The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


Mental Health

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Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders | 2007
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Koenen, K., Eley, T. C. , Poulton, R. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2007, 164(164), 301-308.
download pdf Our ref: RO523
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Information about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts. METHOD: The authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort (N=1,037) from ages 11 to 32 years, making psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria. For adults with anxiety disorders at 32 years, follow-back analyses ascertained first diagnosis of anxiety and other juvenile disorders. RESULTS: Of adults with each type of anxiety disorder, approximately half had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (one-third with an anxiety disorder) by age 15. The juvenile histories of psychiatric problems for adults with different types of anxiety disorders were largely nonspecific, partially reflecting comorbidity at 32 years. Histories of anxiety and depression were most common. There was also specificity. For example, adults with panic disorder did not have histories of juvenile disorders, whereas those with other anxiety disorders did. Adults with posttraumatic stress disorder had histories of conduct disorder, whereas those with other anxiety disorders did not. Adults with specific phobia had histories of juvenile phobias but not other anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Strong comorbidity between different anxiety disorders and lack of specificity in developmental histories of adults with anxiety disorders supports a hierarchical approach to classification, with a broad class of anxiety disorders having individual disorders within it. The early first diagnosis of psychiatric difficulties in individuals with anxiety disorders suggests the need to target research examining the etiology of anxiety disorders and preventions early in life.
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Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort | 2007
Koenen, K., Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, ... Show all » R., Martin, J. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 181-192.
download pdf Our ref: RO522
Show abstract » Background. Childhood factors have been associated with increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies assessed only a limited number of childhood factors retrospectively. We examined the association between childhood neurodevelopmental, temperamental, behavioral and family environmental characteristics assessed before age 11 years and the development of PTSD up to age 32 years in a birth cohort.Method. Members of a 1972-73 New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) who were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years for PTSD as defined by DSM-IV.Results. We identified two sets of childhood risk factors. The first set of risk factors was associated both with increased risk of trauma exposure and with PTSD assessed at age 26. These included childhood externalizing characteristics and family environmental stressors, specifically maternal distress and loss of a parent. The second set of risk factors affected risk for PTSD only and included low IQ and chronic environmental adversity. The effect of cumulative childhood factors on risk of PTSD at age 26 was substantial; over 58% of cohort members in the highest risk quartile for three developmental factors had PTSD as compared to only 25% of those not at high risk on any factors. Low IQ at age 5, antisocial behavior, and poverty before age 11 continued to predict PTSD related to traumatic events that occurred between the ages of 26 and 32.Conclusions. Developmental capacities and conditions of early childhood may increase both risk of trauma exposure and the risk that individuals will respond adversely to traumatic exposures. Rather than being solely a response to trauma, PTSD may have developmental origins.
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The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: are its findings consistent with the overall New Zealand population? | 2006
Poulton, R., Hancox, R. J. , Milne, ... Show all » B.J., Baxter, J., Scott, K., Wilson, N. « Hide
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2006, 119(119), U2002.
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Our ref: NZ91
Show abstract » AIMS: To compare the health of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study members with people of the same age in the nationally representative New Zealand Health and National Nutrition Surveys. METHOD: Where similar information was obtained, means or proportions and confidence intervals were generated for both the age 26 assessment of the Dunedin sample and for the 25-26 year old participants in the national surveys. The populations were considered to differ when confidence intervals did not overlap. RESULTS: For smoking habit, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, general practitioner and medical specialist consultations, and hospital admissions, the findings of the Dunedin Study were not significantly different to the nationally representative surveys. The Dunedin Study members also did not differ from their national counterparts on SF-36 subscales measuring physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and mental health. They had better scores on the three interference subscales of the SF-36 compared to the national sample, and men in the Dunedin Study spent a little more time doing vigorous physical activity. DISCUSSION: For most outcomes, the Dunedin Study members were very similar to the nationally representative samples. There was little evidence that the repeated assessments in the Dunedin Study had significantly altered the Study members' health, either in terms of responses to questionnaires or on physiological measures of health status. Findings from the Dunedin Study are likely to be generalisable to most young New Zealanders. However, the Dunedin Study is under-representative of Maori and Pacific peoples, so these findings need to be interpreted with caution in this context. Implications for the proposed national Longitudinal Study of New Zealand Children and Families are discussed.
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Neuropsychological performance at the age of 13 years and adult schizophreniform disorder: prospective birth cohort study. Short Report. | 2006
Cannon, M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L., Poulton, R. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 189(189), 463-464.
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Our ref: RO516
Show abstract » We examined neuropsychological functioning at age 13 years in adolescents who later developed schizophreniform disorder, compared with healthy controls and with adolescents diagnosed as having had a manic episode or depression or anxiety disorder. Participants were from an unselected birth cohort. Attentional, executive and motor impairments at age 13 were found in those who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for schizophreniform disorder, suggesting that these impairments may be the earliest emerging neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia-related disorders.
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Family conflict in childhood: A predictor of later insomnia | 2006
Gregory, A. M. , Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Poulton, R. « Hide
Sleep, 2006, 29(29), 1063-1067.
download pdf Our ref: RO511
Show abstract » Study Objectives: To examine the association between childhood exposure to family conflict and insomnia at 18 years. Design: Longitudinal prospective data on an entire birth cohort were obtained. Parents completed the Conflict subscale of the Moos Family Environment Scale when the study members were 7, 9, 13 and 15 years of age. Insomnia was examined in a standardized interview when the participants were aged 18 years. Setting: Participants were born in Dunedin, New Zealand and were interviewed at this location. Patients or Participants: 1,037 children born between April 1, 1972 and March 31, 1973 enrolled in the study (52% male). At age 18 years, 993 (97% of living cohort members) provided data. Measurements and Results: Mean level of family conflict at 7 to 15 years predicted insomnia at 18 years after controlling for sex, SES, sleep problems at 9 years and self-reported health (OR(95%CI) = 1.42 (1.17-1.73), p <.001). There was a dose-response relationship, whereby the more assessments at which families scored in the top 25% for conflict, the greater the young person's likelihood of developing insomnia at 18 years. This association was present even after controlling for depression at 18 years. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a modest but robust longitudinal link between family conflict during childhood and insomnia experienced at 18 years. Future work needs to replicate this finding in different populations and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association.
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When parents have a history of conduct disorder: how is the caregiving environment affected? | 2006
Jaffee, S.R., Belsky, J., Harrington, ... Show all » H. L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115(115), 309-319.
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Our ref: RO507
Show abstract » Individuals with early-emerging conduct problems are likely to become parents who expose their children to considerable adversity. The current study tested the specificity of and alternative explanations for this trajectory. The sample included 246 members of a prospective, 30-year cohort study and their 3-year-old children. Parents who had a history of conduct disorder were specifically at elevated risk for socioeconomic disadvantage and relationship violence, but suboptimal parenting and offspring temperament problems were common to parents with any history of disorder. Recurrent disorder, comorbidity, and adversity in the family of origin did not fully account for these findings. The cumulative consequences of early-onset conduct disorder and assortative mating for antisocial behavior may explain the long-term effects of conduct disorder on young adult functioning.
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Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood | 2006
Trzesniewski, K. H. , Donnellan, M. B. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. , Robins, R. W. , Poulton, R. , Caspi, A. « Hide
Developmental Psychology, 2006, 42(42), 381-90.
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Our ref: RO506
Show abstract » Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term consequences of self-esteem could not be explained by adolescent depression, gender, or socioeconomic status. Moreover, the findings held when the outcome variables were assessed using objective measures and informant reports; therefore, the findings cannot be explained by shared method variance in self-report data. The findings suggest that low self-esteem during adolescence predicts negative real-world consequences during adulthood.
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Is domestic violence followed by an increased risk of psychiatric disorders among women but not among men? A longitudinal cohort study | 2006
Ehrensaft, M. K. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 163(163), 885-92.
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Our ref: RO504
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: The association between violence between intimate partners and psychiatric disorders is assumed to reflect a causal link. This assumption is now questioned because several longitudinal studies have documented that adolescents with psychiatric disorders grow up to be overrepresented among adults involved in partner violence. METHOD: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively. Adolescent mental disorders were diagnosed at age 18 years. Between ages 24 and 26 years, the authors identified individuals involved in nonabusive relationships versus those involved in clinically abusive relationships (i.e., resulting in injury and/or official intervention). At age 26 years, mental disorders were again diagnosed. RESULTS: Male and female adolescents with psychiatric disorders were at greatest risk of becoming involved in abusive adult relationships. After the authors controlled for earlier psychiatric history, women who were involved in abusive relationships, but not men, had an increased risk of adult psychiatric morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Psychiatric disorders pose risk for involvement in abusive relationships for both sexes; 2) partner abuse is a contributing source of psychiatric disorders among women but not among men.
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Mental disorder and violent victimisation in a total birth cohort | 2005
Silver, E., Arseneault, L., Langley, ... Show all » J.D., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
American Journal of Public Health, 2005, 95(95), 2015-2021.
download pdf Our ref: RO494
Show abstract » We examined the association between mental disorder and violent victimization in a general population sample. We performed a multivariate analysis of violent victimization in a 12-month period on a total birth cohort with follow-up data that assessed, during their 21st year, males and females born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in the early 1970s. Compared with people with no mental disorder, (1) people with anxiety disorders experienced more sexual assaults, (2) people with schizophreniform disorders experienced more threatened and completed physical assaults, (3) people with alcohol dependence disorders experienced more completed physical assaults, and (4) people with marijuana dependence disorders experienced more attempted physical assaults. These results held after control for psychiatric comorbidity, demographic characteristics, and the study participants' own violent behavior. Mentally disordered young adults tend to experience more violent victimization in the community than those without a mental disorder.
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Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood | 2005
Gregory, A.M., Caspi, A., Eley, ... Show all » T.C., Moffitt, T. E. , O'Connor, T.G., Poulton, R. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2005, 33(33), 157-163.
download pdf Our ref: RO479
Show abstract » The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. When the participants were 21 and 26 years, adult anxiety and depression were diagnosed using a standardized diagnostic interview. After controlling for childhood internalizing problems, sex, and socioeconomic status, persistent sleep problems in childhood predicted adulthood anxiety disorders (OR (95% CI) = 1.60 (1.05-2.45), p = .030) but not depressive disorders (OR (95% CI) = .99 (.63-1.56), p = .959). Persistent sleep problems in childhood may be an early risk indicator of anxiety in adulthood.
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Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene x environment interaction | 2005
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Cannon, ... Show all » M., McClay, J., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., Williams, B.S., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Craig, I. « Hide
Biological Psychiatry, 2005, 57(57), 1117-1127.
download pdf Our ref: RO478
Show abstract » Background: Recent evidence documents that cannabis use by young people is a modest statistical risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as clinically significant schizophrenia. The vast majority of cannabis users do not develop psychosis, however, prompting us to hypothesize that some people are genetically vulnerable to the deleterious effects of cannabis. Methods: In a longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort followed to adulthood, we tested why cannabis use is associated with the emergence of psychosis in a minority of users, but not in others. Results: A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene moderated the influence of adolescent cannabis use on developing adult psychosis. Carriers of the COMT valine allele were most likely to exhibit psychotic symptoms and to develop schizophreniform disorder if they used cannabis. Cannabis use had no such adverse influence on individuals with two copies of the methionine allele. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of a gene ' environment interaction and suggest that a role of some susceptibility genes is to influence vulnerability to environmental pathogens.
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Is cigarette smoking associated with suicidal ideation among young people? | 2005
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Nada-Raja, ... Show all » S. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005, 162(162), 619-620.
download pdf Our ref: RO475
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE The authors examined the association between suicidal ideation in early adulthood and daily tobacco smoking in a community sample of adolescents. METHOD Participants were enrolled in a longitudinal study of health and development. The factors of disadvantage, impulsiveness, stress, depressed mood, tobacco smoking, other substance use, and parental attachment were included in multivariate modelling of suicidal ideation. RESULTSData on tobacco use were available for 764 participants. Early tobacco smoking was significantly predictive of later suicidal ideation, but there was no longer a significant relationship when high levels of stress and depression and low levels of parental attachment in adolescence were included in the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco smoking in adolescence does not appear to elevate the risk of later suicidal ideation
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Identifying and predicting adolescent smokers' developmental trajectories | 2004
Stanton, W.R., Flay, B.R., Colder, ... Show all » C.R., Mehta, P. « Hide
Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2004, 6(6), 843-852.
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Our ref: RO499
Show abstract » Very few studies have defined trajectories of smoking. In the present study, we modeled growth in adolescent smoking and empirically identified prototypical trajectories. We conceptualized escalation of smoking as a growth process and modeled rates of change and heterogeneity of these patterns using latent growth mixture modeling. The analysis identified six trajectories with low ambiguity about group membership (early rapid escalators, late rapid escalators, late moderate escalators, late slow escalators'smokers, stable puffers, and late slow escalators'puffers). A trajectory of quitters was not identified. We also examined predictors of the smoking trajectories. The predictors were assessed across the adolescent years and included variables related to smoking and other substance use, as well as a range of variables related to sociodemographic factors and mental health. Observed change in the pattern of predictors across age has implications for the mechanism of effect of these variables in relation to smoking trajectories, including predictors that differentiated among daily smokers, variables that may determine the trajectory (e.g., friends smoking), and variables that may result from the trajectory (e.g., marijuana use, less attachment to friends).
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Self-harm and psychiatric disorder: A population-based study | 2004
Skegg, K.M., Nada-Raja, S., Moffitt, ... Show all » T. E. « Hide
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 2004, 34(34), 187-196.
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Our ref: RO464
Show abstract » Abstract: Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as self-battery, as well as traditional methods of suicide (ICD [International Classification of Diseases] self-harm). All with ICD self-harm and most with other self-harmful behavior met the criteria for DSM-IV disorder. Suicidal/self-harmful thoughts increased the odds for self-harm, even in men without psychiatric disorder (odds ratio 4.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 - 17.9). Young adults engaging in even minor self-harm warrant screening for psychiatric disorder.
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Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence | 2004
Arseneault, L. , Cannon, M. , Witton, ... Show all » J. , Murray, R. M. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2004, 184(184), 110-117.
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Our ref: RO461
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Controversy remains as to whether cannabis acts as a causal risk factor for schizophrenia or other functional psychotic illnesses. AIMS: To examine critically the evidence that cannabis causes psychosis using established criteria of causality. METHOD: We identified five studies that included a well-defined sample drawn from population-based registers or cohorts and used prospective measures of cannabis use and adult psychosis. RESULTS: On an individual level, cannabis use confers an overall twofold increase in the relative risk for later schizophrenia. At the population level, elimination of cannabis use would reduce the incidence of schizophrenia by approximately 8%, assuming a causal relationship. Cannabis use appears to be neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause for psychosis. It is a component cause, part of a complex constellation of factors leading to psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which cannabis causes psychosis.
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Childhood origins of violent behaviour in adults with schizophreniform disorder | 2003
Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Murray, ... Show all » R. M., Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
British Journal of Psychiatry, 2003, 183(183), 520-525.
download pdf Our ref: RO454
Show abstract » Background: People with psychosis have an elevated risk of violence. Aims: To examine whether violent behaviour in adults with psychosis can be accounted for by psychotic symptoms or physical aggression in childhood. Method: We used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a complete birth cohort born in New Zealand. When cohort members were 26 years old, information was obtained on past-year psychiatric diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder and on violent behaviour. Childhood psychotic symptoms were measured at age 11 years using a diagnostic interview, and childhood physical aggression was assessed by teachers when cohort members were aged 7, 9 and 11 years. Results: Participants with schizophreniform disorder were more likely to be violent than participants without, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and concurrent substance dependence disorders. Childhood psychotic symptoms were a strong risk factor for violence in adults with schizophreniform disorder, as was childhood physical aggression, although to a lesser extent. Conclusions: Violence by individuals with schizophreniform disorder could be prevented by monitoring early signs of psychotic symptoms and by controlling childhood physical aggression.
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Intergenerational relationships in young adulthood and their life-course, mental health and personality correlates | 2003
Belsky, J., Jaffee, S.R., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Family Psychology, 2003, 17(17), 460-471.
download pdf Our ref: RO453
Show abstract » To evaluate effects of life-course events and experiences of young adults, as well as personality and mental-health history on intergenerational relationships in young adulthood, the authors examined dyadic relationship data drawn from a sample of more than 900 New Zealand 26-year-olds and their mothers and fathers. Results indicated that intergenerational relations were more positive when young adults were childless, not unemployed, married, and living away from home, but these factors did not interact with family relationship history in predicting relationship outcomes. Intergenerational relationships were less positive when children scored low on positive emotionality and constraint and high on negative emotionality and mental disorders, though these attributes did not account for the effect of life-course factors. Results are discussed in terms of the openness of the parent-child relationship in adulthood to further development.
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Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: Developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort | 2003
Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Harrington, H. L. , Milne, B.J., Poulton, R. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2003, 60(60), 709-719.
download pdf Our ref: RO445
Show abstract » Background: If most adults with mental disorders are found to have a juvenile psychiatric history, this would shift etiologic research and prevention policy to focus more on childhood mental disorders. Method: Our prospective longitudinal study followed up a representative birth cohort (N = 1037). We made psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria at 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 years of age. Adult disorders were defined in the following 3 ways: (1) cases diagnosed using a standardized diagnostic interview, (2) the subset using treatment, and (3) the subset receiving intensive mental health services. Follow-back analyses ascertained the proportion of adult cases who had juvenile diagnoses and the types of juvenile diagnoses they had. Results: Among adult cases defined via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 73.9% had received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 50.0% before 15 years of age. Among treatment-using cases, 76.5% received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 57.5% before 15 years of age. Among cases receiving intensive mental health services, 77.9% received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 60.3% before 15 years of age. Adult disorders were generally preceded by their juvenile counterparts (eg, adult anxiety was preceded by juvenile anxiety), but also by different disorders. Specifically, adult anxiety and schizophreniform disorders were preceded by a broad array of juvenile disorders. For all adult disorders, 25% to 60% of cases had a history of conduct and/or oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions: Most adult disorders should be reframed as extensions of juvenile disorders. In particular, juvenile conduct disorder is a priority prevention target for reducing psychiatric disorder in the adult population.
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Relationship between abdominal pain subgroups in the community and psychiatric diagnosis and personality: a birth cohort study | 2003
Howell, S., Poulton, R., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Talley, N. J. « Hide
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2003, 55(55), 179-187.
download pdf Our ref: RO444
Show abstract » Introduction: It is unclear if there is a causal link between psychiatric disorders and unexplained chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology. The role of personality is also in dispute. We aimed to assess the association of these factors with functional GI symptoms in a birth cohort study. Methods: The Dunedin birth cohort is well characterised and has been followed-up prospectively to age 26 (n=980). Measured were upper and lower GI symptoms over the prior year at age 26 using a validated questionnaire, psychiatric diagnoses at ages 18 and 21 by standardised interview applying DSM-III-R criteria, and personality at age 18 using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Natural symptom groupings were identified using factor analysis and k-means clustering. The association of these clusters and psychiatric diagnoses or personality was assessed by logistic regression. Results: The k-means analysis produced a six-cluster solution, which was made up of a health group, and five disease clusters defined by higher than average scores on a single symptom. A diagnosis of depression at age 18 or 21 years was associated with increases in the odds of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.27'2.25) for all GI, of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.12'4.16) for dysmotility and of 2.07 (95% CI: 1.13'3.80) for constipation, but not with the other clusters. Similar results were observed with respect to anxiety disorders for the odds of GI overall (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.01'1.99) and constipation (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.17'3.79). The personality subscales were not strongly linked; membership of any diseased cluster was associated with a reduced odds of being in the fourth quartile for the well-being scale (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.46'0.88) but increased odds of being in the fourth quartile for the social potency scale (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.18'2.28). Conclusions: In a young adult community sample, unexplained GI symptoms appear to be linked to psychiatric disorders but personality differences were minimal.
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The targets of violence committed by young offenders with alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: findings from a birth cohort | 2002
Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Taylor, A. « Hide
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 2002, 12(12), 155-168.
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Our ref: RO441
Show abstract » Background: Estimates of who is most at risk from violence by people with mental illness rest mainly on identified patient samples. This study, without such selection bias, examined the targets of violence committed by young adults with as-yet untreated alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, to determine the extent to which their victims were co-residents or non-household members. Methods: In a total birth cohort of 21-year-olds (n = 956), past-year prevalence of alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were diagnosed using standardized DSM-III-R interviews. None of the people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder has been hospitalized in the past year. Past-year violence and victim targets were measured using self-reports. Results: Compared with controls, cohort members with substance dependence or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders had higher prevalence and frequency rates of assault against co-residents, against non-household members, and also robbery and gang fights. Out of 39, five individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder committed violent street crimes. Persons with substance dependence had similar proportions of violence against co-resident and non-household members, but persons with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders tended to victimize co-residents more than others. Conclusions: At the age when they are most likely to contribute to the community's violence burden, young untreated offenders with alcohol or marijuana dependence or with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders assault not only co-residents, but others as well, and commit violent street crimes. Families, schoolteachers and primary care physicians have an important potentially preventive role in early identification and treatment of the disorders.
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Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study | 2002
Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Murray, R. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
BMJ, 2002, 325(325), 1212-1213.
download pdf Our ref: RO427
Show abstract » The strongest evidence that cannabis use may be a risk factor for later psychosis comes from a Swedish cohort study which found that heavy cannabis use at age 18 increased the risk of later schizophrenia sixfold. This study could not establish whether adolescent cannabis use was a consequence of pre-existing psychotic symptoms rather than a cause. We present the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms antedating cannabis use.
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Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort | 2002
Cannon, M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. , Harrington, H. L. , Taylor, A. , Murray, R. M. , Poulton, R. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 449-56.
download pdf Our ref: RO412
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Childhood developmental abnormalities have been previously described in schizophrenia. It is not known, however, whether childhood developmental impairment is specific to schizophrenia or is merely a marker for a range of psychiatric outcomes. METHODS: A 1-year birth cohort (1972-1973) of 1037 children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study was assessed at biennial intervals between ages 3 and 11 years on emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems, motor and language development, and intelligence. At age 11 years, children were asked about psychotic symptoms. At age 26 years, DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Study members having schizophreniform disorder (n = 36 [3.7%]) were compared with healthy controls and also with groups diagnosed as having mania (n = 20 [2%]) and nonpsychotic anxiety or depression disorders (n = 278 [28.5%]) on childhood variables. RESULTS: Emotional problems and interpersonal difficulties were noted in children who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for any of the adult psychiatric outcomes assessed. However, significant impairments in neuromotor, receptive language, and cognitive development were additionally present only among children later diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder. Developmental impairments also predicted self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 years. These impairments were independent of the effects of socioeconomic, obstetric, and maternal factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence for an early-childhood, persistent, pan- developmental impairment that is specifically associated with schizophreniform disorder and that predicts psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood.
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Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression | 2002
Jaffee, S. R. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. , Fombonne, E. , Poulton, R. , Martin, J. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 215-222.
download pdf Our ref: RO405
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. METHOD: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood, but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). RESULTS: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of- origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.
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Physical and psychological correlates of primary headache in young adulthood: A 26 year longitudinal study | 2002
Waldie, K.E., Poulton, R.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 2002, 72(72), 86-92.
download pdf Our ref: RO398
Show abstract » Objectives: To determine if physical and/or psychological risk factors could differentiate between subtypes of primary headache (migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and coexisting migraine and TTH (combined)) among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. Methods: At age 26, the headache status of members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) was determined using International Headache Society criteria. Headache history and potential physical and psychological correlates of headache were assessed. These factors included perinatal problems and injuries sustained to age 26; and behavioural, personality, and psychiatric disorders assessed between ages 5 to 21. Results: The 1 year prevalences for migraine, TTH, and combined headache at the age of 26 were 7.2%, 11.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Migraine was related to maternal headache, anxiety symptoms in childhood, anxiety disorders during adolescence and young adulthood, and the stress reactivity personality trait at the age of 18. TTH was significantly associated with neck or back injury in childhood (before the age of 13). Combined headache was related to maternal headache and anxiety disorder at 18 and 21 only among women with a childhood history of headache. Headache status at the age of 26 was unrelated to a history of perinatal complication, neurological disorder, or mild traumatic head injury. Conclusions: Migraine and TTH seem to be distinct disorders with different developmental characteristics. Combined headache may also have a distinct aetiology.
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Psychological disorders and dental anxiety in a young adult population | 2001
Locker, D., Poulton, R., Thomson, ... Show all » W.M. « Hide
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2001, 29(29), 456-463.
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Our ref: RO395
Show abstract » Objectives. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. This paper compares the prevalence of psychological disorders among dentally anxious and non-anxious groups drawn from the general population. Methods: Data were obtained as part of a birth cohort study when study members were aged 18 years. They were assessed using the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). The disorders diagnosed by the DIS were major depressive episode, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, simple phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, conduct disorder, cannabis and alcohol dependence. Results: Overall, 12.5% of study members had DAS scores of 13 or more and were considered to be dentally anxious. Those who were dentally anxious were more likely than the non-anxious to be diagnosed with one or more psychological disorders (55.0% vs. 42.3%). However, those with DAS scores of 13 or 14 (moderately dentally anxious) were broadly similar to the non-anxious in terms of their psychological profile. This excess prevalence of psychological disorder was largely accounted for by high rates of disorder among those with DAS scores of 15 or more (highly dentally anxious). The highly anxious were more likely than the non-anxious to have a diagnosis of conduct disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, simple phobia or alcohol dependence. Odds ratios ranged from 2.8 to 5.0 after controlling for the effects of gender. The data also suggested that dentally anxious individuals with psychological disorders were more likely to maintain their anxiety over time. Conclusions: In this population of young adults, high rates of psychological disorder were characteristic of those with high levels of dental anxiety. Psychological disorder was related to the maintenance of dental anxiety over time.
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Psychological disorder, conditioning experiences and the onset of dental anxiety in early adulthood | 2001
Locker, D., Thomson, W.M., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Journal of Dental Research, 2001, 80(80), 1588-1592.
download pdf Our ref: RO385
Show abstract » Most studies examining the origins of dental fear and anxiety have relied on cross-sectional data. These are subject to several problems, such as recall and uncertainty concerning temporal relationships. This paper uses longitudinal data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study to assess risk factors for the development of dental anxiety in persons between the ages of 18 and 26 years. It was hypothesized that psychological factors would be as important as conditioning experiences in the genesis of dental anxiety over this period. The eight-year incidence of dental anxiety was 16.5%. Five variables entered models predicting onset: multiple fears, symptoms of substance dependence, previous experience of invasive dental treatment, dental visiting pattern, and the extraction of one or more teeth. Separate analyses for those avoiding and those using dental services resulted in different explanatory models. These results indicated that both psychological and conditioning variables contributed to the development of dental anxiety in this population of young adults.
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The prevalence and correlates of psychological distress following physical and sexual assault in a young adult cohort | 2001
Feehan, M. , Nada-Raja, S. , Martin, ... Show all » J. , Langley, J. D. « Hide
Violence and Victims, 2001, 16(16), 49-63.
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Our ref: RO381
Show abstract » Among a birth cohort of New Zealand's 21-year-olds, 41% experienced physical or sexual assault in the previous 12 months. The level of psychological distress experienced by the 374 victims was determined in interviews assessing for symptoms indicative of posttraumatic stress disorder and ratings of impairment in activities of daily living. Of the 141 women victims, 32.6% were identified as experiencing psychological distress as were 9.9% of the 233 men. For men, bivariate analyses showed psychological distress was significantly associated with factors indicative of increased assault severity, and for women an increased likelihood of distress was associated with the location of assault and the relationship to the assailant. Positive indicators of social support were not significantly associated with less adverse psychological outcomes. However, for both men and women, resisting the assailant was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychological distress. Multivariate analyses revealed that for both women and men, unemployment uniquely predicted variance in distress, over and above that accounted for by characteristics of the assault.
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Paths to panic disorder/agoraphobia: An exploratory analysis from age 3 to 21 in an unselected birth cohort | 2001
Craske, M.G., Poulton, R., Tsao, ... Show all » J.C.I., Plotkin, D. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2001, 40(40), 556-563.
download pdf Our ref: RO380
Show abstract » Objective: To evaluate childhood temperamental traits and early illness experiences in the etiology of adult panic disorder with agoraphobia. Method: Evaluated temperamental and illness experience factors, at ages 3 through 18, as predictors of panic and agoraphobia at ages 18 or 21 in an unselected sample (N = 992). Analyses were conducted with classification trees. Results: Experience with respiratory ill health predicted panic/agoraphobia relative to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls. Also, temperamental emotional reactivity at age 3 predicted panic/agoraphobia in males but did not predict other anxiety disorders, compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, temperament and ill health interacted with gender. Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of cognitive theories of fear of physical symptoms and biological models of respiratory disturbance for panic/agoraphobia.
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The irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders in the community: Is there a link? | 2001
Talley, N. J., Howell, S., Poulton, ... Show all » R. « Hide
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2001, 96(96), 1072-1079.
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Our ref: RO376
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric morbidity is high among patients who present to referral centers with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between psychiatric disturbance and IBS in community samples. We hypothesized that psychiatric disorders are linked to IBS in the general community, but this is influenced by the criteria used to establish a diagnosis of IBS. METHODS: The data were collected from a birth cohort born in Dunedin (New Zealand) between April 1972 and March 1973. This cohort consisted of 1037 members (52% male), who were assessed at ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 yr. GI symptoms were recorded at age 26 yr, using an abbreviated version of the Bowel Symptom Questionnaire; psychiatric history was obtained at ages 18 and 21 yr, using a modified version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. RESULTS: The prevalence of IBS was 12.7% according to the Manning criteria and 4.3% according to the Rome II criteria. The IBS was not significantly related to a diagnostic history for psychiatric illness overall. nor to a history of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and substance dependence. These results were independent of the IBS criteria used, there was no association between psychiatric history and IBS when IBS was defined according to the Manning criteria (p = 0.11 to 0.98) or the Rome criteria (p = 0.18 to 0.92): Rome and Manning criteria subjects did not significantly differ from each other in terms of psychiatric history (p = 0.16 to 0.89). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of young adults with IBS from New Zealand, IBS appears to not be related to psychiatric disorders.
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Epidemiological personology: The unifying role of personality in population-based research on problem behaviors | 2000
Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E. « Hide
Journal of Personality, 2000, 68(68), 967-998.
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Our ref: RO371
Show abstract » Epidemiological personology refers to a paradigm in which a developmental perspective on individual differences is paired with a population-based sampling frame to yield insights about the role of personality in consequential social outcomes. We review our work in epidemiological personology, linking personality to diverse, problematic social outcomes: Mental disorders, health-risk behaviors, and violence. We conclude that broad-band personality measurement is both feasible and fruitful in large-scale research on problem behaviors, and we call for increased collaboration between personality psychologists and researchers in fields such as public health, epidemiology, and sociology.
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Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: A 15-year longitudinal study | 2000
Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Cannon, M., Murray, R. M., Harrington, H. L. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57(57), 1053-1058.
download pdf Our ref: RO363
Show abstract » Background: Childhood risk factors for the development of adult schizophrenia have proved to have only modest and non-specific effects, and most appear unrelated to the adult phenotype. This paper reports the first direct examination of the longitudinal relation between psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood. Methods: Prospective data from a birth cohort (n=761) in which children were asked about delusional beliefs and hallucinatory experiences at age 11, and then followed up to age 26, were analysed. Structured diagnostic interviews were employed at both ages and self-report of schizophreniform symptoms was augmented by other data sources at age 26. Results: Self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 predicted a very high risk of a schizophreniform diagnosis at age 26 (OR = 16.4, 95%CI: 3.9-67.8). In terms of attributable risk, 42% of the age-26 schizophreniform cases in the cohort had reported one or more psychotic symptoms at age 11. Age-11 psychotic symptoms did not predict mania or depression at age 26, suggesting specificity of prediction to schizophreniform disorder. The link between child and adult psychotic symptoms was not simply the result of general childhood psychopathology. Conclusions: These findings provide the first evidence for continuity of psychotic symptoms from childhood to adulthood.
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Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: Results from the Dunedin Study | 2000
Arseneault, L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Taylor, P.J., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57(57), 979-986.
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Our ref: RO358
Show abstract » Background: We report on mental disorders and violence for a birth cohort of young adults, regardless of their contact with the health or justice systems. Methods: We studied 961 young adults who constituted 94% of a total-city birth cohort in New Zealand, April 1, 1972, through March 31, 1973. Past-year prevalence of mental disorders was measured using standardized DSM III R interviews. Past-year violence was measured using self-reports of criminal offending and a search of official conviction records. We also tested whether substance use before the violent offence, adolescent excessive perceptions of threat, and a juvenile history of conduct disorder accounted for the link between mental disorders and violence. Results: Individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, and schizophrenia spectrum disorder were 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.5), 3.8 (95% CI, 2.2-6.8), and 2.5 (95% CI, 1.1-5.7) times, respectively, more likely than control subjects to be violent. Persons with at least 1 of these 3 disorders constituted one fifth of the sample, but they accounted for half of the sample's violent crimes (10% of violence risk was uniquely attributable to schizophrenia-spectrum disorder). Among alcohol-dependent individuals, violence was best explained by substance use before the offence; among marijuana-dependent individuals, by a juvenile history of conduct disorder; and among individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, by excessive perceptions of threat and a history of conduct disorder. Conclusions: In the age group committing most violent incidents, individuals with mental disorders account for a considerable amount of violence in the community. Different mental disorders are linked to violence via different core explanations, suggesting multiple-targeted prevention strategies.
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Psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviour in young adulthood: cross sectional study in birth cohort | 2000
Ramrakha, S., Caspi, A., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Moffitt, T. E, Paul, C. « Hide
BMJ, 2000, 321(321), 263-266.
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Our ref: RO354
Show abstract » Objective: To determine if risky sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual intercourse at an early age are associated with psychiatric disorder. Design: Cross sectional study of a birth cohort at age 21 years with assessments presented by computer (for sexual behaviour) and by trained interviewers (for psychiatric disorder). Setting: New Zealand in 1993-4. Participants: 992 study members (487 women) from the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Complete data were available on both measures for 930 study members. Main outcome measures: Psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorder, substance dependence, antisocial disorder, mania, schizophrenia spectrum) and measures of sexual behaviour. Results: Young people diagnosed with substance dependence, schizophrenia spectrum, and antisocial disorders were more likely to engage in risky sexual intercourse, contract sexually transmitted diseases, and have sexual intercourse at an early age (before 16 years). Unexpectedly, so were young people with depressive disorders. Young people with mania were more likely to report risky sexual intercourse and have sexually transmitted diseases. The likelihood of risky behaviour was increased by psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusions: There is a clear association between risky sexual behaviour and common psychiatric disorders. Although the temporal relation is uncertain, the results indicate the need to coordinate sexual medicine with mental health services in the treatment of young people.
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A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood | 2000
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Poulton, ... Show all » R., Moffitt, T.E. « Hide
Addiction, 2000, 95(95), 491-503.
download pdf Our ref: RO349
Show abstract » AIMS: To examine the longitudinal association between cannabis use and mental health. DESIGN: Information concerning cannabis use and mental health from 15 to 21 years was available for a large sample of individuals as part of a longitudinal study from childhood to adulthood. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a research programme on the health, development and behaviour of a large group of New Zealanders born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. MEASUREMENTS: Cannabis use and identification of mental disorder was based upon self- report as part of a general assessment of mental health using a standard diagnostic interview. Daily smoking and alcohol use at age 15 were assessed by self-report. Indices of family socio-economic status, family climate and parent-child interaction were formed using information gathered from parent report and behavioural observations over early childhood. Childhood behaviour problems were assessed by parent and teacher report. Attachment to parents was assessed in adolescence. FINDINGS: Cross-sectional associations between cannabis use and mental disorder were significant at all three ages. Both outcome variables shared similar pathways of low socio-economic status and history of behaviour problems in childhood, and low parental attachment in adolescence. Mental disorder at age 15 led to a small but significantly elevated risk of cannabis use at age 18; by contrast, cannabis use at age 18 elevated the risk of mental disorder at age 21. The latter association reflected the extent to which cannabis dependence and other externalizing disorders at age 21 were predicted by earlier level of involvement with cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the primary causal direction leads from mental disorder to cannabis use among adolescents and the reverse in early adulthood. Both alcohol use and cigarette smoking had independent associations with later mental health disorder.
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Low socioeconomic status and mental disorders: A longitudinal study of selection and causation during young adulthood | 1999
Miech, R.A., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Wright, B.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Sociology, 1999, 104(104), 1096-1131.
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Our ref: RO335
Show abstract » This article examines low socioeconomic status (SES) as both a cause and a consequence of mental illnesses by investigating the mutual influence of mental disorders and educational attainment, a core element of SES. The analyses are based on a longitudinal panel design and focus on four disorders: anxiety, depression, antisocial disorder, and attention deficit disorder. The article shows that each disorder has a unique relationship with SES, highlighting the need for greater consideration of antisocial disorders in the status attainment process and for further theoretical development in the sociology of mental disorders to account for disorder-specific relations with SES.
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Water trauma and swimming experiences up to age 9 and fear of water at age 18: A longitudinal study | 1999
Poulton, R., Menzies, R.G., Craske, ... Show all » M.G., Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1999, 37(37), 39-48.
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Our ref: RO322
Show abstract » A small number of retrospective studies on the etiology of specific fears have obtained findings consistent with a biological (non- associative) explanation of fear acquisition. Unfortunately, reliance on imperfect memory to recall conditioning events which occurred many years earlier limits the conclusions that can be drawn from such data. The present investigation attempts to overcome this methodological shortcoming by examining the relationship between water trauma (i.e. conditioning) and water skills (e.g. swimming) before the age of 9 and the presence of water fear and phobia at age 18 in a longitudinal birth cohort. We found no evidence of a relationship between water confidence and water trauma up to the age of 9 and fear of water at age 18. Similar findings were obtained for water phobia at age 18 with the exception that study members who were less able to immerse themselves in water with confidence at age 9 were more likely to report water phobia at age 18. Associative and non-associative explanations of these findings were discussed.
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Personality traits in late adolescence predict mental disorders in early adulthood: A prospective-epidemiological study | 1999
Krueger, R.F.
Journal of Personality, 1999, 67(67), 39-65.
download pdf Our ref: RO318
Show abstract » Prospective relations between personality traits and mental disorders were assessed in a longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort of young men and women from Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality traits were assessed via self-report questionnaire at age 18, and mental disorders were assessed via diagnostic interview at both ages 18 and 21. High negative emotionality (a propensity to experience aversive affective states) at age 18 was linked with affective, anxiety, substance dependence, and antisocial personality disorders at age 21 when corresponding mental disorders at age 18 were controlled. Low constraint (difficulty inhibiting the expression of affect and impulse) at age 18 was linked with substance dependence and antisocial personality disorders at age 21 when corresponding mental disorders at age 18 were controlled. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development and treatment of mental disorders in young adulthood.
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Is mental health in childhood a major predictor of smoking in adolescence | 1998
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R. « Hide
Addiction, 1998, 93(93), 1869-1874.
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Our ref: RO342
Show abstract » Aim: To test an extended version of Pomerleau's (1997) hypothesis that children with mental health problems are at higher risk of smoking in preadolescence and adolescence. Findings: None of the potential risk factors of gender, childhood disadvantage or childhood mental health problems predicted onset of smoking in pre-adolescence. Daily smoking at age 15 was best predicted by smoking in preadolescence, being female and experiencing childhood disadvantage. Pre-adolescent mental health was only weakly predictive of later smoking and this association appeared to be confounded with background disadvantage. Conclusions: Little support was found for the extension of Pomerleau's (1997) hypothesis to childhood mental health. The findings also run counter to recent suggestions for targeting smoking prevention at groups of children with mental health disorders.
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A longitudinal investigation of psychological and social predictors of traffic convictions among young New Zealand drivers | 1998
Reeder, A.I., Alsop, J., Begg, ... Show all » D.J., Nada-Raja, S., McLaren, R.L. « Hide
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 1998, 1(1), 25-45.
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Our ref: RO337
Show abstract » The study aimed to determine, irrespective of driver licence status, whether young drivers with traffic conviction records at age 21 years differed from those without, with respect to prior personal characteristics measured around the minimum age of licensure (presently 15 years in New Zealand). From a broad range of psychological and social factors, the strongest and most stable predictors were male gender, part time work, rural residence, marijuana use, estimated driving exposure during the follow up period, and early motorcycle riding. Experiences of riding as a passenger with young drivers or with an alcohol intoxicated adult driver were also significant predictors. Some road safety implications are considered.
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The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R): A longitudinal/epidemiological study | 1998
Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 216-227.
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Our ref: RO324
Show abstract » The latent structure and stability of 10 common mental disorders were examined in a birth cohort at ages 18 and 21. A 2-factor model, in which some disorders were presumed to reflect internalizing problems and others were presumed to reflect externalizing problems, provided a more optimal fit to the data than either a 1- or a 4-factor model. To a significant extent, persons in the sample retained their relative positions on the latent factors across the 3-year period from age 18 to age 21. Results offer potential clarification of the meaning of comorbidity in psychopathology research by suggesting that comorbidity may results from common mental disorders being reliable, covariant indicators of stable, underlying core psychopathological processes.
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