Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below. Other publications will be uploaded shortly.

Displaying page 18 of 20.

Silva, P.A. | 1985

Research Notice: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit Bibliography of Publications and Reports, 1975-1983

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1985, 19(19), 188-189.
Our ref: NZ40

Show abstract » This research note describes the research unit's Annotated Bibliography of Publications and Reports 1975-1983 (see MO8) and provides an analysis of the first 160 publications and reports from the Research Unit. It is now superseded by this publication.
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Share, D.L., Chalmers, D.J., Stewart, I.A., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Reading disability and middle ear disease

Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1985, 61(61), 400-401.
Our ref: RO78

Show abstract » The association between specific reading disability and middle ear disease was investigated in a longitudinal study of 962 children followed from age 5 to 11. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of middle ear abnormalities between the reading disabled group (n = 49) and the remainder.
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Share, D.L., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Motor function in dyslexic children with and without attentional disorders

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1985, 12(12), 313-320.
Our ref: RO76

Show abstract » This study investigated whether motor function may have diagnostic or aetiological significance in the identification of a subgroup of dyslexics characterized by attention deficits. Data from an epidemiological study of 480 New Zealand boys failed to support this suggestion. High-Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) dyslexics were not found to differ from low-ADD dyslexics on 26 out of 27 measures of motor function.
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Yunus, N.N.N. | 1985

Periodontal health in 12-year-old children [Abstract]

Journal of Dental Research, 1985, 65(65), 478.
Our ref: RO74

Show abstract » This abstract describes the results from examining the periodontal health (health of the gums) of 12 year old children.
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Brown, R.H., Suckling, G.W. | 1985

Pattern of caries in permanent incisors and first molars in 9-year-old children [Abstract]

Journal of Dental Research, 1985, 64(64), 650.
Our ref: RO73

Show abstract » In 1981-82, 697 children in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study had dental examinations at age 9. The examinations, by one investigator (GWS), occurred in school dental clinics using the same light source and standardised probes. The mean DMF-T score was 0.98, and mean DMF-S score was 1.21. The permanent dentitions of 54% of children were caries-free; 99% had all permanent incisors unaffected by caries, and 55% had all first permanent molars unaffected by caries. The percentages of surfaces of upper first permanent molars affected by caries were: occlusal 21%, mesial 1.2%, distal 0.9%, palatal 3.7%, buccal 1.0%. The corresponding figures for lower first permanent molars were: occlusal 17.9%, mesial 1.2%, distal 0.2%, lingual 0.2%, and buccal 10.9%. Prevention of fissure caries in this age group is a priority if further reduction in DMF is to be achieved.
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Sears, M.R., Jones, D.T., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1985

The prevalence of bronchial reactivity to inhaled methacholine in New Zealand children

Thorax, 1985, 41(41), 283-289.
Our ref: RO72

Show abstract » The prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine and of a clinical history of symptoms of asthma was determined in a birth cohort of 9 year old New Zealand children. A history of current or previous recurrent wheezing was obtained in 220 of 815 children. Of 800 who had spirometric tests, 27 (3.4%) had resting airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 75%). Methacholine challenge was undertaken without problem in 766 children, the abbreviated protocol being based on five breaths and four concentrations. A fall in FEV1 of more than 20% was observed in 176 children (23% of challenges, 22% of the full cohort) after inhalation of methacholine in concentrations of up to 25 mg/ml. The prevalence of bronchial reactivity in children with symptoms was related to the frequency of wheezing episodes in the last year, and the degree of reactivity to the interval since the last episode. Sixty four children (8.0%) with no history of wheeze or recurrent dry cough were, however, also responsive to methacholine 25 mg/ml or less, while 35% of children with current or previous wheezing did not respond to any dose of methacholine. Bronchial challenge by methacholine inhalation was not sufficiently sensitive or specific to be useful as a major criterion for the diagnosis of asthma in epidemiological studies. The occurrence of airway reactivity in children without symptoms of asthma, however, raises the possibility that adult onset asthma and the development of airways obstruction in some subjects with chronic bronchitis could have origins in childhood.
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Silva, P.A. | 1985

A comparison of the predictive validity of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1985, 56(56), 201-204.
Our ref: RO71

Show abstract » This paper describes the predictive validity of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale administered to preschool children. The dependent variables were intelligence and reading at ages 7, 9 and 11.
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Silva, P.A., Crosado, B. | 1985

The growth and development of twins compared with singletons at ages nine and eleven

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 21(21), 27-30.
Our ref: RO70

Show abstract » The growth and development of 9 and 11-year old twins who have been studied at birth, and at ages 3, 5, and 7 years was compared with that of a large group of singletons. The twins were not significantly different to the singletons in language development, reading, spelling or Performance IQ. They remained significantly shorter, lighter and had smaller head circumferences. This difference was shown to have been fairly consistent from age 3. The twins had significantly lower Verbal and Full Scale IQ, but in view of a lack of disadvantage in educational progress this was not considered to be of any practical importance.
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Suckling, G.W., Brown, R.H., Herbison, G.P. | 1985

The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in 696 nine year old New Zealand children participating in a health and development study

Community Dental Health, 1985, 2(2), 303-320.
Our ref: RO68

Show abstract » This paper describes the nature and prevalence of enamel defects in 9 year old children.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Mothers' knowledge of first aid - an exploratory study

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 56(56), 32-39.
Our ref: RO66

Show abstract » This paper assesses mother's knowledge of first aid and recommends some ways of improving the knowledge.
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Clarkson, S.E., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Sleep in middle childhood - a longitudinal study of sleep problems in a large sample of Dunedin children aged 5 to 9 years

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 22(22), 31-35.
Our ref: RO63

Show abstract » Complaints of sleeping difficulties in a large group of New Zealand children were studied prospectively over four years from 5 to 9 years of age. No association was found between sleeping difficulties and the sex, intelligence, or educational attainments of the child. Mothers who described their child as anxious or who were poor sleepers themselves tended to report sleeping problems in their child more frequently. There was no association between sleeping problems and teacher ratings of behaviour problems. Children who reported sleep problems also tended to report other problems. There was low agreement between parents and children. Only 0.3% of the total sample had a problem which persisted over the whole period.
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Langley, J.D. | 1985

The control of product-related injuries in New Zealand

Journal of Public Health Policy, 1985, 6(6), 100-115.
Our ref: RO62

Show abstract » This paper describes the control of product related injuries in New Zealand, their effectiveness, some principles involved and how improvements may be made.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Factor structure and correlates of ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and antisocial behavior in a large sample of 9-year-old children from the general population

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1985, 53(53), 480-490.
Our ref: RO60

Show abstract » Teacher ratings of inattentive, impulsive, hyperactive, aggressive and anxious behaviours were obtained for a non-clinic-referred sample of 926 9-year-old children from Dunedin, New Zealand. Factor analysis of the ratings identified four factors of Inattention, Antisocial Behaviour, Hyperactivity, and Worry-Fearful. Subscales based on these factors were only weakly related to parent ratings of the same behaviours. Canonical correlational analysis indicated that both cognitive (performance IQ, reading and spelling) and motor (speech articulation and tapping speed) abilities best predicted the parent and teacher ratings of inattention. Family background measures, on the other hand, were associated primarily with the antisocial, hyperactive and worry ratings. Overall, the results suggest that inattention represents the core dysfunction in hyperactivity. it is argued that inattention, hyperactvity and antisocial behaviours should be regarded as at least partially independent dimensions.
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Silva, P.A., Birkbeck, J.A., Williams, S.M. | 1985

Some factors influencing the stature of Dunedin 7 year old children: a report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 21(21), 27-30..
Our ref: RO59

Show abstract » The stature of 987 representative Dunedin 7 year olds was measured and some factors contributing to stature were studied in 666 children for whom complete data were available. Dunedin children were of similar stature to American children but were about 1 cm taller than British children. Socio-economic status (SES), birthweight and maternal stature were significantly correlated with stature, while the sex of the child, gestational age, maternal age, ordinal position of the child in the family and number of children in the family were not significantly correlated. The effect of SES in Dunedin was much less than that reported for the United Kingdom. It was concluded that in this population, SES and family structural factors are probably less important as determinants of child growth than they are in Britain and are of considerably less importance than the mother's stature and the child's birth weight.
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McGee, R., Birkbeck, J.A., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Physical development in hyperactive boys

Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1985, 27(27), 364-368.
Our ref: RO58

Show abstract » This paper describes associations between hyperactivity (with and without aggression) in boys and a range of anthropometric measures.
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Mahalski, P.A., Silva, P.A., Spears, G.F. | 1985

Children's attachment to soft objects at bedtime, child rearing, and child development

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1985, 24(24), 442-446.
Our ref: RO57

Show abstract » Research and theories about children's emotional attachment to blankets and soft toys are reviewed. New research is presented from an extensive study in Dunedin, New Zealand, on two samples of children between 18 months and 5 years. Interviews, questionnaires, and psychometric tests were given to the children and their mothers. Children who were emotionally attached to an object appeared to mature and adjust like other children. The only difference was that they were more likely to have a sucking habit. Mothers did not differ intellectually or in matters of discipline, adjustment, and child rearing. The younger children in the most affluent families were more likely to become attached compared with those from less affluent families, but survey techniques are inadequate for linking cause and effect which requires intensive observational studies during the first year of life.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Injuries in the eighth and ninth years of life

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1985, 21(21), 51-55.
Our ref: RO56

Show abstract » From a sample of 818 children, 211 were involved in 256 separate incidents which resulted in 283 injuries requiring medical attention. The most common injuries were lacerations, abrasions and contusions, fractures, concussion, and sprains. The majority of the injuries were minor. The most common incident resulting in injury was a fall, followed by incidents where the child struck against or was struck by an object or persons and incidents involving sharp objects. The nature and circumstances of the serious injuries is presented in detail. Methods of improving the description and the classification of childhood injuries and some incidents worthy of further investigation are discussed.
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Birkbeck, J.A., Buckfield, P.M., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Lack of long term effect of method of infant feeding on growth

Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition, 1985, 39(39), 39-44.
Our ref: RO55

Show abstract » Although we have found that, at 7 years of age, children who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life are significantly taller and slightly heavier than those exclusively formula-fed, correction for a variety of other familial factors can explain most of the differences. The breast-fed were longer at birth, had taller mothers, and came from families of higher socioeconomic status, although the last appears to act via maternal stature. There was no difference between the groups at age 7 in skeletal maturity, nor in fatness as measured by combined triceps plus subscapular fatfold. Apparent associations between the method of infant feeding and findings in later childhood must thus be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect differences between the characteristics of families choosing different methods of feeding rather than an effect of the feeding method itself.
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Parnicky, J.J., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Family Environment Scale: A Dunedin (New Zealand) pilot study

Australian Psychologist, 1985, 20(20), 195-204.
Our ref: RO54

Show abstract » This paper describes the results from the Family Environment Scale obtained with Dunedin mothers, and compares these with American results.
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Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Some factors associated with reading ability: a longitudinal study

Educational Research, 1985, 27(27), 159-168.
Our ref: RO53

Show abstract » This paper describes the contribution of a wide range of variables to reading ability at age seven and nine.
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Casswell, S., Brasch, P.E., Gilmore, L.L., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Children's attitudes to alcohol and awareness of alcohol related problems

British Journal of Addiction, 1985, 80(80), 191-194.
Our ref: RO52

Show abstract » This paper describes the drinking patterns of children and associations between these and parental drinking patterns. Attitudes to alcohol and alcohol related problems are also reported.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Bradshaw, J., Chapel, J.L., Robins, A.J., Silva, P.A. | 1985

The Rutter Scale for completion by teachers: factor structure and relationship with cognitive abilities and family adversity for a sample of New Zealand children

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1985, 26(26), 727-739.
Our ref: RO51

Show abstract » A large sample of 7-year-old children (n = 940) was rated by teachers using the Rutter Child Scale B, a 26-item questionnaire covering a variety of behavioural problems. A factor analysis of the data revealed three main factors of interest, identified as aggressiveness, hyperactivity and anxiety-fearfulness. Measures based upon these factors had a reasonably high level of reliability and were moderately stable over a 2-year interval. An analysis of the relationship between these three behavioural measures and some cognitive measures indicated that only hyperactivity was negatively associated with cognitive ability. However, both hyperactivity and aggressiveness were related to adversity in the child's family background. The findings suggest the usefulness of distinguishing between aggressive and hyperactive dimensions of behaviour.
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Clymer, P.E., Silva, P.A. | 1985

Laterality, cognitive ability and motor performance in a sample of seven year olds

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1985, 11(11), 59-68.
Our ref: RO50

Show abstract » SUMMARY This study examined hand, eye, and foot laterality in a sample of 890 7-yr-old children to determine whether the degree of left and right congruence between hand, eye, and foot preference related to a variety of measures of cognitive ability or motor performance or whether there was an association between hand, eye, and foot preferences and differences in cognitive ability and motor performance. With regard to left and right congruence, the only significant difference found related to a test of target throwing. There was a decrease in target throwing ability with decreased total left or right congruence. When the sample was grouped according to strength of left or right preference and all the measures were compared, there were no significant differences. Overall, this study found no significant association between any aspect of laterality studied and cognitive ability and only one significant association between laterality and a measure of motor performance. The implications of these results are discussed.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1985

Some characteristics of nine year old boys with general reading backwardness and specific reading retardation

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1985, 26(26), 407-421.
Our ref: RO44

Show abstract » In 1975 Rutter and Yule distinguished between 'specific reading retardation' and 'general reading backwardness'. In a sample of 952 9-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, 4.2% were identified as specific reading retarded and 4.1% as having general reading backwardness. Boys from each problem group were compared with boys without reading delay. General reading backwardness was associated with a history of long-term cognitive and motor delay. Specific reading retardation was only associated with lower verbal IQ and poor speech articulation. A number of differences between the findings of Rutter and Yule and the present results were noted.
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Oei, T.P.S., Brasch, P.E., Silva, P.A. | 1984

The prevalence of smoking among nine year olds

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1984, 77(77), 528-531.
Our ref: NZ39

Show abstract » This study reported the results of a survey on smoking conducted by the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit of 779 nine year old children in their sample. By the age of nine, 275 (35.3%) of the children had tried to smoke a cigarette, even just a few puffs, and 636 (81.7%) did not have any friends who smoked. Most of these children knew about the adverse effects of smoking on health and most of this information did not come from their parents. They also reported that 63% of the mothers and 75% of the fathers did not give them information on smoking. The findings suggested (1) that health education programmes for the prevention of smoking by children should start prior to age nine (2) that a programme focusing on the negative aspects of smoking on health would probably not be very beneficial and (3) that parents should be recruited as health educators and used more efficiently in giving children more information about smoking.
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Simpson, A., Kirkland, C., Silva, P.A. | 1984

Vision and eye problems in seven year olds: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1984, 97(97), 445-449.
Our ref: NZ38

Show abstract » An eye examination, including tests of distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, cover tests, and an examination of pupils, eyes, adnexia, and eye movements, was carried out on 988 Dunedin children within approximately one month of their seventh birthday. Information concerning glasses and patching of one eye was obtained by questionnaire. Eye defects were noted in 9.4% of the children with several having more than one problem. Eye defects noted included 5.1% with unaided distance visual acuity of 6/12 or worse in one or both eyes, 4.4% with near visual acuity of the equivalent of N8 or worse in one or both eyes, 3.9% had manifest strabismus, 2.9% had had occlusion of one eye for amblyopia, and 1.2% had other important eye defects. Glasses had been prescribed for 3.6%.
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Langley, J.D., Crosado, B. | 1984

Two safety aspects of public playground climbing equipment

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1984, 97(97), 404-406.
Our ref: NZ37

Show abstract » This paper describes the height of and surface under public playground climbing equipment in Dunedin. These findings, among others, led to revision of the New Zealand Standard for Playgrounds.
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McKerracher, D.W., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1984

Eysenck Personality Inventory Scores from 1011 New Zealand women: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1984, 19(19), 82.
Our ref: NZ26

Show abstract » This report describes results from use of the Eysenck Personality Inventory with mothers. Form B was recommended as superior to Form A.
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Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Silva, P.A. | 1984

Bronchial reactivity in children without asthma [Abstract]

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 1984, 14(14), 542.
Our ref: RO61

Show abstract » This paper describes bronchial reactivity to methacholine in children who did not have asthma.
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Langley, J.D. | 1984

Injury control - psychosocial considerations

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1984, 25(25), 349-356.
Our ref: RO49

Show abstract » This paper presents a critical review of the literature on associations between psychosocial factors and injuries in children.
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Oei, T.P.S., Egan, A.M., Silva, P.A. | 1984

Factors associated with the initiation of smoking in nine year old children

Journal of Addictive Diseases (fmr Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse), 1984, 5(5), 79-89.
Our ref: RO48

Show abstract » The present study examined the relationship between 787 (415 boys and 372 girls) nine year old children's reported experience with cigarettes and the parents, home environment, peers, socioeconomic status, school performance and behavior or emotional problems and delinquency factors which had in the past been found to be influential during the formative stages of initiation into the use of tobacco. The 787 children (415 boys and 372 girls) were classified as either puffers (those who had puffed on a cigarette) or nonpuffers. The results suggest than, at age nine, puffers were more likely than nonpuffers to: intend to smoke in the future; have one or both parents smoking; have one, or more, smoking friend(s); do less well at maths and school work in general; misbehave more often; and be taken to see a psychologist regarding a behavioral or emotional problem.
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Chapman, J.W., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1984

Academic self-concept: Some developmental and emotional correlates in nine-year-old children

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1984, 54(54), 284-292.
Our ref: RO47

Show abstract » Eight hundred 9-year-old children being studied by the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Unit were assessed in terms of academic self-concept, intelligence, and school performance. A short form of the Student's Perception of Ability Scale (SPAS) was used to estimate academic self-concept. Intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), reading by the Burt Word Reading Test, spelling by a short form of the Dunedin Spelling Test, comprehension and expression by the respective subscales in the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), and school achievement by parents' perceptions of current attainment levels. The results indicate that the SPAS Short Form yields means, standard deviations, and internal reliability estimates that are consistent with other studies. In addition, sex differences were noted, with girls reporting slightly higher self-perceptions of ability than boys. In terms of correlations between academic self-concept and school-related ability and performance, it was found that SPAS subject-specific subscale scores correlated moderately with corresponding subject area performance, but weakly or negligibly with WISC-Rand ITPA Comprehension and Expression scores. Perceptions of ability, therefore, appear to be relatively independent of intelligence,
and more related to success levels in school. It was also found that children identified as reading retarded had significantly lower self-perceptions of ability than normal readers. Similarly, depressed children indicated relatively negative self-concepts compared to past depressed and non-depressed children.
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McGee, R., Makinson, T.L., Williams, S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, P.A. | 1984

A longitudinal study of enuresis from five to nine years

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1984, 20(20), 39-42.
Our ref: RO45

Show abstract » The prevalence of primary and secondary enuresis was examined longitudinally in a large sample of New Zealand children at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. While the prevalence of primary enuresis fell over time, secondary enuresis increased in prevalence between 5 and 7 years. There were no sex differences. An examination of some of the developmental and background characteristics of the sample indicated that enuresis was not associated with neurodevelopmental delay or 'psychosocial' factors. However, there were strong, long term associations between secondary enuresis and behavioural deviance. The behavioural results suggested that behaviour problems did not arise as a consequence of enuresis, but rather preceded it.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1984

A longitudinal study of the intelligence and behaviour of children who were pre-term and children who were small for gestational age

Developmental and Behavioural Paediatrics, 1984, 5(5), 1-5.
Our ref: RO43

Show abstract » A large sample of children (n = 850) from Dunedin, New Zealand, were classified into three groups, preterm (n = 31), small for gestational age (SGA; n = 71), and full-term, normal birth weight (n = 748). These groups were compared on intelligence measures taken at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of age and parent and teacher behavior reports at 5, 7, and 9 years. The SGA group but not the preterm group had significantly lower IQ scores than the normal birth weight children. In addition, the mothers of the SGA children reported more behavior problems. These differences were not attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage in the SGA group. The results suggest it is better to be born too early than too small.
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Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1984

A seven year follow-up of the cognitive development of children who experienced common perinatal problems

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1984, 20(20), 23-28.
Our ref: RO42

Show abstract » The prevalence of perinatal problems in a sample of 1037 children was described. There was no significant association between perinatal problems and socio-economic status. The association between perinatal problems and cognitive development was examined by stepwise regression analyses of the more common perinatal problems on cognitive factor scores, using measures of language and intelligence taken when the children were aged 3, 5, and 7 years. Of 14 perinatal problems analysed in this manner, only two, being a twin or being small for gestational age, were found to be consistently associated with a significantly lower cognitive factor score.
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Langley, J.D. | 1984

Description and classification of childhood burns

Burns, 1984, 10(10), 231-235.
Our ref: RO41

Show abstract » This paper describes shortcomings in the ICD codes for describing burn injuries and argues for the need for better methods of describing the sequence of events resulting in burn injuries.
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Silva, P.A., Justin C., McGee, R., Williams, S.M. | 1984

Some developmental and behavioural characteristics of seven year old children with delayed speech development

European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1984, 19(19), 147-154.
Our ref: RO40

Show abstract » This report describes some characteristics of seven year old children with delayed speech development.
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Evans, R.W., Beck, D.J., Brown, R.H., Silva, P.A. | 1984

The relationship between fluoridation and socio-economic status on dental caries experience in 5-year-old New Zealand children

Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 1984, 12(12), 5-9.
Our ref: RO39

Show abstract » This article examines the relationship between previous fluoridation and socioeconomic status on caries experience, as measured by the dmf index, in 5-yr-old New Zealand children in the city of Dunedin (fluoridated in 1967) and in adjacent non-fluoride communities. The children were subdivided into six socioeconomic status groups (SES 1, professional and managerial-SES 6, unskilled workers), but then for simplicity they were combined to form three groups. A two-way analysis of variance demonstrated that interaction between fluoride history and socioeconomic status was not significant. In all three SES groups, dmf was higher in non-fluoride communities, but the difference was significant only in SES group (5&6) (P less than 0.01). Caries experience increased with decreasing socioeconomic status in both fluoride and non-fluoride communities, but this effect was only significant between SES groups (1&2) and (3&4) in the fluoridated community (P less than 0.05), and between SES groups (3&4) and (5&6) in non-fluoride communities (P less than 0.01). These results are compared with those of similar studies, and it is concluded that so far, the relationship between previous fluoridation and socioeconomic status on caries experience remains equivocal. A note of caution is sounded regarding the interpretation of such results, and the difficulties faced when comparing studies is discussed.
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Silva, P.A., Birkbeck, J.A., Russell, D.G., Wilson, J. | 1984

Some biological, developmental and social correlates of gross and fine motor development

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1984, 10(10), 35-51.
Our ref: RO38

Show abstract » This paper presents an analysis of factors contributing to gross and fine motor development.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1984

Background characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1984, 23(23), 280-284.
Our ref: RO37

Show abstract » In a previous study by the authors (1984), the behavioral and developmental characteristics of aggressive boys, hyperactive boys and boys who were both aggressive and hyperactive were examined. This report investigates the perinatal histories, maternal and family characteristics of these same groups, and a comparison group not identified as aggressive or hyperactive. The four groups did not differ in terms of their perinatal histories. While boys with problems differed from those without, clear differences among the problem groups did not emerge. The results did suggest, however, that quality of family life varied to some degree among the problem groups.
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