The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


Mental Health

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How early can we tell? Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency | 1990
White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Earls, ... Show all » F., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 1990, 28(28), 507-533.
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Our ref: RO157
Show abstract » This study examined the power of a variety of characteristics of the preschool child to predict antisocial behaviour at ages 11 and 15 years. After screening preschool measures for their predictive power, a discriminant function analysis was performed with the five most promising preschool predictors. This function correctly classified 81% of subjects as antisocial at age 11 and 66% as delinquent at age 15. Having preschool behaviour problems was the best predictor of antisocial outcome.
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Parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence | 1990
Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Community Health Studies, 1990, 14(14), 303-309.
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Our ref: RO156
Show abstract » Previous publications from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit have reported the prevalence of DSM-III disorders through its longitudinal examination of a New Zealand birth cohort. The present study describes the help-seeking practices of each sample member's parents for their child's behavioural or emotional problems exhibited in childhood (ages 5-11) or adolescence (ages 12-15). Increased help-seeking for boys was evident in childhood. However, this sex difference was not present at adolescence. There was a decline in the frequency with which medically oriented agencies were contacted between childhood and adolescence, and teachers were found to be the most frequently used source of assistance in adolescence. Although there was a strong association between help-seeking and mental health disorder, approximately half of those with disorder had parents who had not sought help for their child's problems. In addition, family characteristics of low SES, low family social support and poorer maternal mental health predicted help-seeking. The results are discussed in terms of service provision for these age groups, within the present restructuring of the public health system in New Zealand.
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DSM-III disorders in a large sample of adolescents | 1990
McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Partridge, F., Silva, P.A., Kelly, J.L. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990, 29(29), 611-619.
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Our ref: RO147
Show abstract » The prevalence of DSM-III disorders was studied in 943 adolescents aged 15 years from a general population. Prevalence rates of disorder of 25.9% for girls and 18.2% for boys were found. The most prevalent disorders were overanxious disorder, nonaggressive conduct disorder, and simple phobia. Marked differences were noted among the disorders in terms of associated social competence, with multiple disorders and primarily externalizing disorders being related to poorer competence. A model of parental confirmation of disorder was developed suggesting that confirmation was more likely where the mother was depressed, the family low in social support, and the adolescent less socially competent. (Abstracted in the Psychiatry Digest, 1991.)
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Hyperactivity and serum and hair zinc levels in eleven year old children from the general population | 1990
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Anderson, ... Show all » J., McKenzie-Parnell, J.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Biological Psychiatry, 1990, 28(28), 165-168.
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Our ref: RO143
Show abstract » This study examined associations between blood and hair zinc levels and inattentiveness, hyperactivity and antisocial behaviour. No significant associations were found.
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Risk factors for behavioural and emotional disorder in pre-adolescent children | 1990
Williams, S.M., Anderson, J., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1990, 29(29), 413-419.
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Our ref: RO142
Show abstract » The relationship between risk factors and behavioral and emotional disorder was examined in 792 11-year-old children. Background characteristics such as sex, maternal depression, marital status of the parents, and reading problems distinguished between children with and without disorder. It also appeared that disorder was related to the number of risk factors experienced. This study, like others, failed to provide strong support for differences in background characteristics among children with different diagnoses. This may reflect the degree of overlap among disorders, because even children with only a single disorder may not be entirely free of the symptomatology of other disorders. For this reason it is important to assess children for multiple disorders or at least consider impaired functioning in other dimensions.
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Parent reports of disability among 13 year olds with DSM-III disorder | 1990
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1990, 31(31), 793-801.
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Our ref: RO141
Show abstract » This study examined physical and psychological dimensions of disability associated with different DSM-III disorders in a large sample of 13-year old adolescents. The measure of disability was based upon the World Health Organization (1980) classification. We found that adolescents with multiple DSM-III disorders and those with attention deficit and anxiety disorders showed the highest levels of parent perceived disablement; depression and conduct disorder showed the least. In addition, adolescents with any kind of DSM-III disorder showed a rate of parent-reported hospitalization twice that of the remainder of the sample. They also had poorer perceived health, as suggested by lower parent and self health ratings than those without disorder.
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A 6 year follow-up of childhood enuresis: prevalence in adolescence and consequences for mental health | 1990
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1990, 26(26), 75-79.
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Our ref: RO139
Show abstract » Recent studies have shown an association between enuresis and behavioural or emotional problems. The direction or causality of the association and its duration, however, remain unclear. This study followed a large group of children from ages 11 to 15 years and reported the prevalence of enuresis to age 13 years. The enuretic status of the sample at age 11 years was established relative to the history of enuresis at age 9 years. At age 11 years a significant association was found between enuresis and measures of psychopathology. This association was particularly evident for those children with secondary enuresis, and those who had a history of enuresis but had ceased to wet the bed. Current primary enuresis was not significantly associated with disorder. Similar associations were found between enuresis at age 11 and later disorder at age 13. At age 15 years no significant associations between enuresis and disorder were found. These findings have implications for parents of children with enuresis and for clinicians dealing with the disorder.
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Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: boys' developmental trajectories from age 3 to age 15 | 1990
Moffitt, T.E.
Child Development, 1990, 61(61), 893-910.
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Our ref: RO137
Show abstract » This study described factors related to delinquency and attention deficit disorder over time. Those with both attention deficit disorder and delinquency fared worst in all analyses. Their delinquency tended to begin early and persist to adolescence. Those who were delinquent but did not have attention deficit disorder showed less risk factors. The comorbidity of attention deficit disorder and delinquency was considered to be a likely predictor of criminal offending beyond adolescence.
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The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: A 15 year longitudinal study | 1990
Silva, P.A.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 1990, 4(4), 76-107.
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Our ref: RO135
Show abstract » This article describes the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of 1037 children studied at birth and followed-up at age 3, with the majority being followed-up every 2 years thereafter, to age 15. The paper includes a description of the setting for the study, the historical background, establishment of the study, the sample, follow-up rates, changes in sample characteristics over time, the procedures, the data gathered at each phase and the investigators responsible. Some of the topics studied over the years are set out in a table of descriptors which includes references to refereed journal articles that include results relating to the topics. Plans for the future are also described. Reflections on some of the reasons why the study has been successful are noted.
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Neuropsychological correlates of psychopathology in an unselected cohort of young adolescents | 1989
Frost, L.A., Moffitt T.E., McGee, R.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1989, 98(98), 307-313.
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Our ref: RO127
Show abstract » Members of a birth cohort were assessed for psychopathology and neuropsychological dysfunction at age 13. Ss who met DSM-III criteria for a single disorder, multiple disorders, and no disorder were compared on 5 composite neuropsychological measures. The multiple disorders group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal, Visuospatial, Verbal Memory, and Visual-Motor Integration factors. They also showed the highest rate of neuropsychological impairment. The attention-deficit disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Verbal Memory and Visual-Motor Integration factors, and the anxiety disorder group performed significantly worse than did the nondisordered group on the Visual-Motor Integration factor. Results suggest that neuropsychological dysfunction is more often associated with multiple rather than single, psychiatric disorders in adolescents. The problem of comorbidity in studies of neuropsychological function in childhood and adolescent psychopathology is highlighted.
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Cognitive and social correlates of DSM-III disorders in pre-adolescent children | 1989
Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1989, 28(28), 842-846.
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Our ref: RO126
Show abstract » The relationships between some cognitive and social measures and the major syndromes found in a large preadolescent sample of children from the general population are described. The measures discriminated between disorder-no disorder for most variables examined and between the broad groups of externalizing and internalizing disorders, but not between individual diagnostic categories. An important exception was that ADDH and conduct disorder occurring as single disorders could be distinguished, but the frequent comorbidity of these and other disorders complicated many between-group comparisons.
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The structure and correlates of self-reported symptoms in 11-year-old children | 1989
Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Anderson, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1989, 17(17), 55-71.
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Our ref: RO118
Show abstract » Self-reports of previous DSM-III symptomatology were obtained from 792 11-year-old children using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). We report results concerning 13 subscales derived from the DISC. Factor analysis of the subscales suggested a broad distinction between externalizing and internalizing disorder for boys' self-report. For girls, two separate internalizing factors representing anxiety and depression emerged. We also found sex differences in correlates of self-reported disorder. Finally, we examined agreement between child and parent and teacher reports. Overall, agreement was relatively low, although somewhat higher for child-parent than for child-teacher.
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Health in Adolescence: research challenges for the next decade | 1988
Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1988, 101(101), 689-692.
Our ref: NZ52
Show abstract » This paper briefly describes some recent publications on adolescent health, one of which advocates the establishment of a database on adolescent health, and then discusses what the author considers to be the three most important adolescent health problems, namely unintentional injuries, asthma and mental health disorders. While considerable research into injuries and asthma are already being planned or carried out, this is not the case for adolescent mental health disorders. Adolescent physical and sensory disabilities, health risks and health promotion are briefly discussed in terms of research needs. The nature and prevalence of adolescent mental health problems are then discussed as well as some influences on adolescent development and mental health. Finally, it is argued that two types of research into adolescent mental health disorders are needed (basic and programme development and evaluation). It is recommended that the Medical Research Council sponsor a seminar on mental health research needs and consider the possibility of adopting more active strategies to promote research into mental health, including the mental health of adolescents.
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Absence of psychosocial bias in the under-reporting of unintentional childhood injuries | 1988
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1988, 42(42), 76-82.
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Our ref: RO87
Show abstract » Bias resulting from under-reporting has been largely ignored by studies that have examined the relationships between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries. This study was part of a larger investigation that examined associations between psychosocial factors and unintentional childhood injuries in a sample of 781 children. Visits to an accident and emergency department and their general practitioners were used to determine whether the children or their mothers were under-reporters. Under-reporters were compared with reporters on a variety of family, behavioural, and development factors. The analyses showed that under-reporters did not differ significantly from the remainder of the sample in terms of psychosocial factors central to the main study.
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Neuropsychological correlates of early adolescent psychopathology [Abstract] | 1988
Frost, L.A., Moffitt, T.E., McGee, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 1988, 11(11), 272.
Our ref: RO112
Show abstract » This study reported a principal components analysis of a neuropsychological test battery and a discriminant function analysis on groups of pre-adolescents designated as attention deficient, conduct disordered, depressed, anxious or multiple psychiatric disorder. The results suggested that neuropsychological impairment is associated with multiple rather than single psychiatric disorder.
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DSM III disorders in preadolescent children: Prevalence in a large sample from the general population | 1987
Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1987, 44(44), 69-76.
Our ref: RO65
Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of previous DSM-III disorders in 792 children aged 11 years from the general population and found an overall prevalence of disorder of 17.6% with a sex ratio (boys-girls) of 1.7:1. The most prevalent disorders were attention deficit, oppositional, and separation anxiety disorders, and the least prevalent were depression and social phobia. Conduct disorder, overanxious disorder, and simple phobia had intermediate prevalences. Pervasive disorders, reported by more than one source, had an overall prevalence of 7.3%. Examination of background behavioral data disclosed that children identified at 11 years as having multiple disorders had a history of behavior problems since 5 years of age on parent and teacher reports. Fifty-five percent of the disorders occurred in combination with one or more other disorders, and 45% as a single disorder.
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An evaluation of the Malaise Inventory | 1986
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1986, 30(30), 147-152.
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Our ref: RO64
Show abstract » This paper reports some psychometric properties of the Malaise Inventory of Rutter and colleagues from a longitudinal study of a large sample of New Zealand mothers. Malaise scores were relatively stable over time and the scale showed good psychometric properties. The measure was also sensitive to potential sources of adversity in the backgrounds of the women. Some recommendations regarding a number of the questionnaire items are made.
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Eysenck Personality Inventory Scores from 1011 New Zealand women: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study | 1984
McKerracher, D.W., McGee, R., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1984, 19(19), 82.
Our ref: NZ26
Show abstract » This report describes results from use of the Eysenck Personality Inventory with mothers. Form B was recommended as superior to Form A.
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Depression in a sample of nine year old children: prevalence and associated characteristics | 1983
Kashani, J., McGee, R., Clarkson, ... Show all » S.E., Anderson, J., Walton, L.A., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A., Robins, A.J., Cytryn, M.D., McKnew, M.D. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983, 40(40), 1217-1223.
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Our ref: RO34
Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of depression in a sample of 9-year-old children from the general population being studied longitudinally. Current point prevalences of major and minor depressive disorder were estimated at 1.8% and 2.5%, respectively. A comparison of children with depression and a nondepressed group disclosed no significant differences by sex, nor any significant association between depression and socioeconomic status, teacher reports of behavior problems, and cognitive or motor development. The children with current depression were reported by a parent to have had a history of more behavioral problems, had been referred more often for assessment or treatment of behavioral or emotional problems, and had more negative self-perceptions of their academic ability. The results suggested that parents may be more sensitive than teachers to the behavior problems exhibited by depressed children.
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Prevalence of self reported depressive symptoms and associated social factors in a sample of mothers in Dunedin | 1983
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Kashani, ... Show all » J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 143(143), 473-479.
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Our ref: RO32
Show abstract » A large sample of women (n = 899) from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a self-report questionnaire on depressive symptoms. On this basis, about 8 per cent of the sample were identified as having major depressive disorder. These women tended to have a history of previously reported psychological symptoms and formal treatment for depression. A significantly high proportion of the depressed group had been young at first pregnancy and had since been separated from their partners. The depressed women also reported more behaviour problems in their children, but these reports were not confirmed by teachers' reports or by the children's self-reports, suggesting a response bias in depressed women towards reporting problems.
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Parents' and teachers' perceptions of behaviour problems in seven year old children | 1983
McGee, R., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
The Exceptional Child, 1983, 30(30), 151-161.
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Our ref: RO30
Show abstract » This study investigated the characteristics of children identified as having behaviour problems by a parent, by a teacher, or by both parent and teacher. Characteristics studied included those of the mother, the family, and the child him/herself. Results indicated differential associations between these background characteristics and problem behaviour, depending upon whether the parent, the teacher, or both perceived a problem. The findings point to the need for a careful description of children with behaviour problems based upon both parent and teacher reports.
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A prospective study of the association between delayed motor development at ages three and five, and low intelligence and reading difficulties at age seven | 1982
Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1982, 8(8), 187-193.
Our ref: RO27
Show abstract » This study showed that early motor delays were predictive of later low intelligence and reading difficulties.
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A study of mothers' health | 1980
Dodge, J.S., Silva, P.A.
New Zealand Medical Journal, 1980, 91(91), 353-355.
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Our ref: NZ13
Show abstract » The physical and mental health of the mothers of 991 children being examined in phase five of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study was assessed through two questionnaires which were designed to show changes in health status rather than to indicate defined disease. Less than one in five of the mothers gave no positive responses to the questionnaire on physical health and less than two in five gave no positive responses to the questionnaire on psychological health. The general level of health was lower than anticipated. Younger mothers showed more positive responses overall than older mothers and more frequent positive responses correlated significantly with family size and the presence of younger children in the family. It is considered that pressure of child rearing, especially in the larger families and in families with preschool aged children contribute to this lower health status.
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