The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU

Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below.

Displaying page 19 of 23.

Injuries in the twelfth and thirteenth years of life | 1989
Chalmers, D.J., Cecchi, J., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Australian Paediatric Journal, 1989, 25(25), 14-20.
Our ref: RO119
Show abstract » From a sample of 850 adolescents, 377 were involved in 550 separate incidents which resulted in 636 injuries requiring medical attention. The most common injuries were sprains or strains, followed by fractures and lacerations. Most injuries were of minor severity. The most common incident resulting in injury was striking against an object or person, followed by being struck by an object or person, and overexertion or strenuous movement. Almost 40% of the incidents occurred during sporting or similar physical activities. Disabilities arising from injury are described. The most common of these were recreational. The implications of long-term and permanent disability are examined. Traditional attitudes toward injury prevention were found to be held by the majority of the sample. Barriers to injury prevention are identified and the Prevention of Injury Programme contained in the Health Education Syllabus for primary school children is described.
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The structure and correlates of self-reported symptoms in 11-year-old children | 1989
Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Anderson, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1989, 17(17), 55-71.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO118
Show abstract » Self-reports of previous DSM-III symptomatology were obtained from 792 11-year-old children using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). We report results concerning 13 subscales derived from the DISC. Factor analysis of the subscales suggested a broad distinction between externalizing and internalizing disorder for boys' self-report. For girls, two separate internalizing factors representing anxiety and depression emerged. We also found sex differences in correlates of self-reported disorder. Finally, we examined agreement between child and parent and teacher reports. Overall, agreement was relatively low, although somewhat higher for child-parent than for child-teacher.
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Health in Adolescence: research challenges for the next decade | 1988
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 689-692.
Our ref: NZ52
Show abstract » This paper briefly describes some recent publications on adolescent health, one of which advocates the establishment of a database on adolescent health, and then discusses what the author considers to be the three most important adolescent health problems, namely unintentional injuries, asthma and mental health disorders. While considerable research into injuries and asthma are already being planned or carried out, this is not the case for adolescent mental health disorders. Adolescent physical and sensory disabilities, health risks and health promotion are briefly discussed in terms of research needs. The nature and prevalence of adolescent mental health problems are then discussed as well as some influences on adolescent development and mental health. Finally, it is argued that two types of research into adolescent mental health disorders are needed (basic and programme development and evaluation). It is recommended that the Medical Research Council sponsor a seminar on mental health research needs and consider the possibility of adopting more active strategies to promote research into mental health, including the mental health of adolescents.
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Parents' and children's attitudes to seat belt usage and knowledge of seat belts | 1988
Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Appleton, I. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 119-121.
Our ref: NZ51
Show abstract » Knowledge of and attitudes to seat belt laws and the perception of risk were examined in a cohort of 1139 children and their parents. Seven hundred and thirty questionnaires were obtained from interviewing a sample of 13-year-olds and 805 questionnaires were obtained by mail from the parents. Most children (98%) and parents (99%) had correct knowledge of the law relating to the front seat. Fewer children (77%) and parents (80%) gave the correct response for the rear seat. Nearly all children (96%) and parents (99%) correctly identified the front seat unbelted as the most dangerous combination, but only 72% of children and 70% of parents identified the safest place to travel. There was parental support for a law requiring owners to fit rear seat belts and for a law requiring children of all ages to be restrained.
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What children know about alcohol and how they know it | 1988
Casswell, S., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Brasch, P.E. « Hide
British Journal of Addiction, 1988, 83(83), 223-227.
Our ref: RO99
Show abstract » This report described children's knowledge, attitudes and concepts of alcohol, and where they acquired their information. Experience of alcohol related problems by the children was also described. The influence of television as an information source was emphasised.
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Factors associated with arithmetic-and-reading disability and specific arithmetic disability | 1988
Share, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1988, 21(21), 313-320.
Our ref: RO98
Show abstract » Characteristics of children with two types of arithmetic disabilities were described. The somewhat complex results including important sex differences and differences between arithmetic disability type were described.
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Gross and fine motor ability and anthropometric characteristics of children with high intelligence | 1988
Clymer, P.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1988, 14(14), 19-29.
Our ref: RO97
Show abstract » This study examined the motor development of children with IQs of 130 or more in comparison with children with IQs less than 130. Those of high intelligence had slightly better fine but not gross motor ability. They also had higher mean birth weights but were not longer at birth or taller or heavier at other ages. They did, however, have larger head circumference measurements at birth and at ages 3, 5, 7 and 9 years.
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Absence of psychosocial bias in the under-reporting of unintentional childhood injuries | 1988
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1988, 42(42), 76-82.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO87
Show abstract » Bias resulting from under-reporting has been largely ignored by studies that have examined the relationships between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries. This study was part of a larger investigation that examined associations between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries in a sample of 781 children. Visits to an accident and emergency department and their general practitioners were used to determine whether the children or their mothers were under-reporters. Under-reporters were compared with reporters on a variety of family, behavioural, and development factors. The analyses showed that under-reporters did not differ significantly from the remainder of the sample in terms of psychosocial factors central to the main study.
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The need to discontinue the use of the term accident when referring to unintentional injury events | 1988
Langley, J.D.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1988, 20(20), 1-8.
Our ref: RO84
Show abstract » This paper argues the case for health professionals to discontinue the use of the term accident when referring to unintentional injury events. It is argued that use of the term accident is counter-productive to preventive measures.
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Self-reported delinquency: results from an instrument in New Zealand | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 1988, 21(21), 227-240.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO125
Show abstract » This article describes the Self-Report Early Delinquency Scale (SRED), a research instrument designed to capture self reports of illegal and norm violating behaviours from New Zealand adolescents. Reliability and validity are described and were considered adequate for recommending the instrument for use in social science research. Findings in the predicted directions were obtained from the relations between SRED scores and gender, family instability, history of behaviour disorder, social class and intelligence.
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The relative risks of allergy to grass pollen, house dust, mite and cot dander in the development of childhood asthma [Abstract] | 1988
Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, ... Show all » C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1988, 137(137), 239.
Our ref: RO124
Show abstract » See RO129 (below) for reference to full paper and comment.
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Stereoacuity levels and vision problems in children 7 to 11 years | 1988
Williams, S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 1988, 8(8), 386-389.
download pdf Our ref: RO117
Show abstract » A longitudinal study of stereoacuity levels of 859 children at 7 years, 811 children at 9 years and 796 children at 11 years was conducted using the TNO random dot stereotest. The prevalence of defective stereoscopic vision was found to be between 2.1 and 3.2 per cent. A further 10-16 per cent of children had only moderate stereoacuity levels when compared with their peers. The stereoacuity levels achieved by most of the children improved with age, but the rank order correlations for the stereoacuity levels between ages 7 and 9, and ages 9 and 11, were small. Defective stereopsis and poor stereoacuity levels were clearly associated with manifest strabismus and problems of visual acuity, and if failure to pass the quantitative plates was a cut-off point for screening purposes most of the children with visual problems would have been identified.
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Self reported delinquency, neuropsychological deficit and history of attention deficit disorder | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 16(16), 553-569.
Our ref: RO116
Show abstract » This study was designed to evaluate the possibility that a pattern of cognitive deficit is associated with delinquent behavior, while avoiding some of the methodological problems of previous research. The Self-Report Early Delinquency instrument and a research battery of neuropsychological tests were administered blindly to an unselected cohort of 678 13-year-olds. Because the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) was found at markedly elevated rates in the backgrounds of these delinquents, the possibility was examined that the neuropsychological deficits of delinquents might be limited to delinquents with histories of ADD. Although delinquents with past ADD were more cognitively impaired than non-ADD delinquents, both groups scored significantly below nondelinquents on verbal, visuospatial, and visual-motor integration skills. In addition, ADD delinquents scored poorly on memory abilities. Subjects with ADD who had not developed delinquent behavior were not as cognitively impaired as ADD delinquents, suggesting that it is the specific comorbidity of ADD and delinquency that bears neuropsychological study.
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IQ and delinquency: a direct test of the differential detection hypothesis | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 97(97), 330-333.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO115
Show abstract » This study examined the IQs of 13 year olds who were classified as officially delinquent, delinquent but with no police record and those without a history of delinquency. There was no significant difference in IQs between the two delinquent sub-groups but both these groups gained significantly lower mean IQs than non-delinquents. These findings did not support the differential detection hypothesis.
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A comparison of 13 year old boys with attention deficit and/or reading disorder on neuropsychological measures | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Anderson, J. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1988, 17(17), 37-53.
Our ref: RO114
Show abstract » This study compared 13 year old boys with attention deficit disorder and/or reading disability, and controls with neither disorder on a battery of verbal and non-verbal neuropsychological measures. None of the measures differentiated the boys with attention deficit disorder only from the controls; the only deficit associated with attention deficit disorder was slightly lower IQ. Reading disorder, on the other hand, was associated with deficits in memory and verbal skills.
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Neuropsychological deficit and self-reported delinquency in an unselected birth cohort | 1988
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 27(27), 233-240.
Our ref: RO113
Show abstract » Associations between results from a self report early delinquency instrument and results from a research battery of neuropsychological tests were reported. A pattern of verbal, visuospatial-motor integration and memory deficits explained a small proportion of the variance of delinquency, in addition to that explained by social disadvantage.
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Neuropsychological correlates of early adolescent psychopathology [Abstract] | 1988
Frost, L.A., Moffitt, T.E., McGee, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 1988, 11(11), 272.
Our ref: RO112
Show abstract » This study reported a principal components analysis of a neuropsychological test battery and a discriminant function analysis on groups of pre-adolescents designated as attention deficient, conduct disordered, depressed, anxious or multiple psychiatric disorder. The results suggested that neuropsychological impairment is associated with multiple rather than single psychiatric disorder.
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Height and weight comparisons of children in New Zealand and the United States | 1988
Jordan, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1988, 108(108), 166-172.
Our ref: RO111
Show abstract » This paper compared the height, weight and growth measurements from the Dunedin Health and Development Study sample and the St Louis Baby Study sample. Both samples were similar in height, weight and growth measurements.
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Slow starters and long-term backward readers: a replication and extension | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1988, 58(58), 330-337.
Our ref: RO110
Show abstract » Three groups of children were compared, those who had long term reading problems and those who were slow readers at age 7 but who showed good reading progress by age 13, and those without any history of reading problems. The three groups were contrasted on various measures of cognitive ability, behaviour and family background measures. Only maternal reading ability differentiated between the groups.
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Childhood depression and reading ability: is there a relationship | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Journal of School Psychology, 1988, 26(26), 391-394.
Our ref: RO109
Show abstract » This paper criticises a report in the literature that suggested an association between childhood depression and reading ability. It argues that a clear association had yet to be demonstrated.
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A longitudinal study of depression in 9 year old children | 1988
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 27(27), 342-348.
Link to full publication »
Our ref: RO108
Show abstract » Three groups of 9 year old children defined as having a current depressive disorder, past depressive disorder or no depressive disorder were studied at ages 11 and 13. Significantly more depressive symptoms were found at age 11 and 13 in those who had depressive symptoms at age 9 or previously. There was also a long-term association between depression and antisocial behaviour in boys (but not girls).The results from this study highlighted the differences between child and adult forms of depression.
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Attention deficit disorder - hyperactivity and academic failure: which comes first and what should be treated | 1988
McGee, R., Share, D.L.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 27(27), 318-325.
Our ref: RO107
Show abstract » This paper reviews the evidence relating to the association between attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity and learning difficulties and implications for treatment. The paper suggests the type of research needed to clarify the issues.
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Difficulties and bonuses of evaluation: Evaluating New Zealand's Children's Nightclothes Act 1977 | 1988
Langley, J.D., McLoughlin E.
Burns, 1988, 14(14), 435-439.
Our ref: RO106
Show abstract » Difficulties and bonuses of evaluating injury prevention programmes are illustrated by reference to an evaluation of New Zealand's Children's Nightclothes Act 1977. It is demonstrated that despite the difficulties encountered in that evaluation and the equivocal results, there were significant bonuses which more than justified the resources devoted to the evaluation.
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Refractive error, IQ and reading ability: A longitudinal study from age 7 to 11 | 1988
Williams, S.M., Sanderson, G.F., Share, ... Show all » D.L., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1988, 30(30), 735-742.
download pdf Our ref: RO105
Show abstract » Children from a population sample whose cycloplegic refractive errors included myopia, pre-myopia and hypermetropia were compared on measures of IQ and reading with a group of children without significance refractive errors. At age 11 both those with myopia and with pre-myopia had increased verbal and performance IQ, while those with hypermetropia had slightly reduced verbal and performance IQ, in comparison with the children without refractive errors. The differences in verbal IQ were not attributable simply to earlier differences, but the differences in performance IQ were attributable to earlier differences. No significant differences in reading scores were found at either age. It is concluded that differing abilities of myopic and other children at age 11 are not fully explained by differences in family background or in pre-existing ability.
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IQ and reading progress: A test of the capacity notion of IQ | 1988
Share, D.L., McGee R., Silva, P.A.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 28(28), 97-100.
Our ref: RO103
Show abstract » Concepts such as developmental reading disorder and dyslexia have been used to refer to children whose actual reading achievement is substantially below that predicted by performance on IQ tests. Such diagnostic concepts assume that IQ sets a limit on either the level of achievement or the rate of progress of which a child is capable. This assumption was investigated in a longitudinal study of an unselected cohort of 741 children whose reading achievement was assessed at ages 7, 9, 11, and 13 years. Findings on rates of progress and levels of achievement clearly indicate that IQ does not set a limit on reading progress, even in extreme low IQ children. Thus, the use of IQ tests to determine achievement potential in reading appears unwarranted.
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Psychological factors in unintentional childhood injuries: results from a longitudinal study | 1988
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Safety Research, 1988, 18(18), 73-89.
Our ref: RO101
Show abstract » Relationships between several family, behavioural and developmental factors and injuries in mid-childhood were investigated. The results showed that none of the variables studied had a significant association with the number of injuries the child had received. There were, however, significant sex differences with boys experiencing more injuries than girls.
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Blood lead, intelligence, reading attainment and behaviour problems in eleven-year-old children in Dunedin, New Zealand | 1988
Silva, P.A., Hughes, P., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Faed, J.A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1988, 29(29), 43-53.
download pdf Our ref: RO100
Show abstract » A study of blood lead levels and intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems was carried out using a sample of 579 Dunedin 11-yr-old children. The results suggested that when account was taken of social, environmental, and background factors, raised blood lead is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in children's general behaviour problems as reported by both parents and teachers. These results applied especially to the more specific problems of inattention and hyperactivity.
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Alcohol knowledge and experience in children aged 9 and 11 | 1987
Flett, R., Casswell, S., Brasch, ... Show all » P.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1987, 100(100), 747-749.
Our ref: NZ53
Show abstract » This paper describes alcohol knowledge and experience in 9 and 11 year old children.
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Some family social background, developmental and behavioural characteristics of nine year old children with asthma | 1987
Silva, P.A., Sears, M.R., Jones, ... Show all » D.T., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Williams, S.M. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1987, 100(100), 318-320.
Our ref: NZ50
Show abstract » Children with moderate and severe, mild, and trivial asthma were compared with a group of children who did not have asthma on a range of measures including family social background (socioeconomic status, family adversity, family environment), intelligence, reading, spelling, and behaviour. None of the background measures significantly differentiated among the groups. The group of children with moderate and severe asthma was found to have a significantly lower mean score for verbal intelligence, full scale intelligence, and spelling than those with mild asthma, but did not differ significantly from the remainder of the sample. Children with mild asthma were found to have slightly higher reading scores.
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Gingival condition and oral hygiene in 12 year old Dunedin children | 1987
Yunus, N.N.N., Brown, R.H., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P. « Hide
New Zealand Dental Journal, 1987, 83(83), 4-7.
Our ref: NZ48
Show abstract » Although there is a considerable amount of data available on dental caries in New Zealand children, little information exists on gingival conditions. The only Source of data on normal children is from the lnternational Collaborative Study of Dental Manpower Systems which included children aged 8-9 years in the 1973 study in Canterbury). Other data are available on mentally retarded children.This report describes the findings on oral hygiene, gingival health, and periodontal treatment needs in 12-year-old Dunedin children. Two periodontal indices were used in the survey - the Community Periodontal lndex of Treatment Needs (CPlTN)4, and the Gingival lndex which allows a more detailed assessment of gingival health and the intra-oral distribution of gingival inflammation.
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Mothers' characteristics, perceptions of family environments and sustained socio-economic status | 1987
Parnicky, J.J., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1987, 22(22), 121-124.
Our ref: NZ47
Show abstract » This paper describes some characteristics of mothers grouped according to sustained socio-economic status level. Characteristics studied included age, tertiary education, general verbal ability, reading, personality, family size, working and results from the Family Environment Scale.
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Etiological factors influencing the prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel [Abstract] | 1987
Suckling, G.W., Brown, R.H., Herbison, ... Show all » G.P. « Hide
New Zealand Dental Journal, 1987, 83(83), 16.
Our ref: NZ46
Show abstract » See RO104 for a full report of the data summarised in this abstract. Over 1000 children, participating in a longitudinal study of health and development, possess documented medical histories based on birth records and regular assessments starting at age 3. A dental examination at age 5 of 923 participants recorded their exposure to fluoride and evidence of trauma to the deciduous teeth. The prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in 696 of the children when aged 9 was reported as 56% (Suckling et al., 1985). For the present study, a number of illnesses, accidents, and other experiences were selected from the recorded information as possible etiological factors for any defect, demarcated and diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia. Despite extensive statistical testing, positive and strong associations were few. The prevalence of hypoplasia, seen in 15% of the sample, was higher in those children who had chicken pox before age 3 and, as reported previously, in those children with a history of trauma to their deciduous incisors. This study illustrates the difficulty of establishing the etiology of enamel defects, even when medical and dental histories are available.
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The Injury Task Force | 1987
Langley, J.D.
Community Health Studies, 1987, 10(10), 407-410.
Our ref: RO96
Show abstract » Critically reviews the Australian Injury Task Force report.
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A comparison of girls and boys with teacher-identified problems of attention | 1987
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1987, 26(26), 711-717.
Our ref: RO95
Show abstract » The backgrounds and behavioural and developmental characteristics of inattentive boys and girls (defined with reference to separate boys and girls distributions) were examined. The findings indicated that problems relating to inattention were equally prevalent in both sexes and the associated cognitive features were also similar.
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Zinc, copper, selenium and glutathione peroxidaze in blood of 11-year-old Dunedin, New Zealand, children | 1987
McKenzie-Parnell, J.M., Thomson, C.D.
Biological Trace Element Research, 1987, 14(14), 53-63.
Our ref: RO94
Show abstract » Blood was obtained from 564 11-yr-old children who had participated since birth in a multidisciplinary health and development study. Serum zinc concentration did not differ between the boys and the girls (mean _+ SD: 91 + 17 µg/100 mL, n = 453). Five-6% of serum zinc values were low; although there was a weak correlation with height, none of the boys with low values were below the 10th percentile for height for this group. Serum copper concentration (112 _+ 24 µg/100 mL, n = 454) was unrelated to sex, height, weight, body mass index, socioeconomic status (SES), or iron status. Blood selenium concentration (49 + 10 ng/mL, n = 564) was lower than previously reported for Dunedin children; it was higher in children in the lower SES categories. The data represent normal values for healthy, 11-yr-old NZ children.
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Lack of bias from missing cases: Results from a psychosocial study of unintentional childhood injury | 1987
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Safety Research, 1987, 18(18), 27-32.
Our ref: RO93
Show abstract » This study examined the characteristics of children for whom there was missing injury history data compared with those with complete data. With two minor exceptions, the groups did not differ in psychosocial characteristics. This finding was in marked contrast to the findings of other studies.
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WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an unselected cohort: clinical significance and longitudinal stability | 1987
Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1987, 55(55), 768-774.
Our ref: RO92
Show abstract » This study examined some characteristics of children with verbal-performance IQ discrepancies. The results suggested that verbal- performance discrepancies in IQ are of doubtful diagnostic value given the differential base rates of brain disorder and verbal-performance discrepancy in the population.
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Language deficits and reading retardation: cause or effect | 1987
Share, D.L., Silva, P.A.
European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1987, 22(22), 219-226.
Our ref: RO91
Show abstract » This paper examined the language development of boys divided into three groups - reading disabled at ages 9 and 11, non-reading disabled at ages 9 and 11 but matched in language scores at age 3 and the remainder of the boys. The results showed a significant decline in language skills of the reading disabled group between ages 3 and 11. This was consistent with the view that general language deficits in this group may be partly the consequence of their reading difficulties.
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Childhood asthma in New Zealand | 1987
Jones, D.T., Sears, M.R., Holdaway, ... Show all » M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Diseases of the Chest, 1987, 81(81), 332-340.
Our ref: RO90
Show abstract » To determine the prevalence and severity of childhood asthma in New Zealand we studied 815 children from a birth cohort by questionnaire, clinical examination and pulmonary physiological measurements at age 9 years. More than 19% of the sample had experienced wheezing in the previous year, and 11% had wheezed in the month before assessment. In all, 220 of 815 children (27.1%) had had wheezing episodes by age 9; in 34 (4.2%) episodes had been of sufficient frequency to warrant regular anti-asthma treatment. Only 32% of all wheezing children were reported by their parents to suffer from asthma, and, in groups matched for frequency of symptoms, treatment given for wheezing was influenced strongly by whether or not the label of 'asthma' had been given. The detailed history provided most information useful in diagnosing asthma; clinical examination, peak flow records, spirometry and bronchial provocation testing provided only limited additional information. A wide spectrum of frequency and severity of recurrent wheezing disorders was evident in New Zealand children. Throughout all degrees of severity, prevalence rates appeared higher than those reported in studies from the United Kingdom.
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A longitudinal study of children with developmental language delay at age three: Intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems at ages seven, nine and eleven | 1987
Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1987, 29(29), 630-640.
download pdf Our ref: RO89
Show abstract » A large sample of Dunedin (New Zealand) children were assessed at age three to identify those with language delay. 2.6 per cent were defined as delayed in verbal comprehension only, 2.3 per cent as delayed in verbal expression only, and 2.3 per cent as delayed in both ('general language delay'). Most of these children, and the remainder of the sample, were assessed for intelligence, reading and behaviour problems at ages seven, nine and 11. Those in every language-delay group had significantly lower mean IQs and lower mean reading scores than the remainder of the sample. They also more often had a low IQ or a lower reading score at ages seven and nine and a lower Verbal and Full-scale IQ at 11. The groups with delayed verbal comprehension and general language delay had significantly more behaviour problems than the remainder of the sample. The group with general language delay was consistently the most disadvantaged in later intelligence, reading and behaviour. Two of the language-delay groups (comprehension and general language) had significantly higher scores on a family disadvantage index. The results of this study confirm the importance of early language delay as a predictor of lower than average intelligence and reading ability and increased behaviour problems.
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