Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below. Other publications will be uploaded shortly.

Displaying page 8 of 20.

Jones, I.E., Williams, S.M., Dow, N., Goulding, A. | 2002

How many children remain fracture-free during growth? A longitudinal study of children and adolescents participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study

Osteoporosis International, 2002, 13(13), 990-995.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12459942

Our ref: RO429

Show abstract » While much is known regarding the incidence and pattern of fractures during growth, information is sparse as to how many children fracture repeatedly and how many remain fracture-free during growth. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort, whose members were questioned regularly throughout growth (at ages 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 18 years) concerning injuries including fractures, has provided a unique opportunity to answer these questions. Life-table analysis showed that approximately half the children remained fracture- free throughout growth [girls 60.1%, (95% CI 54.7-65.0) and boys 49.3% (95% CI 44.0-54.4)]. Data on fracture history, for participants seen at every phase, was available for 601 members through to the age of 18 years (61.1% of the cohort seen at age 5 years). Two hundred and ninety- one of these 601 participants reported 498 fractures, with 172 sustaining a single fracture, and 119 more than one fracture (15.8% girls and 23.4% boys). The most common site of fracture was the wrist/forearm (24.1% of all fractures). We conclude that although bone fractures are a common adverse event in childhood, half of all children remain fracture-free throughout growth.
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Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Milne, B.J., Thomson, W.M., Taylor, A., Sears, M.R., Moffitt, T.E. | 2002

Association between children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study

Lancet, 2002, 360(360), 1640-1645.
Our ref: RO428

Show abstract » Background: Research into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health risk factors and outcomes in adult life. Methods: We studied an unselected cohort of 1000 children (born in New Zealand during 1972-73) who had been assessed at birth and ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. At age 26 years, we assessed these individuals for health outcomes including body-mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, dental caries, plaque scores, gingival bleeding, periodontal disease, major depression, and tobacco and alcohol dependence, and tested for associations between these variables and childhood and adult socioeconomic status. Findings: Compared with those from high socioeconomic status backgrounds, children who grew up in low socioeconomic status families had poorer cardiovascular health. Significant differences were also found on all dental health measures, with a threefold increase in adult periodontal disease (31.1% vs 11.9%) and caries level (32.2% vs 9.9%) in low versus high childhood socioeconomic status groups. Substance abuse resulting in clinical dependence was related in a similar way to childhood socioeconomic status (eg, 21.5% vs 12.1% for adult alcohol dependence). The longitudinal associations could not be attributed to life-course continuity of low socioeconomic status, and upward mobility did not mitigate or reverse the adverse effects of low childhood socioeconomic status on adult health. Interpretation: Protecting children against the effects of socioeconomic adversity could reduce the burden of disease experienced by adults. These findings provide strong impetus for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers to direct energy and resources towards childhood as a way of improving population health.
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Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Poulton, R., Murray, R. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. | 2002

Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study

BMJ, 2002, 325(325), 1212-1213.
Our ref: RO427

Show abstract » The strongest evidence that cannabis use may be a risk factor for later psychosis comes from a Swedish cohort study which found that heavy cannabis use at age 18 increased the risk of later schizophrenia sixfold. This study could not establish whether adolescent cannabis use was a consequence of pre-existing psychotic symptoms rather than a cause. We present the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms antedating cannabis use.
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Thomson, W.M. | 2002

Orthodontic treatment outcomes in the long term: findings from a longitudinal study of New Zealanders

Angle Orthodontist, 2002, 72(72), 449-455.
Our ref: RO426

Show abstract » The aim of this study was to use a health services research (HSR) approach to examine the longer-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. Participants in a longstanding population-based New Zealand cohort study (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) were allocated to one of four malocclusion severity categories on the basis of orthodontic data collected at age 12. The outcome of that care by age 26 was evaluated using the key indicators of equity (was it fair?); efficacy (did it work?); effectiveness (did it work in the longer term?); and safety (was it associated with a greater subsequent experience of caries, periodontal disease, or tooth loss?). Data were available for 452 Study members, of whom 56.2% were in the minor/none category, 29.0% were in the definite category, 10.2% were in the severe category, and 4.6% were in the handicapping treatment-need category. No clear differences in treatment uptake by socioeconomic status were apparent, and the proportion treated increased across the malocclusion severity categories, as did the proportion that showed an improvement following treatment. By age 26 a difference between those who had and those who had not been treated was evident, with the percentage of those rating their dental appearance as above average increasing with increasing severity of the age-12 orthodontic treatment need. This was also true for the percentage that considered their orthodontic treatment to have been successful. There were no significant differences in caries experience, periodontal disease occurrence, or tooth loss between those who had and had not been treated by age 26. This study has found the equity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orthodontic treatment in the Dunedin cohort to be acceptable.
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Thomson, W.M., Williams, S.M. | 2002

Partial- or full-mouth approaches to assessing the prevalence of and risk factors for periodontal disease in young adults

Journal of Periodontology, 2002, 73(73), 1010-1014.
Our ref: RO425

Show abstract » BACKGROUND: While partial-mouth recording is often used in epidemiological studies of periodontal disease because of the efficiencies afforded in data collection, there has been no investigation of the extent to which information is lost in studies of young adults using the combined attachment loss (CAL) approach. METHODS: A random sample of 25- and 26-year-olds was periodontally examined at 3 sites per tooth in all 4 quadrants. The analysis obtained full-mouth prevalence estimates for gingival recession (GR), probing depth (PD), and CAL. The half-mouth analyses took 3 forms: 1) estimates from each of the left and right sides were obtained and compared; 2) estimates were obtained separately and compared for quadrants 1 and 3 (upper right and lower left), and quadrants 2 and 4 (upper left and lower right); and 3) estimates were obtained from a diagonal half-mouth count, whereby quadrants 1 and 3 were analyzed for study participants whose identification number was odd, and quadrants 2 and 4 were analyzed for the remainder. The utility of the half-mouth and full- mouth approaches in analytical epidemiology was examined by estimating the strength of the association between periodontitis prevalence and smoking, male gender, and episodic use of dental care. RESULTS: Of the 169 participants examined, 100 (59.2%) were female, 54 (32.0%) were smokers, and 78 (46.2%) were episodic dental visitors. The difference in prevalence estimates obtained from the different methods was considerably greater for GR than for PD and CAL. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of 1 or more teeth with > or = mm of CAL among smokers was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 5.3) using the full data set and 2.4 (95% CI 0.9, 6.1) using the diagonal half-mouth approach. Similarly close odds ratios were observed for males and, to a lesser extent, for episodic dental visitors. CONCLUSIONS: Wherever possible, full-mouth data should be collected for descriptive epidemiological studies of periodontal disease, but where resource and time constraints mean that half-mouth examinations must be used, analytical studies of periodontitis should not be unduly affected by the loss of information. However, where the primary focus of the latter is upon gingival recession, the full-mouth design should be used in order to capture all relevant information, and attention should be directed to making economies in other areas of the data collection process.
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Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, E.M., Cowan, J.O., Greene, J.M., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. | 2002

Outcome in adulthood of asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness in childhood: a longitudinal population study

Pediatric Pulmonology, 2002, 34(34), 164-171.
Our ref: RO424

Show abstract » The clinical outcome of asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) first detected in childhood is sparsely reported, with conflicting results. We used a birth cohort of 1,037 children followed to age 26 years to assess the clinical outcome of asymptomatic AHR to methacholine first documented in study members at age 9 years.Of 547 study members who denied wheezing symptoms ever at age 9 years, 41 (7.5%) showed AHR. Forty showed methacholine responsiveness, with a provocation concentration of methacholine that elicted a 20% drop in forced expired volume in 1 sec (PC(20)) « Hide abstract

Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, E.M., Cowan, J.O., Greene, J.M., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. | 2002

Risk factors for hospital admission for asthma from childhood to young adulthood: a longitudinal population study

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2002, 110(110), 220-227.
Our ref: RO423

Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Predictors of hospital admissions for asthma in children and young adults in a general population are not well defined, because most studies have used selected subpopulations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine risk factors for single and multiple hospital admissions for asthma. METHODS: The members of a population-based, unselected birth cohort of 1037 New Zealanders answered questionnaires and underwent lung function, airway responsiveness, and allergy testing on 7 occasions to the age of 26 years. RESULTS: Among the 766 study members (74% of the cohort) who reported wheezing symptoms ever by the age of 26 years, 136 hospitalizations were reported by 62 individuals (8.3% of those at risk, 6.2% of the total cohort). Only 55 of these 136 admissions involved children less than 9 years of age; admissions continued to occur between the ages of 9 and 18 years (40 admissions) and at >18 years (41 admissions). Those admitted were predominantly male, had earlier ages of onset of symptoms, were more atopic, and had more airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine than those not admitted. Frequent symptoms and low lung function were evident among the 45 study members with single admissions and even more evident among the 17 study members with multiple (2-10) admissions. CONCLUSIONS: A surprisingly large fraction of this unselected population experienced hospitalization for asthma during the 26-year follow-up, many being admitted in later childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Clinical characteristics and markers of severity, including frequent respiratory symptoms, airway hyperresponsiveness, atopy, and low lung function, identify those at high risk for hospitalization for asthma, particularly with respect to multiple admissions.
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Waldie, K.E., Poulton, R. | 2002

The burden of illness associated with headache disorders among young adults in a representative cohort study

Headache, 2002, 42(42), 612-619.
Our ref: RO422

Show abstract » This study investigated the functional impairment (work and social functioning and general health status) associated with migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) among young adult members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Using criteria based on the International Headache Society classificatory system, the 1-year prevalence for migraine headache was 7.4%, TTH was 11.1%, and combined headache (coexisting migraine and TTH) was 4.3%. All comparisons were against a health control group (headache free) and a diagnostic control group (individuals without headache currently using medication for asthma). Although those suffering from migraine and combined headache had the most severe impairment in work- and social-related activities, those with TTH reported significantly poorer social and mental health functioning and poorer emotional and physical functioning while performing everyday roles than did headache-free controls. Study members with combined headache had the poorest self-reported health, with significantly lower ratings on physical, vitality, and mental health measures than asthmatics currently using medication. The pervasive impairment reported across multiple life domains among young headache sufferers illustrates the significant burden of illness associated with headache disorders.
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Waldie, K.E., Hausmann, M., Milne, B.J., Poulton, R. | 2002

Migraine and cognitive function: a life-course study

Neurology, 2002, 59(59), 904-908.
Our ref: RO421

Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between migraine and cognitive ability among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHODS: Headache status was determined at age 26 (migraine, tension- type headache [TTH], headache-free control subjects) according to International Headache Society criteria, and data relating to cognitive and academic performance from ages 3 to 26 years were analyzed. RESULTS: Study members diagnosed with migraine were subtly but significantly impaired, compared with those with TTH and headache-free control subjects, on tests of verbal ability (especially language reception) from ages 3 to 13, independent of headache history. Performance on other tasks, including reading, arithmetic, motor, and spatial ability, was normal. The association between migraine and verbal functioning also appeared to impact on later academic success. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the poorer verbal performance was unlikely to have resulted from cumulative attacks and may be due to developmental factors beginning in utero.
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Sears, M.R., Greene, J.M., Willan, A., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, E.M., Cowan, J.O., Herbison, G.P., Poulton, R. | 2002

Long-term relation between breast-feeding and development of atopy and asthma in children and young adults: a longitudinal study

Lancet, 2002, 360(360), 901-07.
Our ref: RO420

Show abstract » Background: Breastfeeding is widely advocated to reduce risk of atopy and asthma, but the evidence for such an effect is conflicting. We aimed to assess long-term outcomes of asthma and atopy related to breastfeeding in a New Zealand birth cohort. Methods: Our cohort consisted of 1037 of 1139 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April, 1972, and March, 1973, and residing in Otago province at age 3 years. Children were assessed every 2-5 years from ages 9 to 26 years with respiratory questionnaires, pulmonary function, bronchial challenge, and allergy skin tests. History of breastfeeding had been independently recorded in early childhood. Findings: 504 (49%) of 1037 eligible children were breastfed (4 weeks or longer) and 533 (51%) were not. More children who were breastfed were atopic at all ages from 13 to 21 years to cats (p=00001), house dust mites (p=00010), and grass pollen (p<00001) than those who were not. More children who were breastfed reported current asthma at each assessment between age 9 (p=00008) and 26 years (p=00008) than those who were not. Breastfeeding effects were not affected by parental history of hayfever or asthma. Multifactor analysis controlling for socioeconomic status, parental smoking, birth order, and use of sheepskin bedding in infancy, showed odds ratios of 194 (95% CI 142-265, p<00001) for any allergen positive at age 13 years, 240 (136-426, p=00003) for current asthma at 9 years, and 183 (135-247, p<00001) for current asthma at 9-26 years by repeated-measures analysis. Interpretation: Breastfeeding does not protect children against atopy and asthma and may even increase the risk.
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Poulton, R., Milne, B.J. | 2002

Low fear in childhood is associated with sporting prowess in adolescence and young adulthood

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(40), 1191-1197.
Our ref: RO419

Show abstract » This study sought to establish if low levels of childhood fear were associated with high level sports performance in adolescence and young adulthood. Parent and teacher reports of fearfulness at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 and self-reports of sporting achievements at age 26 were obtained for members of the longitudinal Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Findings indicated a dose-response relation between levels of childhood fear and later sports achievement such that low levels of fear were associated with the greatest likelihood of playing representative sport. Low levels of fear early in life may be associated with elite sports performance in adulthood.
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Williams, M.J.A., Poulton, R., Williams, S.M. | 2002

Relationship of serum ferritin with cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in young men and women

Atherosclerosis, 2002, 165(165), 179-184.
Our ref: RO418

Show abstract » Elevated ferritin levels have been reported as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in Finnish and Italian studies. Studies in other populations have found no association between ferritin and cardiovascular disease raising the possibility of confounding with other cardiovascular risk factors. We determined ferritin levels, metabolic cardiovascular risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in 815 men and women aged 26 years. In women serum ferritin correlated with CRP, waist measurement, body mass index (BMI), and triglycerides. In multiple regression analysis CRP alone was independently associated with serum ferritin. Serum ferritin in men correlated with waist measurement, BMI, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. After adjustment for the other variables, waist measurement was the only independent predictor of ferritin. Ferritin levels in young men and women are associated with obesity and serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol in men and inflammation in women. Confounding may contribute to reports of associations between ferritin and cardiovascular disease.
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Morrison, L., Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D. | 2002

Personal and situational influences on drink-driving and sober-driving among a cohort of young adults

Injury Prevention, 2002, 8(8), 111-115.
Our ref: RO417

Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: To compare personal and situational influences on incidents involving drink driving with those involving sober driving. METHODS: Information on a range of road safety practices was sought in face to face interviews conducted with 969 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort at age 26 years. A total of 750 study members reported an incident that involved the opportunity to consume alcohol and also travel by motor vehicle. Of these, 87 were classified as drink drive incidents and 663 as sober drive incidents. RESULTS: Study members who were male, of lower socioeconomic status, had no school qualifications, or were dependent on alcohol or marijuana at age 21 were significantly more likely to report a drink drive incident at age 26. Compared with the sober drive incidents, the drink drive incidents were more commonly associated with driving alone, drinking at bars, and no advanced planning. For drink drive incidents the amount of alcohol consumed was influenced by the conviviality of the occasion, whereas for sober drive incidents it was the need to drive. One quarter of those reporting drink drive incidents stated they had used marijuana and/or LSD at the event at which they drank. CONCLUSIONS: Drink drive and sober drive incidents differed, particularly with regard to decisions made before the event. Prevention efforts could usefully be targeted toward these decisions.
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Taylor, D.R., Fergusson, D.M., Milne, B.J., Horwood, L.J., Moffitt, T.E., Sears, M.R., Poulton, R. | 2002

A longitudinal study of the effects of tobacco and cannabis exposure on lung function in young adults

Addiction, 2002, 97(97), 1055-1061.
Our ref: RO416

Show abstract » Aim: To assess the possible effects of tobacco and cannabis smoking on lung function in young adults between the ages of 18 and 26. Setting and participants: A group of over 900 young adults derived from a birth cohort of 1037 subjects born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/73 were studied at age 18, 21 and 26 years. Measurements: Cannabis and tobacco smoking were documented at each age using a standardized interview. Lung function, as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second/vital capacity (FEV1/VC) ratio, was obtained by simple spirometry. A fixed effects regression model was used to analyse the data to take account of confounding factors. Findings When the sample was stratified for cumulative use, there was evidence of a linear relationship between cannabis use and FEV1/VC (P<0.05). In the absence of adjusting for other variables, increasing cannabis use over time was associated with a decline in FEV1/VC with time; the mean FEV1/VC among subjects using cannabis on 900 or more occasions was 7.2%, 2.6% and 5.0% less than non-users at ages 18, 21 and 26, respectively. After controlling for potential confounding factors (age, tobacco smoking and weight) the negative effect of cumulative cannabis use on mean FEV1/VC was only marginally significant (P<0.09). Age (P<0.001), cigarette smoking (P<0.05) and weight (P<0.001) were all significant predictors of FEV1/VC. Cannabis use and daily cigarette smoking acted additively to influence FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Longitudinal observations over 8years in young adults revealed a dose-dependent relationship between cumulative cannabis consumption and decline in FEV1/VC. However, when confounders were accounted for the effect was reduced and was only marginally significant, but given the limited time frame over which observations were made, the trend suggests that continued cannabis smoking has the potential to result in clinically important impairment of lung function.
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Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R. | 2002

Medications taken by 26-year-olds

Internal Medicine Journal, 2002, 32(32), 305-310.
Our ref: RO415

Show abstract » Background: Most descriptive pharmacoepidemiological reports are from studies of older people, and little is known about medication use by younger adults. Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of medication usage in the previous 2 weeks among young adults. Methods: Detailed information was collected on medications taken by 26-year-old participants in the longstanding Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Results: At age 26, 980 (96.2%) of the surviving cohort participated; medication data were available for 978 individuals, of whom 78.1% had taken one or more prescribed or over-the-counter medications. Medication use was higher among females. The most prevalent drug categories were analgesics (taken by 22.8% of the sample), hormonal contraceptives (21.9%; 44.7% of females), nutrient supplements (17.6%) and anti-asthma drugs (11.1%). Conclusions: The prevalence and pattern of medication use among younger adults differ from those reported for older age groups. Asthma appears to be the most prevalent chronic medical condition requiring pharmacological intervention (and for which medical care has been sought) among younger adults. The low rates of use of antidepressants and anxiolytics suggest that common psychiatric disorders may currently go unrecognized or untreated among young adults, and the high prevalence of 'third generation' oral contraceptive use among females is of particular concern.
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Caspi, A. , McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E. , Mill, J.S., Martin, J. , Craig, I., Taylor, A., Poulton, R. | 2002

Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children

Science, 2002, 297(297), 851-854.
Our ref: RO414

Show abstract » We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) was found to moderate the effect of maltreatment. Maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of MAOA expression were less likely to develop antisocial problems. These findings may partly explain why not all victims of maltreatment grow up to victimise others, and they provide epidemiological evidence that genotypes can moderate children's sensitivity to environmental insults.
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Rasmussen, F., Taylor, D.R., Flannery, E.M., Cowan, J.O., Greene, J.M., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. | 2002

Risk factors for airway remodeling in asthma manifested by a low postbronchodilator FEV1/vital capacity ratio: A longitudinal population study from childhood to adulthood

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2002, 165(165), 1480-1488.
Our ref: RO413

Show abstract » Airway remodeling may lead to irreversible loss of lung function in asthma. The impact of childhood asthma, airway responsiveness, atopy, and smoking on airway remodeling was investigated in a birth cohort studied longitudinally to age 26. A low postbronchodilator ratio of forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) to vital capacity (VC) at age 18 or 26 was used as a marker of airway remodeling. Normal study members with no history of asthma ever, no wheezing in the last year, and no smoking ever were used to determine sex- and age-specific reference values for this ratio. The lower limit of normal was defined as the mean ratio minus 1.96 standard deviation, delimiting the 2.5% of the normal population with the lowest FEV1/VC ratio. A low postbronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio was found in 7.4% and 6.4% of study members at ages 18 and age 26 and 4.6% at both assessments. Lung function was low throughout childhood in those with a consistently low postbronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio at both ages. Those with consistently low postbronchodilator ratios also showed a greater decline in the prebronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio from ages 9 to 26 compared with those with normal postbronchodilator ratios at both ages (males, -12% versus -6%, p < 0.0001; females, -10.5% versus -5.5%, p < 0.01). Asthma, male sex, airway hyperresponsiveness, and low lung function in childhood were each independently associated with a low postbronchodilator FEV1/VC ratio, which in turn was associated with an accelerated decline in lung function and decreased reversibility. These data suggest that airway remodeling in asthma, as manifested by impaired lung function, begins in childhood and continues into adult life.
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Cannon, M. , Caspi, A. , Moffitt, T.E. , Harrington, H. L. , Taylor, A. , Murray, R. M. , Poulton, R. | 2002

Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort

Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 449-56.
Our ref: RO412

Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Childhood developmental abnormalities have been previously described in schizophrenia. It is not known, however, whether childhood developmental impairment is specific to schizophrenia or is merely a marker for a range of psychiatric outcomes. METHODS: A 1-year birth cohort (1972-1973) of 1037 children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study was assessed at biennial intervals between ages 3 and 11 years on emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems, motor and language development, and intelligence. At age 11 years, children were asked about psychotic symptoms. At age 26 years, DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Study members having schizophreniform disorder (n = 36 [3.7%]) were compared with healthy controls and also with groups diagnosed as having mania (n = 20 [2%]) and nonpsychotic anxiety or depression disorders (n = 278 [28.5%]) on childhood variables. RESULTS: Emotional problems and interpersonal difficulties were noted in children who later fulfilled diagnostic criteria for any of the adult psychiatric outcomes assessed. However, significant impairments in neuromotor, receptive language, and cognitive development were additionally present only among children later diagnosed as having schizophreniform disorder. Developmental impairments also predicted self-reported psychotic symptoms at age 11 years. These impairments were independent of the effects of socioeconomic, obstetric, and maternal factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence for an early-childhood, persistent, pan- developmental impairment that is specifically associated with schizophreniform disorder and that predicts psychotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood.
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Williams, S.M., Poulton, R. | 2002

Birth size, growth and blood pressure between the ages 7 and 26 years: Failure to support the Fetal Origins Hypothesis

American Journal of Epidemiology, 2002, 155(155), 849-852.
Our ref: RO411

Show abstract » The fetal origins hypothesis asserts that birth weight is inversely related to later blood pressure. Data from a cohort of 891 infants born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-1973 whose blood pressure was measured at 2-yearly intervals from age 7 years to age 15 years and at ages 18 and 26 years was used to test this hypothesis. Three regression models based on standardized scores for weight and height were used. The first showed that at any of the ages at which the cohort was assessed, an increase in birth weight of one z score (one standard deviation) was commensurate with a decrease of 0.29 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 0.76) in blood pressure. The second model showed that a one-z-score increase in weight between birth and a subsequent age was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 0.96 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.38). This estimate applied to all ages. The third model showed that the effect of an interaction between birth weight and later weight was not significant; thus, there was no evidence to suggest that children with a low birth weight who became overweight or obese had extra high blood pressure. Similar results were obtained for height. These results fail to support the fetal origins hypothesis.
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Mill, J.S., Caspi, A., McClay, J., Sugden, K., Purcell, S., Asherson, P., Craig, I., McGuffin, P., Braithwaite, A., Poulton, R., Moffitt, T.E. | 2002

The dopamine D4 receptor and the hyperactivity phenotype: A developmental-epidemiological study

Molecular Psychiatry, 2002, 7(7), 383-391.
Our ref: RO410

Show abstract » Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 26% of school-age children and is a precursor of behavioural problems in adolescence and adulthood. Underlying the categorical definition of ADHD are the quantitative traits of activity, impulsivity, and inattention which vary continuously in the population. Both ADHD and quantitative measures of hyperactivity are heritable, and influenced by multiple genes of small effect. Several studies have reported an association between clinically defined ADHD and the seven-repeat allele of a 48-bp tandem repeat polymorphism in the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4). We tested this association in a large, unselected birth cohort (n = 1037) using multiple measures of the hyperactivity phenotype taken at multiple assessment ages across 20 years. This longitudinal approach allowed us to ascertain whether or not DRD4 has a general effect on the diagnosed (n = 49) or continuously distributed hyperactivity phenotype, and related personality traits. We found no evidence to support this association.
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Jaffee, S.R. | 2002

Pathways to adversity in young adulthood among early childbearers

Journal of Family Psychology, 2002, 16(16), 38-49.
Our ref: RO407

Show abstract » Women who give birth as teens differ from those who delay childbearing before and after a birth. These preexisting differences may account for the adverse outcomes faced by early childbearers in young adulthood. This study tested whether a history of conduct disorder, low IQ and educational attainment, and low childhood socioeconomic status accounted for poor psychosocial adjustment at age 26 among early childbearers. Study members were 482 women in a birth cohort, 26% of whom had given birth by age 26 in 1999. Findings supported the hypothesis that individual and family background factors partially accounted for the adverse socioeconomic, mental health, and interpersonal outcomes faced by young mothers. However, early childbearing exacerbated the difficulties associated with these risk factors.
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Poulton, R., Trevena, J., Reeder, A.I., Richards, R. | 2002

Physical health correlates of overprediction of physical discomfort during exercise

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(40), 401-414.
Our ref: RO406

Show abstract » This study sought to determine if overprediction of physical discomfort prior to and following exercise was related to a number of self-report and objective measures of physical health status in a general population sample. Cross-sectional findings indicated a significant and specific relation between patterns of discomfort overprediction (vs under- or accurate prediction) and negative self-reported health status and attitudes to exercise, lower levels of physical activity, as well as poorer scores for resting heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (but not waist:hip ratio). Females were more likely to overpredict discomfort, were less active and had poorer physical health than males. The potential usefulness of the prediction match-mismatch paradigm for studying exercise-related appraisal processes as proximal determinants of physical activity are discussed. Information obtained from such studies could prove useful in public health education campaigns aimed at increasing levels of physical activity in the general population, particularly among the less active.
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Jaffee, S. R. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A. , Fombonne, E. , Poulton, R. , Martin, J. | 2002

Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression

Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 215-222.
Our ref: RO405

Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. METHOD: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood, but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). RESULTS: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of- origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.
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Williams, S.M., Dickson, N. | 2002

Early growth, menarche and adiposity rebound

Lancet, 2002, 359(359), 580-581.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867115

Our ref: RO404

Show abstract » Adiposity rebound is thought to arise earlier in children with a high body-mass index (BMI) at age 3 years. To test this hypothesis we followed up a birth cohort. Our results indicate that earlier rebound arose in children who were tall at age 3 years, but that timing was not associated with BMI at age 3 years in boys, and arose later in girls with higher BMIs at age 3. Adiposity rebound also arose earlier in children whose parents had high rather than low BMIs. Magnitude of BMI at rebound was associated with height and BMI at age 3, and with parental BMI. There was a correlation between age at rebound and age at menarche, which suggests that timing of rebound is an indicator of physical maturity rather than obesity.
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Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H. L., Milne, B.J. | 2002

Males on the life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26

Development and Psychopathology, 2002, 14(14), 179-206.
Our ref: RO403

Show abstract » This article reports a comparison on age-26 outcomes of males who were previously defined in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and matched on adolescent delinquent offending. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neuro-cognitive problems, under-controlled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most extreme on: psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 were less extreme but elevated on: impulsivity, mental disorders, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offences. A third group of males who had been aggressive as children but only moderately delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offending adults who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings are consistent with the theory of life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior, but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.
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West, P., Reeder, A.I., Milne, B.J., Poulton, R. | 2002

Worlds apart: a comparison between physical activities among youth in Glasgow, Scotland and Dunedin, New Zealand

Social Science and Medicine, 2002, 54(54), 607-619.
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/socscimed

Our ref: RO399

Show abstract » Against the background of increasing concern about levels of physical activity among young people, this paper reports the results of a cross-national comparison between two longitudinal studies of young people in Glasgow, Scotland and Dunedin, New Zealand, which used similar methods of assessment at 15 and 18 years of age. The comparison revealed that, on average, young people in Dunedin participated in a greater range of activities, encompassing both organised sports and informal activities such as cycling, and with greater frequency than those in Glasgow at both ages, but particularly so at age 18. The difference was specially marked for females, among whom one in three in Glasgow reported no physical activity at all at age 18. By contrast, in both sexes among those who did participate, much less difference in levels of involvement was observed between the two locations. Of 35 activities, only in respect of soccer, and only for males, did participation and involvement in Glasgow exceed that of Dunedin. Neither climatic factors, natural features of the environment, socio-economic composition, nor different proportions in single-sex/co-educational schooling explain the difference in levels of participation between the two locations. Participation rates in selected physical activities do, however, reflect different opportunity structures in Dunedin and Glasgow, with an advantage accruing to the former in respect of both school and post-school provision. Cultural factors, which underpin such differences, also appear to have an additional influence on participation, most notably in relation to the gender gap in physical activities, much bigger in Glasgow than Dunedin. To redress these differences requires an increase in levels of participation generally, particularly among females, which depends as much on a shift in values about physical activity as on the provision of better resources.
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Waldie, K.E., Poulton, R. | 2002

Physical and psychological correlates of primary headache in young adulthood: A 26 year longitudinal study

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 2002, 72(72), 86-92.
Our ref: RO398

Show abstract » Objectives: To determine if physical and/or psychological risk factors could differentiate between subtypes of primary headache (migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and coexisting migraine and TTH (combined)) among members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. Methods: At age 26, the headache status of members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) was determined using International Headache Society criteria. Headache history and potential physical and psychological correlates of headache were assessed. These factors included perinatal problems and injuries sustained to age 26; and behavioural, personality, and psychiatric disorders assessed between ages 5 to 21. Results: The 1 year prevalences for migraine, TTH, and combined headache at the age of 26 were 7.2%, 11.1%, and 4.3%, respectively. Migraine was related to maternal headache, anxiety symptoms in childhood, anxiety disorders during adolescence and young adulthood, and the stress reactivity personality trait at the age of 18. TTH was significantly associated with neck or back injury in childhood (before the age of 13). Combined headache was related to maternal headache and anxiety disorder at 18 and 21 only among women with a childhood history of headache. Headache status at the age of 26 was unrelated to a history of perinatal complication, neurological disorder, or mild traumatic head injury. Conclusions: Migraine and TTH seem to be distinct disorders with different developmental characteristics. Combined headache may also have a distinct aetiology.
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Poulton, R., Menzies, R.G. | 2002

Fears born and bred: Toward a more inclusive theory of fear acquisition. REPLY to COMMENTARIES .

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(40), 197-208.
http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/00265

Our ref: RO397

Show abstract » Alleged differences between associative and non-associative perspectives are sometimes more apparent than real. The non-associative model describes a pathway to fear that is complementary to associative pathways. It does not seek to usurp conditioning models as applied to evolutionary-neutral fear. We discuss vexing definitional issues surrounding what qualifies as a conditioning event and what characterises the non-associative pathway. Genetic findings are shown to be consistent with the non-associative model of fear. Following discussion of the relation between stress-diathesis models and the non-associative position we conclude by urging a developmental, life-course approach to the understanding of fear acquisition.
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Poulton, R., Menzies, R.G. | 2002

Non-associative fear acquisition: a review of the evidence from retrospective and longitudinal research. LEAD ARTICLE.

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(40), 127-149.
http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/00265

Our ref: RO396

Show abstract » It is axiomatic that the capacity to experience fear is adaptive, enabling rapid and energetic response to imminent threat or danger. Despite the generally accepted utility of functional fear, the nature of maladaptive fear remains controversial. There is still no consensus about how specific fears and phobias are acquired and modulated. Two major schools of thought are apparent: those suggesting dysfunctional fear arises largely as the result of associative-conditioning processes versus those who favour more biologically-based etiological explanations. In this regard, the non-associative model of fear acquisition postulates the existence of a limited number of innate, evolutionary-relevant fears, while emphasising conditioning modes of onset for evolutionary-neutral fears. Recent retrospective and longitudinal studies have tested predictions from the non-associative model. In general, findings support non-associative hypotheses and are difficult to reconcile with neoconditioning explanations of fear acquisition. These data suggest that four pathways to fear may provide the most parsimonious theory of fear etiology. The theoretical and practical implications of adding a fourth, non-associative path to Rachman's (1977) three 'associative' pathways are discussed. Unresolved issues requiring further investigation are considered.
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Poulton, R., Moffitt, T.E., Harrington, H. L., Milne, B.J., Caspi, A. | 2001

Persistence and perceived consequences of cannabis use and dependence among young adults: implications for policy

New Zealand Medical Journal, 2001, 114(114), 544-547.
Our ref: NZ83

Show abstract » Aims. To document patterns of cannabis use and dependence from late-adolescence through to the midtwenties; to describe perceived consequences of cannabis use among young people; and to consider policy implications of these findings. Methods. This was a longitudinal study of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort with repeated measures of cannabis use at ages 18, 21 and 26 years. Results. Twelve month prevalence rates of cannabis use (just over 50%) and dependence (just under 10%) remained stable between age 21 and 26 years, contrary to an expected decline. Cannabis dependence, as distinct from occasional use, was associated with high rates of harder drug use, selling of drugs and drug conviction. Cumulatively, almost 3/4 of our cohort had tried cannabis by age 26. Young people thought the risk of getting caught using cannabis was trivial, and that using cannabis had few negative social consequences. Conclusions. The persistent high rates of cannabis use and dependence among young New Zealand adults raises important issues for policy makers. Current laws are not particularly effective in deterring use. Whereas occasional use does not appear to present a serious problem, cannabis dependence among users is a serious public health issue that warrants immediate action.
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Milne, B.J., Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. | 2001

Brain drain or OE? Characteristics of young New Zealanders who leave

New Zealand Medical Journal, 2001, 114(114), 450-453.
Our ref: NZ82

Show abstract » Aims. To characterise the emigration patterns of young New Zealanders. Methods. The 980 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study participating in the "age-26" (1998-1999) assessment provided information about emigration behaviour, qualifications, aspects of physical and mental health and personality. Results. 26% of the sample had moved overseas to live between the ages of 18 and 26, with the United Kingdom and Australia being the most common destinations. Compared to non-emigrants, emigrants had higher IQ scores, were better qualified, leaner and fitter, and had happier and less stress-prone personalities. Based on their planned return date, 63% of emigrants were considered to be on their OE (return in <5 years), 18% were defined as brain-drain emigrants (return in >5 years or never) and 18% were uncertain about their return. Brain-drain emigrants were more likely than OE emigrants to leave for better work opportunities, and they were also more likely to go to Australia. However, there were no differences in terms of qualifications, intelligence and personality between OE and brain-drain emigrants. Conclusions. Most young New Zealanders in this cohort who left for overseas were embarking on their OE. Brain-drain emigrants make up a sizeable minority of emigrants, but appear to possess no more skills than those who plan or choose to return.
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Reeder, A.I., Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Poulton, R. | 2001

Nicotine dependence and attempts to quit or cut down among young adult smokers

New Zealand Medical Journal, 2001, 114(114), 403-406.
Our ref: NZ81

Show abstract » Aims: To describe tobacco smoking behaviours, attempts to cut down or quit, and estimate the prevalence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence among young adult smokers. To relate these findings to population demand for national Quitline services. Methods: Confidential interviews were conducted during the assessment of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort at age 26 years. Current smokers who had smoked tobacco daily for at least one month during the 12 months before interview were asked questions to identify nicotine dependence, based on DSM-IV criteria. Results: Overall, 40% (n = 386) of the cohort followed up were current smokers who met the 12 month daily smoking criterion, one third of whom fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence. The mean number of attempts to quit or cut down in the past year was 1.2. Assuming that each attempt represents a potential call to the Quitline, more than 5,500 calls per month might be anticipated from the 25-29 year age group and in excess of 40,000 from the total New Zealand population, 18 years and older. Conclusions: Results indicate that many young adult smokers are potential users of smoking cessation services and many are nicotine dependent. In order to satisfy this reservoir of need and reduce the population burden of ill-health and premature death due to tobacco smoking, resources should continue to be provided to support and enhance tobacco control programmes with proven effectiveness in helping smokers to quit.
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Thomson, W.M. | 2001

Use of dental services by 26-year-old New Zealanders

New Zealand Dental Journal, 2001, 97(97), 44-48.
Our ref: NZ80

Show abstract » The use of dental services and its oral health associations were investigated in a birth cohort of 26-year-olds in order to examine the oral health and health-care effects of the change in entitlement to State assistance for dental care which occurs once New Zealanders turn 18. Fewer than half were routine users, and this proportion was greater among females. More of those who were episodic users at age 26 rated their oral health poorly, and more than one in six had had a tooth extracted since age 18 because of caries. Those who used dental services only when they had a problem not only had greater caries experience by the age of 26, but their caries increment over the previous eight years was also greater. Visiting the dentist for routine check-ups has better long-term oral health consequences than only going when there is a problem.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Nada-Raja, S. | 2001

Low self-esteem and hopelessness in childhood and suicidal ideation in early adulthood

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2001, 29(29), 281-291.
Our ref: RO409

Show abstract » This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family characteristics in early childhood, self-esteem, hopelessness and thoughts of self-harm in the midchildhood years, and suicidal ideation at ages 18 and 21. Path analysis was used to establish separate models for boys and girls. The results suggested different pathways to later suicidal ideation for boys and girls. For boys, suicidal ideation seemed to have stronger roots in childhood, with significant paths from low self-esteem and hopelessness to early thoughts of self-harm and thence to later ideation. For girls, self-esteem had a small but significant direct effect on later suicidal ideation. The findings provide support for the idea that individual characteristics such as feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem act as generative mechanisms, linking early childhood family characteristics to suicidal ideation in early adulthood.
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Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D. | 2001

Changes in risky driving behaviour from age 21 to 26 years

Journal of Safety Research, 2001, 32(32), 491-499.
Our ref: RO408

Show abstract » The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of risky driving behaviour changed between the ages 21 and 26 years, among a cohort of young people. Method: This study was part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort. This study involved examining changes in the prevalence of risky driving behaviour among young adults at ages 21 and 26 years. At both ages, 936 members of the cohort were administered face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire that included items on a range of risky driving and thrill seeking activities. Results: The results showed that risky driving was a predominantly a male activity, but by 26 years of age many had matured out of this behaviour. At the same time, the desire for thrill-seeking increased among the males. Among the females, there were few significant changes between ages 21 and 26 years but at both ages the prevalence of risky driving and thrill-seeking was relatively low. Impact on industry: These results show that the main target population for road safety interventions aimed at reducing risky driving behaviour should be young, male drivers
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Roberts, B.W., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E. | 2001

The kids are alright: Growth and stability in personality development from adolescence to adulthood

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001, 81(81), 670-683.
Our ref: RO402

Show abstract » This longitudinal study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in personality functioning from age 18 to age 26 in a birth cohort (N = 921) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, 1982). Data were analyzed using 4 different methods: differential continuity, mean-level change, individual differences in change, and ipsative change. Convergent evidence pointing toward personality continuity, as opposed to change, was found. The personality changes that did take place from adolescence to adulthood reflected growth in the direction of greater maturity; many adolescents became more controlled and socially more confident and less angry and alienated. Consistent with this, greater initial levels of maturity were associated with less personality change over time. The results indicate that the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is marked by continuity of personality and growth toward greater maturity.
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Roberts, B.W., Caspi, A. | 2001

Personality development and the person-situation debate: It's deja vu all over again. Authors' Response.

Psychological Inquiry, 2001, 12(12), 104-109.
Our ref: RO401

Show abstract » Response to commentaries to target article (RO400).
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Caspi, A., Roberts, B.W. | 2001

Personality development across the life course: The argument for change and continuity. Target Article.

Psychological Inquiry, 2001, 12(12), 49-66.
Our ref: RO400

Show abstract » In this article the authors review answers to 5 questions concerning the development of personality across the life course: How early in the life course can we identify characteristics unique to individuals that will show continuity over time? When in the life course is personality fully developed? What life course factors moderate continuity and change in personality? What are the mechanisms that promote continuity in personality? And finally, what are the mechanisms that promote change in personality? Based on the answers to these 5 questions they conclude (a) that there is modest continuity from childhood to adulthood, (b) that personality traits do not become fixed at a certain age in adulthood and retain the possibility of change even into old age, and (c) that with time and age people become more adept at interacting with their environment such that personality consistency increases with age and is more common than change in midlife and old age.
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Locker, D., Poulton, R., Thomson, W.M. | 2001

Psychological disorders and dental anxiety in a young adult population

Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2001, 29(29), 456-463.
Our ref: RO395

Show abstract » Objectives. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. This paper compares the prevalence of psychological disorders among dentally anxious and non-anxious groups drawn from the general population. Methods: Data were obtained as part of a birth cohort study when study members were aged 18 years. They were assessed using the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). The disorders diagnosed by the DIS were major depressive episode, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, simple phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, conduct disorder, cannabis and alcohol dependence. Results: Overall, 12.5% of study members had DAS scores of 13 or more and were considered to be dentally anxious. Those who were dentally anxious were more likely than the non-anxious to be diagnosed with one or more psychological disorders (55.0% vs. 42.3%). However, those with DAS scores of 13 or 14 (moderately dentally anxious) were broadly similar to the non-anxious in terms of their psychological profile. This excess prevalence of psychological disorder was largely accounted for by high rates of disorder among those with DAS scores of 15 or more (highly dentally anxious). The highly anxious were more likely than the non-anxious to have a diagnosis of conduct disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, simple phobia or alcohol dependence. Odds ratios ranged from 2.8 to 5.0 after controlling for the effects of gender. The data also suggested that dentally anxious individuals with psychological disorders were more likely to maintain their anxiety over time. Conclusions: In this population of young adults, high rates of psychological disorder were characteristic of those with high levels of dental anxiety. Psychological disorder was related to the maintenance of dental anxiety over time.
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Belsky, J., Jaffee, S.R., Hsieh, K.H., Silva, P.A. | 2001

Childrearing antecedents of intergenerational relations in young adulthood: A prospective study

Developmental Psychology, 2001, 37(37), 801-813.
Our ref: RO394

Show abstract » Data gathered from mothers on parenting and family climate when almost 1,000 children in the Dunedin, New Zealand, longitudinal study were 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, and 15 years of age were used to predict intergenerational relations between young adult children (age 26) and their middle-aged parents. Analyses focused on distinct developmental epochs revealed greater prediction from the middle-childhood and early-adolescent periods than from the early-childhood years; most indicated that more supportive family environments and child-rearing experiences in the family of origin forecasted more positive and less negative parent-child relationships (in terms of contact, closeness, conflict, reciprocal assistance) in young adulthood, though associations were modest in magnitude. Some evidence indicated that (modestly) deleterious effects on intergenerational relations of experiencing relatively unsupportive child-rearing environments in 1 but not 2 (of 3) developmental periods studied could be offset by relatively supportive family environments in the remaining developmental periods.
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