The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


Mental Health

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Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications | 1998
Krueger, R.F., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Bleske, A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behavior Genetics, 1998, 28(28), 173-186.
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Our ref: RO323
Show abstract » Do people mate assortatively for antisocial behavior? If so, what are the implications for the development and persistence of antisocial behavior? We investigated assortative mating for antisocial behavior and its correlates in a sample of 360 couples from Dunedin, New Zealand. We found substantial assortative mating for self-reports of antisocial behavior per se and for self-reports of couple members' tendencies to associate with antisocial peers (0.54 on average). Perceptions about the likelihood of social sanctions for antisocial behavior (e.g., being caught by the authorities or losing the respect of one's family) showed moderate assortative mating (0.32 on average). However, assortative mating for personality traits related to antisocial behavior was low (0.15 on average). These findings suggest that, whereas assortative mating for many individual-difference variables (such as personality traits) is low, assortative mating for actual antisocial behaviors is substantial. We conclude that future family studies of antisocial behavior should endeavor to measure and understand the influence of assortative mating. In addition, we outline a testable behavior-genetic model for the development of antisocial behavior, in which genes and environments promoting or discouraging antisocial behavior become concentrated within families (due to assortative mating), giving rise to widely varying individual developmental trajectories that are, nevertheless, similar within families.
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Factors associated with doubled-up housing - a common precursor to homelessness | 1998
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Social Service Review, 1998, 72(72), 92-111.
download pdf Our ref: RO317
Show abstract » Previous research on housing problems has concentrated on the more visible homelessness rather than more intermediate forms of housing problems such as doubled-up housing. This article expands this research by analyzing entrance into doubled-up housing among a sample of adolescents. This common type of vulnerable housing has been linked to various social and psychological problems. It commonly precedes homelessness, and it potentially increases the risk of homelessness. We find that doubled-up housing frequently occurs during young adulthood and is predicted by insufficient human capital, broken social ties, and personal disabilities.
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Comorbidity between abuse of an adult and DSM-III-R mental disorders: Evidence from an epidemiological Study | 1998
Danielson, K.K., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, 155(155), 131-133.
download pdf Our ref: RO315
Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence, risk, and implications of comorbidity between partner violence and psychiatric disorders. METHOD: Data were obtained from a representative birth cohort of 941 young adults through use of the Conflict Tactics Scales and Diagnostic Interview Schedule. RESULTS: Half of those involved in partner violence had a psychiatric disorder; one-third of those with a psychiatric disorder were involved in partner violence. Individuals involved in severe partner violence had elevated rates of a wide spectrum of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the importance of mental health clinicians screening for partner violence and treating victims and perpetrators before injury occurs.
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Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for clinical treatment and sample selection | 1998
Newman, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1998, 107(107), 305-311.
download pdf Our ref: RO314
Show abstract » Disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) were assessed in a birth cohort of 961 young adults. Comorbid cases exceeded single-disordered cases in chronic history of mental illness, use of treatments, physical health problems, functional interference in daily life, and impaired adaptation across domains such as work, education, health, and social-support networks. Single-disorder cases were also more impaired than nondisordered cases, but comorbid cases were the most severely impaired. Our findings suggest that (a) samples that underrepresent comorbidity (pure single-disorder cases or student samples) will underestimate effect sizes for relations between a disorder and its correlates, whereas samples that overrepresent comorbidity (clinical or adjudicated samples) will overestimate effect sizes, (b) comorbidity is accompanied by complications that challenge treatment planning, compliance, and coordination of service delivery, and (c) comorbidity is associated with physical, educational, and economic problems that make it a broad societal concern.
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Whole blood serotonin relates to violence in an epidemiological study | 1998
Moffitt, T.E., Brammer, G.L., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Fawcett, J.P., Raleigh, M., Yuwiler, A., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Biological Psychiatry, 1998, 43(43), 446-457.
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Our ref: RO311
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Clinical and animal studies suggest that brain serotonergic systems may regulate aggressive behavior; however, the serotonin/violence hypothesis has not been assessed at the epidemiological level. For study of an epidemiological sample we examined blood serotonin, because certain physiological and behavioral findings suggested that it might serve as an analog marker for serotonergic function. METHODS: Whole blood serotonin was measured in a representative birth cohort of 781 21-year-old women (47%) and men (53%). Violence was measured using cumulative court conviction records and participants' self-reports. Potential intervening factors addressed were: gender, age, diurnal variation, diet, psychiatric medications, illicit drug history, season of phlebotomy, plasma tryptophan, platelet count, body mass, suicide attempts, psychiatric diagnoses, alcohol, tobacco, socioeconomic status, IQ, and overall criminal offending. RESULTS: Whole blood serotonin related to violence among men but not women. Violent men's mean blood serotonin level was 0.48 SD above the male population norm and 0.56 SD above the mean of nonviolent men. The finding was specific to violence, as opposed to general crime, and it was robust across two different methods of measuring violence. Together, the intervening variables accounted for 25% of the relation between blood serotonin and violence. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an index of serotonergic function is related to violence in the general population.
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Level of education, age of bearing children and mental health of women | 1997
Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Olaman, ... Show all » S., Knight, R.G. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1997, 45(45), 827-836.
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Our ref: RO289
Show abstract » The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between women's mental health and both their level of education and age at which they had their first child. The women were divided into four groups depending on whether or not they had further education after leaving school and whether or not they had a baby before the age of 21. Longitudinal data collected over a 19-year period from this group of women suggested that psychological morbidity was relatively stable across this time span. Women who left school without proceeding to further education and those who became mothers before the age of 21 had higher psychological symptom scores than the other groups throughout this period. These two factors were associated with poorer mental health in an additive fashion. The women were also more likely to have separated from the father of their child and continued to be economically disadvantaged into mid-life.
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The (in)stability of adolescent fears | 1997
Poulton, R., Trainor, P., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., McGee, R., Davies, S., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1997, 35(35), 159-163.
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Our ref: RO285
Show abstract » This study examined change in different types of fear in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort from age 13-15 years. When viewed cross-sectionally there were few differences in the frequency and content of fears reported at these ages with the exception of an increase in social fears at age 15. When viewed longitudinally, however, few adolescents who reported fears at age 13 continued to report fears 2 years later. Implications for developmental theories of fear and phobia are discussed.
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Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder | 1996
Bardone, A.M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Dickson, N., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 811-829.
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Our ref: RO281
Show abstract » Follow-up studies of adolescent depression and conduct disorder have pointed to homotypic continuity, but less information exists about outcomes beyond mental disorders and about the extent to which adolescents with different disorders experience different versus similar difficulties during the transition to adulthood. We assessed the continuity of adolescent disorder by following girls in a complete birth cohort who at age 15 were depressed (n = 27), conduct disordered (n = 37), or without a mental health disorder (n = 341) into young adulthood (age 21) to identify their outcomes in three domains: mental health and illegal behavior, human capital, and relationship and family formation. We found homotypic continuity; in general, depressed girls became depressed women and conduct disordered girls developed antisocial personality disorder symptoms by age 21. Conduct disorder exclusively predicted at age 21: antisocial personality disorder, substance dependence, illegal behavior, dependence on multiple welfare sources, early home leaving, multiple cohabitation partners, and physical partner violence. Depression exclusively predicted depression at age 21. Examples of equifinality (where alternate pathways lead to the same outcome) surfaced, as both adolescent disorders predicted at age 21: anxiety disorder, multiple drug use, early school leaving, low school attainment, any cohabitation, pregnancy, and early child bearing.
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Childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset antisocial conduct in males: Natural history from age 3 to 18 | 1996
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Dickson, ... Show all » N., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. « Hide
Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 399-424.
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Our ref: RO274
Show abstract » We report data that support the distinction between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset type conduct problems. Natural histories are described from a representative birth cohort of 457 males studied longitudinally from age 3 to 18 years. Childhood- and adolescent-onset cases differed on temperament as early as age 3 years, but almost half of childhood-onset cases did not become seriously delinquent. Type comparisons were consistent with our contention that males whose antisocial behavior follows a life-course-persistent path differ from males who follow an adolescence-limited path. As adolescents, the two types differed on convictions for violent crime, personality profiles, school leaving, and bonds to family. These differences can be attributed to developmental history because the two groups were well matched on measures of antisocial conduct at age 18 years: parent-reports, self-reports, and adjudication records. By age 18 years, many conduct-problem boys had encountered factors that could ensnare them in an antisocial future: substance dependence, unsafe sex, dangerous driving habits, delinquent friends, delinquent perceptions, and unemployment. Implications for theory, research design, prevention, and therapeutic treatment of conduct problems are highlighted. [Abstracted in Youth Update, 14; No.2, 1996, J. Shamsie (Ed.), Institute for the Study of Antisocial Behaviour in Youth (IAY), Canada]
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Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multi-trait/multi-diagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort | 1996
Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1996, 105(105), 299-312.
download pdf Our ref: RO268
Show abstract » The authors assessed the relation between personality and mental disorder in a representative birth cohort of 897 men and women. Personality was assessed at age 18 with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1982), and 4 types of mental disorder (affective, anxiety, substance dependence, and conduct disorder) were assessed at ages 15, 18, and 21, using age-appropriate standardized diagnostic interviews. All disorder groups had MPQ profiles that were very different from those of controls. When comorbid cases were excluded, fewer significant differences between diagnosed cases and controls remained. Relations between personality and mental disorder were not affected by the measurement of disorder as continuous versus discrete, gender, or the age at which disorder was diagnosed. Relations between personality and mental disorders appear to be robust, and individual personality differences may be particularly relevant to understanding the most severe (comorbid) expressions of psychopathology.
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Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance and new case incidence from age 11 to 21 | 1996
Newman, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Magdol, L., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. « Hide
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1996, 64(64), 552-562.
download pdf Our ref: RO267
Show abstract » Mental health data were gathered at ages 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21 in an epidemiological sample using standardized diagnostic assessments. Prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. revised; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) mental disorders increased longitudinally from late childhood (18%) through mid- (22%) to late-adolescence (41%)and young adulthood (40%). Nearly half of age-21 cases had comorbid diagnoses; and comorbidity was associated with severity of impairment. The incidence of cases with adult onset was only 10.6%: 73.8% of adults diagnosed at age 21 had a developmental history of mental disorder. Relative to new cases, those with developmental histories were more severely impaired and more likely to have comorbid diagnoses. The high prevalence rate and significant impairment associated with a diagnosis of mental disorder suggests that treatment resources need to target the young adult sector of the population. The low new-case incidence in young adulthood, however, suggests that primary prevention and etiological research efforts need to target children and adolescents.
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DSM-III-R tobacco dependence and quitting during late adolescence | 1995
Stanton, W.R.
Addictive Behaviors, 1995, 20(20), 595-603.
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Our ref: RO261
Show abstract » Previous studies of tobacco dependence have tended not to examine adolescent samples. In a cohort of 18-year-olds, the 12-month prevalence rate of dependence based on DSM-III-R criteria was found to be 19.3%. Cotinine levels in saliva were positively related to level of cigarette consumption but not to tobacco dependence and may not be a suitable measure of dependence. Measures of behavioral and psychological aspects of smoking supported the utility of DSM-III-R criteria for tobacco dependence among young smokers. As a large number of young smokers are dependent on tobacco, the results support the development of treatment programmes for youth that take into consideration their degree of dependence.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder in a birth cohort of 18 year olds: Prevalence and predictors | 1995
Douglass, H.M., Moffitt, T.E., Dar, ... Show all » R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995, 34(34), 1424-1431.
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Our ref: RO260
Show abstract » Objective: To report descriptive epidemiological information on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in an unselected birth cohort of 930 males and females, aged 18 years. Method: An epidemiological study of the prevalence of self-reported OCD at age 18, and a longitudinal analysis of the prospective predictors of OCD. Results: Using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the authors found a I-year prevalence rate of 4%, with a male-female ratio of 0.7:1. The majority of OCD cases met criteria for a comorbid disorder, most commonly depression (62%), social phobia (38%), and substance dependence (alcohol 24%, marijuana 19%). Conclusions: Data collected on the sample from birth to age 18 years indicated that many childhood risk factors theorized in the literature did not predict OCD in this sample. However, a history of depression and substance use were prospective risk factors for OCD.
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Models of adolescent psychopathology: childhood risk and the transition to adulthood | 1995
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Nada-Raja, S. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995, 34(34), 670-679.
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Our ref: RO256
Show abstract » Objective: To examine the relationship between DSM-III disorder in adolescence (age 15 years) and DSM-III disorder in early adulthood (age 18 years), in relation to a history of behavior problems or disorder, other family and individual characteristics, and events commonly associated with the transition to adulthood. Method: The sample came from a New Zealand birth cohort selected from the general population. Data were obtained from ages 3 to 18 years for 890 of those enrolled. Results: For both males and females, disorder at age 15 was strongly predicted by histories of early mental health problems. However, neither those histories, background characteristics, nor the experience of adolescent transition events modified the strength of association between disorder at ages 15 and 18 years. In childhood, after adjusting for histories of behavior problems, parental separations and (for boys) poor social competence remained independent predictors of disorder at age 15. Overall, boys appeared more vulnerable and those from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in early childhood had an elevated risk of disorder at age 18. After adjusting for disorder at age 15, adolescent unemployment remained an independent predictor of disorder at age 18 for both males and females. Conclusions: This study modeled the continuity of disorder across the adolescent transition period and, after taking earlier disorder into account, identified clear predictors of later disorder. This is the first step in the process of developing more effective interventions to reduce the risk of mental health disorders.
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Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age 3 to age 15. | 1995
Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, ... Show all » R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Child Development, 1995, 66(66), 55-68.
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Our ref: RO212
Show abstract » We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11, and by parents at ages 13 and 15. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems; Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys; and Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. These results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of later psychopathology.
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Health beliefs among New Zealand adolescents | 1994
Nada-Raja, S., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1994, 30(30), 523-529.
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Our ref: RO245
Show abstract » This report describes the use of a modified version of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scale. There were significant sex differences in the result. In general, MHLC beliefs were not significantly associated with self-reportings of general health.
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Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races and methods | 1994
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R.F., Schmutte, P.S. « Hide
Criminology, 1994, 32(32), 163-195 .
download pdf Our ref: RO241
Show abstract » We examined the relation between personality traits and crime in two studies. In New Zealand we studied 18-year-old males and females from an entire birth cohort. In Pittsburgh we studied an ethnically diverse group of 12- and 13-year-old boys. In both studies we gathered multiple and independent measures of personality and delinquent involvement. The personality correlates of delinquency were robust in different nations, in different age cohorts, across gender, and across race: greater delinquent participation was associated with a personality configuration characterized by high Negative Emotionality and weak Constraint. We suggest that when Negative Emotionality (the tendency to experience aversive affective states) is accompanied by weak Constraint (difficulty in impulse control), negative emotions may be translated more readily into antisocial acts. We review additional evidence about the developmental origins and consequences of this personality configuration and discuss its implications for theories about antisocial behavior. [Reprinted in S. Henry & W. Einstadler (Eds), Criminology: Readings in Contempory Theory. NY: New York University Press, 1997]
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Multidimensional health locus of control beliefs and psychological health for a sample of mothers | 1994
Nada-Raja, S., Williams, S.M., McGee, ... Show all » R. « Hide
Social Science and Medicine, 1994, 39(39), 213-220.
Our ref: RO238
Show abstract » Five multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) types for 772 women whose children are enrolled in a longitudinal study of their health and development were identified. The MHLC is composed of an internal and two external dimensions (chance and powerful others). The five independent MHLC clusters were: pure internal; believer in control; pure chance; yea-sayer; and nay-sayer. Women with high scores on the three dimensions of the MHLC (yea-sayer) compared with the rest of the sample were significantly more likely to be from a lower socio-economics status, score lower on a general verbal intelligence test and higher on the Neuroticism and Lie Scales of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. They rated their overall health as significantly poorer, and reported more symptoms of depression compared with the other groups. A pure internal locus of control was strongly associated with the report of good health. Women with a strong belief in internal and powerful other loci of control were significantly more likely to have received treatment for their depression compared with other groups. Help-seeking for children's problem behaviour did not vary significantly with MHLC groups. The present study replicated five out of six MHLC types identified in an earlier study, and established the external validity of the MHLC types on measures of health status. The findings support the use of MHLC types in future research on health locus of control.
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Self-reported inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity at ages 15 and 18 in the general population | 1994
Schaughency, E., McGee, R., Nada-Raja, ... Show all » S., Feehan, M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1994, 33(33), 173-184.
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Our ref: RO219
Show abstract » Objective: Prevalence, impact, and continuity of self-reported attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptomology from ages 15 to 18 years were examined in a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. Method: At age 15, prevalence of ADD symptomology was estimated, with no gender differences found in self-reported symptomology. Four adolescents (0.5%) met full DSM-III criteria for ADD. Adolescents scoring higher than 1.5 SD above the sample mean on total ADD symptom score were identified as having high levels of ADD symptomology. Results: Male and female adolescents reporting ADD symptomology with (6% of males; 4% of females) and without history of behavior disorder (6% of males; 7% of females) did not differ in inattention and impulsivity, received more diagnoses other than ADD, and experienced more adverse educational and social outcomes at 15 and 18 years than did the non ADD group. Conclusions: Findings pertaining to the ADD with history group were consistent with previous research on the outcome of hyperactive children, whereas the ADD without history group may be reflecting the onset of other pathology in adolescence. Results suggest adolescent self-report of attentional difficulties may be a clinically significant marker of adjustment difficulties for both males and females, but additional information likely is needed for accurate diagnosis.
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A longitudinal study of birth order, help seeking and psychopathology | 1994
Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, ... Show all » R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1994, 33(33), 143-150.
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Our ref: RO218
Show abstract » Recent studies have suggested an association between birth order and psychopathology. However, the association remains unclear due to a lack of consideration of the confounding effects of family size. At age seven years the family size and birth order of children from a large cohort of New Zealand children were examined in relation to parental help seeking for behavioural and emotional problems, and the development of DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) disorder in pre-adolescence and adolescence. Neither the child's gender, birth order nor family size were associated with parental help seeking or the prevalence of DSM-III disorder in pre-adolescence at age 11. In adolescence at age 15, however, significantly more girls, first-borns and children from small families had DSM-III disorder, but the interactions between these factors were not significant. In particular, these associations were found with internalizing disorders. The appropriateness of further studies of birth order in relation to psychopathology is discussed.
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Personality traits are linked to crime among men and women: Evidence from a birth cohort | 1994
Krueger, R.F., Schmutte, P.S., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Moffitt, T.E., Campbell, K., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1994, 103(103), 328-338.
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Our ref: RO214
Show abstract » Is there a relationship between personality and criminal behavior? We addressed this question in a representative birth cohort of 862 male and female 18-year-olds. Personality was assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). The MPQ measures 10 relatively independent personality traits and was not designed to identify offenders. Delinquency was assessed via 3 data sources: self-reports, informant reports, and official records. Variable-centered analyses revealed that MPQ scales indexing negative emotionality and behavioral constraint were consistent predictors of delinquency across the 3 data sources. Person-centered analyses revealed that youths abstaining from delinquency were uniquely characterized by low interpersonal potency. Youths involved in extensive delinquency were uniquely characterized by feelings of alienation, lack of social closeness, and risk taking. Advances in understanding criminal behavior can be made through research that places the personality-delinquency link in a developmental context.
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Mental health disorders from age 15 to age 18 years | 1993
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1993, 32(32), 1118-1126.
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Our ref: RO217
Show abstract » Objective: To determine the strength of association between mental health disorders in adolescence and disorder in early adulthood. Method: The study used mental health data from a longitudinal investigation of a New Zealand birth cohort. Of the 943 with prevalence data for DSM-III disorder at age 15, 890 had prevalence data for DSM-III-R disorder when aged 18 years. Results: Two-thirds of those with disorder at age 15 had disorder at age 18. The residual form of attention deficit disorder, simple phobias, and oppositional disorders (with no other accompanying disorders) were associated with the lowest risk of later disorder and conduct disorder with the highest. With the exception of the overall symptom level, a variety of characteristics examined (e.g., social competence and adversity) could not differentiate between those with transient disorder and those with disorder at both ages. Comparisons of those with recurring disorder and those with new disorder at age 18 showed that in addition to characteristics of the disorder, disadvantage was strongly associated with recurrent disorder. Conclusions: The risk of later disorder for those with disorder in adolescence was high and differed across type of disorder. Findings suggest that to reduce the risk of disorder in early adulthood, clinicians could play a more active role in community interventions with direct social outcomes.
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The importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in predicting adolescent substance use | 1993
Henry, B., Feehan, M., McGee, ... Show all » R., Stanton, W.R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1993, 21(21), 469-480.
download pdf Our ref: RO213
Show abstract » The current study assessed the relative importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms, measured at two ages (11 and 15), for predicting substance use at age 15 in an unselected birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents. Among males, when the relative predictive utility of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms was assessed, only pre-adolescent depressive symptoms were found to predict multiple drug use 4 years later. No predictive relation was found between early symptomatology and later substance use among females. The strongest association between predictors and substance use emerged between age 15 multiple drug use and concurrent conduct problems for both males and females. Finally, both conduct problems and depressive symptoms at age 15 were also found to be associated with concurrent ''self-medication'' among females.
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Early family predictors of child and adolescent antisocial behaviour: who are the mothers of delinquents | 1993
Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Robins, ... Show all » L., Earls, F., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 1993, 3(3), 97-100.
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Our ref: RO198
Show abstract » Examined whether familial characteristics (FCs) are associated with antisocial outcomes (AOs), as opposed to other behavioral or mental health problems that children have. The utility of 29 maternal and FCs to identify children who are at high risk for AOs and delinquent outcomes were tested. Three groups of 11-yr-old children were compared on family variables (FVs): 50 antisocial children, 37 with other disorders, and 220 with no disorder. Nine FVs differentiated the antisocial Ss from the non-disordered Ss. The most important FVs were parental disagreement about how to discipline the 5-yr-old child and many changes of the child's primary caretaker during childhood. Among children who were known to police by age 15, prospective FVs accounted for significant amounts of the variance in number of police contacts and age at 1st contact. FCs were associated with AOs in childhood and early adolescence.
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Helping agency contact for emotional problems in childhood and early adolescence and the risk of later disorder | 1993
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1993, 27(27), 270-274.
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Our ref: RO193
Show abstract » Despite waning enthusiasm for labelling theories in the development of psychopathology, it has been claimed that contact with professional agencies in childhood can be associated with increased levels of later problem behaviour. In this study, help-seeking by parents for children with behaviour problems was examined using a birth cohort followed longitudinally to age 15 years. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that agency contact increased the risk of later mental health disorder, either in childhood or adolescence. Rather, the results suggested that help-seeking was associated with a reduction in both the risk of DSM-III disorder and problem behaviour scores, up to five years after agency contact.
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The neuropsychology of conduct disorder | 1992
Moffitt, T.E.
Development and Psychopathology, 1992, 5(5), 133-149.
doi: 10.1017/S0954579400004302
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Our ref: RO206
Show abstract » This article reviews evidence from neuropsychological tests that brain dysfunction is a correlate of conduct disorder. Most studies report consistent findings of differential neuropsychological deficits for antisocial samples in verbal and ''executive'' functions. Neuropsychological measures are related to some of the best indicators of poor outcome for children with conduct symptoms, such as early onset, stability across time, hyperactive symptoms, and aggressiveness. Neuropsychological tests statistically predict variance in antisocial behavior independently of appropriate control variables. This article argues that neuropsychological variables warrant further study as possible causal factors for conduct disorder and presents one developmental perspective on how neuropsychological problems might contribute risk for conduct disorder.
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Attention deficit disorder and age of onset of behaviour problems | 1992
McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Feehan, ... Show all » M. « Hide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1992, 20(20), 487-502.
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Our ref: RO204
Show abstract » In the course of a prospective longitudinal study, we examined age of onset of behavior problems in a group of boys and girls identified with attention deficit disorder (ADD) at age 11. Onset occurred during the preschool years, by the first year of schooling, or by the end of the second year of school. Onset was strongly related to informant source at age 11, pattern of comorbidity of disorder at age 11, and developmental language, perceptual motor, and IQ measures. Onset by the first year of schooling was particularly related to poor reading skills. By age 15, nearly three-quarters of those with onset of problems before age 6 had one or more DSM-III disorders.
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Prevalence and correlates of the premenstrual syndrome in adolescence | 1992
Nada-Raja, S., Feehan, M., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., McGee, R. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1992, 31(31), 783-789.
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Our ref: RO195
Show abstract » In a longitudinal study of their health and development, 384 15-year-old females reported their experience of symptoms indicative of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The prevalence of these symptoms is reported and a group of adolescents is identified with the syndrome (14%). PMS was associated with current self-reported anxiety, inattention, and poor health. Preadolescent self-report and maternal ratings of physical and mental health did not significantly predict adolescent PMS. The results suggest that the experience of PMS in adolescence may be mediated by perceived health status; the roles of mental health and maternal influence in the development of adolescent PMS may be minimal.
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Sources of distress among New Zealand adolescents | 1992
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1992, 33(33), 999-1010.
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Our ref: RO190
Show abstract » This study examined sources of distress experienced by 15-year-old adolescents in a large sample from the general population. We identified four types of stressful life circumstances relating to problems of self-image and independence, academic and physical competence, parental conflict, and moving residence and schools. Girls reported higher levels of distress for the first three types of circumstance. Reports of distress were associated with poor family social support, maternal depression and parental separation. Both DSM-III disorder and poor social competence were associated with differential patterns of distress. Lastly, poor social competence and high distress were independent and additive predictors of mental health disorders.
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Perceived attachments to parents and peers and psychological well-being in adolescence | 1992
Nada-Raja, S., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R. « Hide
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1992, 21(21), 471-485.
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Our ref: RO189
Show abstract » This paper reports the findings from a study of 935 adolescents' perceived attachments to their parents and peers, and their psychological health and well-being. Perceived attachment to parents did not significantly differ between males and females. However, females scored significantly higher than males on a measure of attachment to peers. Also, relative to males, they had higher anxiety and depression scores, suggesting poorer psychological well-being. Overall, a lower perceived attachment to parents was significantly associated with lower scores on the measures of well-being. Adolescents who perceived high attachments to both their parents and peers had the highest scores on a measure of self-perceived strengths. In this study, adolescents' perceived attachment to peers did not appear to compensate for a low attachment to parents in regard to their mental ill-health. These findings suggest that high perceived attachment to parents may be a critical variable associated with psychological well-being in adolescence.
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DSM-III disorders from age 11 to age 15 years | 1992
McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Anderson, J. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1992, 31(31), 50-59.
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Our ref: RO183
Show abstract » Although research into the continuity of disorder from childhood to adolescence is sparse, results from both longitudinal and cross sectional studies suggest that the prevalence of disorder increases for girls but may remain more stable for boys. In this paper, the methodologies of two assessment phases of the Dunedin longitudinal study have been equated to estimate the continuity of DSM-III disorder from ages 11 to 15. Although the overall prevalence of disorder doubled between the ages, this was primarily because of an increase in nonaggressive conduct disorder and major depressive episode. The sex ratios in disorder had largely reversed from a male predominance at 11 to a female predominance at 15. In terms of persistence, over 40% of those with disorder at age 11 were also identified at age 15. However, over 80% of those identified with disorder at 15 did not have a history of disorder at 11. Significant sex differences were also found in the continuity of internalizing and externalizing disorders, with externalizing disorders showing more continuity for boys, and internalizing for girls. Logistic regression models were employed to evaluate the roles family background, academic and social competence, and early histories of behavior problems may play in the determination of disorder continuity.
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Neuropsychological and socioemotional correlates of specific-arithmetic disability | 1992
White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1992, 7(7), 1-16.
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Our ref: RO145
Show abstract » Neuropsychological and socio-emotional factors associated with specific-arithmetic disability were investigated in an unselected sample of New Zealand children. Subjects were 17 specific-arithmetic disabled, 27 specific-reading disabled, 63 generally disabled, and 50 nondisabled 13 year olds. Evidence was sought for an association between specific-arithmetic disability and the neuropsychological and socio-emotional correlates of Nonverbal Learning Disability syndrome (NLD). NLD is characterized by a pattern of nonverbal and verbal neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses, and appears to place individuals at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology, than other learning disabilities. Only specific-arithmetic disabled subjects were found to show a neuropsychological profile reminiscent of NLD. Evidence of poor socio-emotional adjustment was found across all three learning-disabled groups, and was greatest among generally disabled subjects. We found that the specific-arithmetic-disabled subjects exhibited the greatest degree of overlap between internalizing psychopathology and a NLD neuropsychological profile. The results are interpreted as providing some support for the idea that specific-arithmetic-disabled individuals may be at greater risk for the NLD syndrome than either generally disabled or specific-reading-disabled individuals.
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Are girls with problems of attention under-recognised | 1991
McGee, R., Feehan M.
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 1991, 13(13), 187-198.
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Our ref: RO182
Show abstract » There is a generally held belief that disorders of attention (e.g., ADHD) are to be found primarily among boys, not girls. We question the evidence relating to sex differences in the prevalence of attentional disorders and suggest possible reasons why reported sex differences appear limited to teacher ratings. An examination of the admittedly scarce literature on correlates of ADHD behaviors suggests no strong evidence for sex differences in the pattern of developmental, attentional and background correlates. We recommend the use of sex-specific norms and diagnostic criteria to identify girls with problems of attention and our plea is for more research to examine the nature of attention deficits in girls.
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Strict and inconsistent discipline in childhood: consequences for adolescent mental health | 1991
Feehan, M., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R., Silva, P.A. « Hide
British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1991, 30(30), 325-331.
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Our ref: RO172
Show abstract » Recent reviews have suggested an association between discipline experienced in childhood and the development of later psychopathology. As part of a longitudinal study of the health and development of a large sample of New Zealand children, maternal reports of strict and inconsistent discipline were obtained when the sample members were aged 7 and 9 years. It was found that inconsistency was associated with early behaviour problems, but strictness was not. At age 15 years the prevalence of DSM-III disorders in the sample was established. Univariate analyses showed significant associations between inconsistency and low levels of strictness with externalizing disorder. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that in the presence of other predictor variables including childhood problem behaviour, these associations only approached significance. However, when the two ratings were combined, rates of disorder for those who experienced more relaxed and inconsistent discipline were double the rates found in the sample remainder. No significant association was found between discipline and internalizing disorder.
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Sleep problems in adolescence | 1991
Morrison, D.N., McGee, R., Stanton, ... Show all » W.R. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1991, 31(31), 94-99.
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Our ref: RO170
Show abstract » A sample of 943 adolescents from the general population were questioned about sleep problems. A quarter of the sample responded needing a lot more sleep than they previously had, and 10% of the sample complained of difficulty falling asleep. Adolescents reporting sleep problems showed more anxious, depressed, inattentive, and conduct disorder behaviors than those who had no (or only occasional) sleep problems. Sleep problems, particularly multiple problems, were associated with DSM-III disorder. There were no significant differences between male and female adolescents on any of the above measures. Finally, sleep problems were relatively persistent over time from ages 13 to 15.
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Social competence in adolescence: preliminary findings from a longitudinal study of New Zealand 15-year olds | 1991
McGee, R., Williams, S.M.
Psychiatry, 1991, 54(54), 281-291.
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Our ref: RO164
Show abstract » Recently, there has been an increase of research interest in the nature of the relationship between the concept of competence and mental health and disorder. For a large sample of adolescents studied at ages 11 and 15 years, we developed indices of social competence at each age based on measures of social attachment and involvement in activities. There was a significant association between competence and externalizing disorders at both ages. Competence was related to internalizing disorder only at age 11. Preadolescent social competence did not predict later disorder at age 15 in the sample as a whole. However, externalizing disorder at age 15 was predicted by presence of disorder together with low social competence in preadolescence.
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Anxiety and cognitive task performance: A longitudinal perspective | 1991
Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, ... Show all » P.A. « Hide
Child Study Journal, 1991, 21(21), 167-184.
Our ref: RO163
Show abstract » Assesses the relation between anxiety and cognitive task performance longitudinally across middle childhood in New Zealand. Testing of contrasting predictions; Examining cognitive task performance of four anxiety groups; Comparison of intelligence quotients (IQ) among anxious and comparison subjects.
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Adolescents' self perceptions of their strengths | 1991
Williams, S.M., McGee, R.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1991, 20(20), 325-337.
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Our ref: RO162
Show abstract » This paper described the results and properties of the Strengths Scale, and some sex differences in various types of strength. Boys tended to see themselves as strong in sport, confidence, popularity, having lots of hobbies and to be attractive. Girls saw themselves as reliable, kind, independent and affectionate. Regression analysis suggested that boys' strengths depended upon parent, peer and school attachment, part-time work and the number of physical activities with which they were involved. Girls' strengths were best predicted by parent attachment and the number of physical activities in which they were involved.
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Big cities, small towns and adolescent mental health in New Zealand | 1991
McGee, R., Stanton, W.R., Feehan, ... Show all » M. « Hide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1991, 25(25), 338-342.
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Our ref: RO159
Show abstract » This study examined relationships between measures of mental health and the type of residential locations in which the sample lived. There were no significant differences between groups from differing types of towns or cities, but adolescents who come from larger population centres reported more life event stresses. Those adolescents who experienced more frequent changes of address had more mental health problems.
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A twelve year follow-up of preschool hyperactive children | 1991
McGee, R., Partridge, F., Williams, ... Show all » S.M., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1991, 30(30), 224-232.
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Our ref: RO158
Show abstract » Two percent (N = 21) of a large sample of preschool children were identified as pervasively hyperactive. Compared with nonhyperactive preschoolers, these children more often came from families with high levels of adversity, and they showed poorer language skills. Over a 12-year follow-up period, the hyperactive preschoolers continued to show poorer cognitive skills, lower levels of reading ability, disruptive and inattentive behaviors at home and at school, and higher rates of DSM-III disorder in preadolescence and adolescence. By age 15, only one-quarter of this group were identified as having met recovery criteria. The findings point to the long-term adverse consequences of preschool hyperactivity and indicate the need for intervention with this type of disorder.
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