms. On this basis, about 8 per cent of the sample were identified as having major depressive disorder. These women tended to have a history of previously reported psychological symptoms and formal treatment for depression. A significantly high proportion of the depressed group had been young at first pregnancy and had since been separated from their partners. The depressed women also reported more behaviour problems in their children, but these reports were not confirmed by teachers' reports or by the children's self-reports, suggesting a response bias in depressed women towards reporting problems.
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McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1983
Parents' and teachers' perceptions of behaviour problems in seven year old children

The Exceptional Child, 1983, 30(30), 151-161.
Our ref: RO30

Show abstract » This study investigated the characteristics of children identified as having behaviour problems by a parent, by a teacher, or by both parent and teacher. Characteristics studied included those of the mother, the family, and the child him/herself. Results indicated differential associations between these background characteristics and problem behaviour, depending upon whether the parent, the teacher, or both perceived a problem. The findings point to the need for a careful description of children with behaviour problems based upon both parent and teacher reports.
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Mahalski, P.A. | 1983
The incidence of attachment objects and oral habits at bedtime in two longitudinal samples of children aged 1.5 to 7 years

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1983, 24(24), 283-295.
Our ref: RO18

Show abstract » The incidence of emotional attachment to soft toys and blankets, and sucking habits was studied in two samples of children. Mothers of one sample were interviewed when the children were 1.5, 2 and 2.5 years old, and mothers of the other sample answered questionnaires when their children were 3.5, 5 and 7 years old. Strong emotional attachment to objects, and thumb or finger sucking were most prevalent around 2 years of age. There was a positive association between sucking and attachment to objects at all ages. Clinging, sucking and movement habits merge into one another and serve the same function of easing the transition from waking to sleeping, from high arousal to low arousal.
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Silva, P.A. | 1982
Interpreting Stanford Binet and WISC(R) IQ's in New Zealand: Research Notice

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1982, 17(17), 195.
Our ref: NZ30

Show abstract » This report shows that the mean IQs of Dunedin children were considerably higher than those obtained from the norm samples of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale at age five and the WISC-R Intelligence Scale at age six and seven. Caution in the interpretation of IQs obtained in New Zealand was urged.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1982
Family size, ordinal position, socio-economic status and child development

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 371-373.
Our ref: NZ29

Show abstract » This paper shows relationships between family size, ordinal position, socio-economic status, and height, intelligence, and reading ability in children. In contrast to overseas findings, no significant effects attributable to family size or ordinal position were found.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Thomas, J., Williams, S.M. | 1982
A descriptive study of socio-economic status and child development in Dunedin five year olds: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1982, 17(17), 21-32.
Our ref: NZ28

Show abstract » This report shows relationships between socio-economic status and various family background and child development measures. There were large differences in psychological characteristics attributable to socio-economic status but no significant differences in physical or health measures.
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Sears, M.R., Jones D.T., Silva, P.A., Simpson, A., Williams, S.M. | 1982
Asthma in seven year old children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 533-536.
Our ref: NZ27

Show abstract » The prevalence of asthma between birth and seven years was determined by questionnaire in 875 children as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study. From the combinations of asthma and/or wheezing reported in association with bronchitis, hayfever, eczema and allergies, a diagnosis of certain or probable asthma was made in 12.6 percent of these children. A further 22.6 percent admitted to wheezing, but a diagnosis of asthma could not be made with any certainty. Bronchitis was reported frequently, usually associated with wheezing. Children with more obvious asthma showed a male preponderance and significant differences in body build and school attendance compared with asymptomatic children.
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McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Stewart, I.A. | 1982
Behaviour problems and otitis media with effusion: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 655-657.
Our ref: NZ25

Show abstract » The relationship between behaviour problems at age seven and occurrence of otitis media with effusion (OME) at age five was examined in a large sample of Dunedin children. It was found that children with a significant degree of problem behaviour at seven were twice as likely to have had OME at five when compared with children without behaviour problems. Furthermore, there was a significant association between hyperactive behaviour in boys and bilateral OME.
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McGee, R., Clarkson, J.E., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1982
Neurological dysfunction in a large sample of three year old children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 693-696.
Our ref: NZ24

Show abstract » The prevalence of neurological abnormalities was examined in a large sample of Dunedin three-year-old children. About 10 percent of those assessed had one or more abnormalities at three and 2 percent had abnormalities which were judged to have an effect on the child's functioning. The presence of abnormalities at three was associated with language and motor delays at that age and predictive of later IQ deficit. However, abnormalities were not stable over time and their significance for predictive purposes with individual cases is questioned.
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Langley, J.D., Crosado, B. | 1982
School playground climbing equipment - safe or unsafe?

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1982, 95(95), 540-542.
Our ref: NZ23

Show abstract » This report describes a survey of school playground climbing equipment. The majority of the equipment was considered to be unsafe because it was either too high or mounted over non impact absorbing surfaces. This paper led to revision of the New Zealand Standards for playgrounds.
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Evans, R.W., Silva, P.A., Beck, D.J., Brown, R.H. | 1982
Relationships between dental health behaviour and oral health status of 5-year-old children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

New Zealand Dental Journal, 1982, 78(78), 42675.
Our ref: NZ22

Show abstract » The management of dental caries by the dental profession is largely concerned with water fluoridation, the treatment of teeth affected by caries, health education in the fields of nutrition and oral hygiene, and the encouragement of early introduction to regular incremental care. Where water supplies are fluoridated a dramatic reduction in caries is apparent. Treatment and restoration of carious teeth by dentists and school dental nurses in a programme of regular incremental care has achieved a very high level of dental fitness among children and young adolescents in New Zealand. However, the supposed benefits of taking up better dental health behaviour patterns promoted by dental health education have not been widely investigated. It was clearly shown in the 1973 International Collaborative Study of Dental Manpower Systems by the World Health Organization' that considerable variations in oral health occur between countries and that some of this variation was due to factors other than fluoridation and the provision of dental services. During the dental survey of 5-year-old children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study, the relationship between dental health behaviour advocated by the dental profession and the oral health of the children was investigated.
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Wilson, J., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1982
Clinical assessment of the performance on the Basic Motor Ability Test of seven year old children

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 8(8), 195-203.
Our ref: RO28

Show abstract » This paper describes some clinical aspects of motor performance and how these related to objective assessment on the Basic Motor Ability Test.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1982
A prospective study of the association between delayed motor development at ages three and five, and low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 8(8), 187-193.
Our ref: RO27

Show abstract » This study showed that early motor delays were predictive of later low intelligence and reading difficulties.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1982
The predictive significance of slow walking and talking

European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1982, 17(17), 133-139.
Our ref: RO26

Show abstract » This study found that, compared with children who were slow to talk, children who were slow to walk were a high risk group for later low intelligence or reading difficulties. This paper was summarised in the New Scientist.
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Langley J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1982
Childhood accidents - parents' attitudes to prevention

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1982, 18(18), 247-249.
Our ref: RO25

Show abstract » This study showed that neither a previous history of accidents nor socio-economic status was related to parental attitudes to accident prevention. Many parents viewed accidents as being beyond their control.
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Langley J.D. | 1982
The accident-prone child - the perpetration of a myth

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1982, 18(18), 243-246.
Our ref: RO24

Show abstract » This paper argues that the concept of accident proneness is a myth and that the widespread acceptance of the myth hinders the development of effective injury control measures.
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Fergusson, D.M., Beautrais, A.L., Silva, P.A. | 1982
Breast-feeding and cognitive development in the first seven years of life

Social Science and Medicine, 1982, 16(16), 1705-1708.
Our ref: RO23

Show abstract » The relationship between previous breast-feeding practices and childhood intelligence and language development at ages 3, 5 and 7 years was examined in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The results showed that even when a number of control factors including maternal intelligence, maternal education, maternal training in child rearing, childhood experiences, family socio-economic status, birth weight and gestational age were taken into account, there was a tendency for previous breast-fed children to have slightly higher test scores than bottle-fed infants. On average, previous breast-fed children scored approximately two points higher on scales with a standard deviation of 10 than bottle-fed infants when all control factors were taken into account. It was concluded that previous breast-feeding may be associated with very small improvements in intelligence and language development or, alternatively, that the differences may have been due to the effects of other confounding factors not entered into the analysis.
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Brown, R.H. | 1982
Evidence of decrease in the prevalence of dental caries in New Zealand

Journal of Dental Research, 1982, 61(61), 1327-1330.
Our ref: RO22

Show abstract » This paper reviews a number of dental studies, including the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, in order to describe the decrease in the prevalence of dental caries in New Zealand. Fluoridation of public water supplies and the widespread use of fluoride toothpastes were considered to be as important as the emphasis on preventive measures given by the school dental service.
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Wilson, J., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1982
An assessment of motor ability in seven year olds

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 7(7), 221-232.
Our ref: RO21

Show abstract » As part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study, seven year old children were tested for motor co-ordination using the Basic Motor Ability Test (Arnheim & Sinclair 1974). Dunedin norms established for this test are presented and sex differences found in the performance of tests requiring different motor skills are described. Relationships between test items and a failure cut-off point are also presented.
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