All peer reviewed publications are listed below. Other publications will be uploaded shortly.

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Fawcett, J.P., Williams, S.M., Heydon, J.L., Walmsley, T.A., Menkes, D.B. | 1996

Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21

Environmental Health Perspectives, 1996, 104(104), 1332-1335.
Our ref: RO288

Show abstract » Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 g/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 g/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 g/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 g/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 g/dl; p<0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 g/dl; p<0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p<0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure.
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Moffitt, T.E. | 1996

Measuring children's antisocial behaviors [Editorial]

JAMA, 1996, 275(275), 403-404.
Our ref: RO287

Show abstract » This editorial questions the accuracy of Needleman et al's measures of children's antisocial behavior in their study of the association of bone lead and young boys' attention problems, aggression and delinquency.
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Pisecco, S., Baker, D.B., Silva, P.A., Brooke, M. | 1996

Behavioral distinctions between children identified with reading disabilities and/or ADHD

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996, 35(35), 1477-1484.
Our ref: RO286

Show abstract » Objective: To investigate behavioral distinctions between children with reading disabilities (RD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A four-group mixed design consisting of children with reading disabilities only (RD only), reading disabilities and ADHD (RD/ADHD), ADHD only, and a comparison group was used. Differences between parent reports, from age 5 to 15 years, and teacher reports, from age 5 to 13 years, were examined on measures of hyperactive and antisocial behaviors. Results: The analyses indicated that, at home, children from the ADHD only and RD/ADHD groups exhibited significantly more hyperactive behaviors than children from the RD only and comparison groups. At school, children from the RD only, ADHD only, and RD/ADHD groups typically exhibited significantly more hyperactive and antisocial behaviors than children from the comparison group. With regard to antisocial behaviors, children from the RD/ADHD group exhibited significantly more antisocial behaviors than children from any other group. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that children from these groups may exhibit either a ''pervasive'' or ''situational'' presentation of behavioral problems, a finding which suggests that in conducting an evaluation of ADHD it is important to obtain both parent and teacher reports of problem behaviors.
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Stanton, W.R., McClelland, M., Elwood, C., Ferry, D.G., Silva, P.A. | 1996

Prevalence, reliability and bias of adolescents' reports of smoking and quitting

Addiction, 1996, 91(91), 1705-1714.
Our ref: RO283

Show abstract » A follow-up of smoking behaviour to age 18 in a longitudinal study of a birth cohort enabled an assessment of the prevalence of smoking and quitting among adolescents approaching adulthood. There was a dramatic increase in number of daily smokers (15% at age 15 years to 31% at age 18 years), and in a climate of expected decreases in smoking, a history of never smoking to age 15 years was not as protective against future smoking as anticipated. Among 15-year-olds who had experimented with smoking, only 11% per year stopped by age 18 years. Cessation rates for adolescent daily smokers were low (3% had nor smoked in the last year at age 18 years), and previously have not been widely reported. We also examined some methodological issues related to self-reported prevalence rates, in particular reliability, validity and sources of bias, finding confirmation of the accuracy of information from prospective longitudinal studies and supporting the conclusion that adolescents' recall for information beyond a 1-year period is inconsistent.
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Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Newman, D.L., Silva, P.A. | 1996

Behavioral observations at age 3 predict adult psychiatric disorders: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort

Archives of General Psychiatry, 1996, 53(53), 1033-1039.
Our ref: RO282

Show abstract » Background: This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. Methods: In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-III-R criteria. Results: Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless, and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Under-controlled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings. Conclusion: Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.
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Bardone, A.M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P.A. | 1996

Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder

Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 811-829.
Our ref: RO281

Show abstract » Follow-up studies of adolescent depression and conduct disorder have pointed to homotypic continuity, but less information exists about outcomes beyond mental disorders and about the extent to which adolescents with different disorders experience different versus similar difficulties during the transition to adulthood. We assessed the continuity of adolescent disorder by following girls in a complete birth cohort who at age 15 were depressed (n = 27), conduct disordered (n = 37), or without a mental health disorder (n = 341) into young adulthood (age 21) to identify their outcomes in three domains: mental health and illegal behavior, human capital, and relationship and family formation. We found homotypic continuity; in general, depressed girls became depressed women and conduct disordered girls developed antisocial personality disorder symptoms by age 21. Conduct disorder exclusively predicted at age 21: antisocial personality disorder, substance dependence, illegal behavior, dependence on multiple welfare sources, early home leaving, multiple cohabitation partners, and physical partner violence. Depression exclusively predicted depression at age 21. Examples of equifinality (where alternate pathways lead to the same outcome) surfaced, as both adolescent disorders predicted at age 21: anxiety disorder, multiple drug use, early school leaving, low school attainment, any cohabitation, pregnancy, and early child bearing.
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Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1996

Parental and neonatal risk factors for atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma

Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1996, 75(75), 392-398.
Our ref: RO279

Show abstract » Background-Previous studies have not resolved the importance of several potential risk factors for the development of childhood atopy, airway responsiveness, and wheezing, would allow the rational selection of interventions to reduce morbidity from asthma. Risk factors for these disorders were examined in a birth cohort of 1037 New Zealand children. Methods-Responses to questions on respiratory symptoms and measurements of lung function and airway responsiveness were obtained every two to three years throughout childhood and adolescence, with over 85% cohort retention at age 18 years. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests at age 13 years. Relations between parental and neonatal factors, the development of atopy, and features of asthma were determined by comparison of proportions and logistic regression. Results-Male sex was a significant independent predictor for atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, hay fever, and asthma. A positive family history, especially maternal, of asthma strongly predicted childhood atopy, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and hay fever. Maternal smoking in the last trimester was correlated with the onset of childhood asthma by the age of 1 year. Birth in the winter season increased the risk of sensitisation to cats. Among those with a parental history of asthma or hay fever, birth in autumn and winter also increased the risk of sensitisation to house dust mites. The number of siblings, position in the family, socioeconomic status, and birth weight were not consistently predictive of any characteristic of asthma. Conclusions-Male sex, parental atopy, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for asthma in young children. Children born in winter exhibit a greater prevalence of sensitisation to cats and house dust mites. These data suggest possible areas for intervention in children at risk because of parental atopy.
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Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, J.D. | 1996

The risky and protective motorcycling opinions and behaviours of young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand

Social Science and Medicine, 1996, 42(42), 1297-1311.
Our ref: RO276

Show abstract » This research documented the frequency of protective and risky motorcycling opinions and behaviours and investigated whether these opinions and behaviours were more frequently expressed by licensed than unlicensed riders and by riders with high rather than low exposure to motorcycling. Areas where there was scope for improvement were identified to help guide the promotion of protective strategies. As part of a broader study of a birth cohort, 217 18 year old motorcyclists were administered a motorcycling computer questionnaire. Evidence of positive protective opinions was found, but there was considerable scope for behavioural improvements. While 92% had worn a helmet, optimal protection was reported less frequently for other body areas: most often for the feet (54%), hands (47%) and upper body (35%) and least often for the legs (8%). Most (87%) riders considered conspicuity increased safety, 68% favoured mandatory day-time headlight use, and 66% used dipped headlights in day-time. While 55% favoured mandatory wearing of high-visibility clothing, only 15% of day-time and 20% of night-time riders reported doing this. During the past month, 16% had driven within two hours of drinking alcohol and 6% when too tired to be fully in control. Overall, 22% had been penalized for a motorcycle driving offence, most often speeding. While 46% said they agreed with the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS), most licensed under that system reported breaking licence conditions and most were not apprehended. Licensed motorcyclists were significantly more likely than the unlicensed to favour mandatory day-time headlight usage, report using dipped headlights in day-time, and wear better protection for the head, upper body and hands, but were also more likely to report drinking and driving and traffic convictions-probably because of their greater exposure. Other, non-significant, results were in the same direction, except that fewer licensed than unlicensed riders were in favour of mandatory high visibility clothing or the GDLS. A similar pattern of more protective attitudes and behaviours was found for high rather than low exposure riders, though it was generally weaker, and high exposure was associated with drinking and driving, driving while tired and traffic convictions. The issues of representativeness and reliability are discussed and some implications for public policies towards motorcycling by young people are considered. Further research is recommended in order to determine which are the best predictors of motorcycling opinions and behaviours: personal characteristics, the formal training associated with licensure, or exposure to motorcycling.
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Fawcett, J.P., Shaw, J.P., Cockburn, M., Brooke, M., Barbezat, G.O. | 1996

Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in a birth cohort of 21-year-old New Zealanders

European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1996, 8(8), 365-369.
Our ref: RO275

Show abstract » OBJECTIVE: To determine the previous seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in a subset of a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21 and examine the association with risk factors and digestion-related symptoms. DESIGN: Assay of serum collected from members of a longitudinal study during 1993-94 and a survey of risk factors and digestion-related symptoms by interview and questionnaire. METHODS: Serum from 785 sample members (413 males, 372 females) of the 950 participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) at age 21 was analysed for H. pylori antibodies. Serum samples (n = 579) from the cohort at age 11 collected in 1983 were analysed for those who were seropositive at age 21. RESULTS: The previous seroprevalence of H. pylori at age 21 was 4.1% (32/785), with proportionally more males in the seropositive group (chi 2 = 6.7, P < 0.01). Serum samples taken at age 11 were available for 19 of the seropositive group and 74% of these (11 males, three females) were seropositive. The seropositive group at age 21 was no different in the size of their families, but at age 5 contained proportionally more individuals from families of low socioeconomic status (SES) (chi 2 = 6.1, P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, recent use of medications, smoking or alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: The previous seroprevalence of H. pylori among a birth cohort of 21-year-old New Zealanders is significantly lower than among most populations of about the same age in other countries. Seropositivity is higher in males and among families of lower SES, and is not associated with digestion-related symptoms. The seroconversion rate after age 11 appears to be low.
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Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. | 1996

Childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset antisocial conduct in males: Natural history from age 3 to 18

Development and Psychopathology, 1996, 8(8), 399-424.
Our ref: RO274

Show abstract » We report data that support the distinction between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset type conduct problems. Natural histories are described from a representative birth cohort of 457 males studied longitudinally from age 3 to 18 years. Childhood- and adolescent-onset cases differed on temperament as early as age 3 years, but almost half of childhood-onset cases did not become seriously delinquent. Type comparisons were consistent with our contention that males whose antisocial behavior follows a life-course-persistent path differ from males who follow an adolescence-limited path. As adolescents, the two types differed on convictions for violent crime, personality profiles, school leaving, and bonds to family. These differences can be attributed to developmental history because the two groups were well matched on measures of antisocial conduct at age 18 years: parent-reports, self-reports, and adjudication records. By age 18 years, many conduct-problem boys had encountered factors that could ensnare them in an antisocial future: substance dependence, unsafe sex, dangerous driving habits, delinquent friends, delinquent perceptions, and unemployment. Implications for theory, research design, prevention, and therapeutic treatment of conduct problems are highlighted. [Abstracted in Youth Update, 14; No.2, 1996, J. Shamsie (Ed.), Institute for the Study of Antisocial Behaviour in Youth (IAY), Canada]
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Stanton, W.R., Currie, G.D., Oei, T.P.S., Silva, P.A. | 1996

A developmental approach to influences on adolescents' smoking and quitting

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1996, 17(17), 307-319.
Our ref: RO271

Show abstract » Research in the area of adolescent smoking has shown strong support for the social influence role of friends and to some extent the influence of parents. The aim of this study was to determine if a developmental model designed for smoking education and prevention could be suitably applied to the influences on smoking and nonsmoking behavior. This study followed the smoking behavior of a sample of 937 New Zealand adolescents from 15 to 18 years old in order to determine if the sources of social influence changed over time and if they were different for smoking and quitting behavior. The results indicated that peer influence declined in late adolescence. Unadjusted for earlier smoking status, the predictors of adolescents' smoking status at 18 years old were (a) close friend smoked; (b) girlfriend, boyfriend, or spouse smoked; and (c) the majority of people they mix with daily were smokers. However, when the change in smoking between 15 and 18 years old was examined, the influence of a close friend who is a smoker was less evident. The influence of a celebrity also increased in late adolescence. The results of this study are discussed with reference to future research and smoking education and prevention programs.
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Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Thornton, A., Freedman, D., Amell, J.W., Harrington, H. L., Smeijers, J., Silva, P.A. | 1996

The Life History Calendar: A research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data

International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 1996, 6(6), 101-114.
Our ref: RO269

Show abstract » This article describes the Life History Calendar (LHC), a data-collection method for obtaining reliable retrospective data about life events and activities. The LHC method was developed in the context of longitudinal research to record central events that can occur in a respondent's life. The LHC can be used as both a research and a clinical assessment method. As a research instrument, the LHC can be used to collect detailed event-history data for analyzing life-course dynamics. As a clinical instrument, the LHC can be used both as an assessment tool and as a therapeutic guide. In this article, we explain the need for a LHC when studying life-course dynamics; describe the advantages of the LHC method; present data about the validity of the LHC; describe research and clinical uses of the LHC; and discuss the design of the LHC and offer suggestions about how to tailor LHC's for unique research and clinical purposes.
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Krueger, R.F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R. | 1996

Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multi-trait/multi-diagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1996, 105(105), 299-312.
Our ref: RO268

Show abstract » The authors assessed the relation between personality and mental disorder in a representative birth cohort of 897 men and women. Personality was assessed at age 18 with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1982), and 4 types of mental disorder (affective, anxiety, substance dependence, and conduct disorder) were assessed at ages 15, 18, and 21, using age-appropriate standardized diagnostic interviews. All disorder groups had MPQ profiles that were very different from those of controls. When comorbid cases were excluded, fewer significant differences between diagnosed cases and controls remained. Relations between personality and mental disorder were not affected by the measurement of disorder as continuous versus discrete, gender, or the age at which disorder was diagnosed. Relations between personality and mental disorders appear to be robust, and individual personality differences may be particularly relevant to understanding the most severe (comorbid) expressions of psychopathology.
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Newman, D.L., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P.A., Stanton, W.R. | 1996

Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance and new case incidence from age 11 to 21

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1996, 64(64), 552-562.
Our ref: RO267

Show abstract » Mental health data were gathered at ages 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21 in an epidemiological sample using standardized diagnostic assessments. Prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. revised; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) mental disorders increased longitudinally from late childhood (18%) through mid- (22%) to late-adolescence (41%)and young adulthood (40%). Nearly half of age-21 cases had comorbid diagnoses; and comorbidity was associated with severity of impairment. The incidence of cases with adult onset was only 10.6%: 73.8% of adults diagnosed at age 21 had a developmental history of mental disorder. Relative to new cases, those with developmental histories were more severely impaired and more likely to have comorbid diagnoses. The high prevalence rate and significant impairment associated with a diagnosis of mental disorder suggests that treatment resources need to target the young adult sector of the population. The low new-case incidence in young adulthood, however, suggests that primary prevention and etiological research efforts need to target children and adolescents.
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Henry, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1996

Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and non-violent criminal convictions: from age 3 to age 18.

Developmental Psychology, 1996, 32(32), 614-623.
Our ref: RO265

Show abstract » This study examined the relations between family characteristics, childhood temperament, and convictions for violent and nonviolent offenses at age 18 in a representative birth cohort of men who are part of a longitudinal study. Three groups of men were identified on the basis of their conviction status at age 18: Participants who had never been convicted (n = 404), participants who had been convicted for nonviolent offenses only (n = 50),and participants who had been convicted for violent offenses (n = 21). Multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses indicated that family factors were associated with both types of conviction outcomes, whereas childhood temperament was associated primarily with convictions for violent offenses. The potentially distinct roles of social- and self-regulation in the development of antisocial behavior are discussed.
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Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1996

The (artefactual) remission of reading difficulties: Psychometric lessons in the study of stability and change in behavioral development

Developmental Psychology, 1996, 32(32), 132-140.
Our ref: RO250

Show abstract » Patterns of reading disability were examined in 2 longitudinal studies. The major findings were (a) that on the basis of the observed data, remission of reading disability was relatively common with up to 37% of reading-disabled children showing remission of this disability within a 2-year period, and (b) when the data were analyzed with a latent Markov model that took account of measurement errors in test scores, the estimated true rate of remission of reading disability was between 15% and 19% over a 2-year period. The presence of measurement error in reading disability classifications may lead to an inflated and misleading impression of the rate of remission of these problems. General implications of these findings for interpreting patterns of stability and change in longitudinal-developmental data were discussed.
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Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J. | 1995

The New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System: teenagers' attitudes towards and experiences with this car driver licensing system

Injury Prevention, 1995, 1(1), 177-181.
Our ref: RO273

Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: This study examined the attitudes of teenagers towards the New Zealand graduated driver licensing system (GDLS), and the extent to which it affected them. METHOD: Teenagers, who are members of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, were interviewed at 15 years of age when the GDLS was first introduced and before they had begun licensure, and again at 18 years of age after they had experience with this licensing system. RESULTS: At both ages the majority (over 70%) agreed with the driving restrictions imposed by this system. After experience with the restrictions, however, significantly more reported being affected a lot by them, than had expected to be at age 15. This was especially true of the restrictions on the carrying of passengers and the night time curfew (10 pm - 5 am). However, few reported that they were affected by the alcohol restriction. Sixty eight per cent of those with a graduated licence reported breaking at least one of the conditions, most frequently carrying passengers. Very few were penalised by the police for this. CONCLUSIONS: Generally these young drivers were positively disposed towards the driving restrictions, but noncompliance was common. A full evaluation of all aspects of this licensing system is recommended.
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Caspi, A., Begg, D.J., Dickson, N., Langley, J.D., Moffitt, T.E., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Identification of personality types at risk for poor health and injury in late adolescence

Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 1995, 5(5), 330-350.
Our ref: RO270

Show abstract » In an unselected general birth cohort of 862 18-year-olds, we sought to identify the personality characteristics associated with involvement in each of five different health-risk behaviours (unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners, dangerous driving habits, violent crime, alcohol dependence and marijuana dependence) as well as the personality characteristics associated with a syndrome of multiple health-risk behaviours. A unique configuration of traits differentiated youth involved in any given single health-risk behaviour from youth who were not. These youth were more impulsive, aggressive, alienated and tended to experience negative emotions in response to daily hassles. A different unique configuration of traits differentiated youth involved in a syndrome of multiple health-risk behaviours from youth involved in a single or in no health-risk behaviours. These youth were distinguished by a rejection of social norms, danger-seeking, impulsivity, a very low threshhold for negative emotional responses such as anger, irritability und nervous tension, and by little need or capacity for connection to other people. In planning health campaigns, health professionals need to consider the unique psychological make-up of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviours and design programmes that will appeal to them.
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Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, J.D. | 1995

Young on-road motorcyclists in New Zealand: age of licensure, unlicensed riding and motorcycle borrowing

Injury Prevention, 1995, 1(1), 103-108..
Our ref: RO266

Show abstract » OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of unlicensed riding and motorcycle borrowing among young motorcyclists, and to document their perceptions of how they would be affected if the minimum age of licensure were raised. METHODS: Motorcycling was investigated as part of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a broad longitudinal study of the health, development, attitudes, and behaviours of a birth cohort. Young motorcyclists, who had ridden on-road during the year before their interview at age 18 years, completed a computer administered questionnaire containing questions about licensure, riding frequency, and motorcycle borrowing. RESULTS: Of the 217 motorcyclists identified, 36% were licensed, 54% had ridden once a month or less frequently, and 72% had usually ridden a borrowed motorcycle during the one year recall period. Significantly more licensed than unlicensed riders and owners than borrowers reported higher exposure and significantly more licensed than unlicensed riders were owners. Most licensed riders (86%) had ridden on public roads before licensure, and many (54%) thought that they would have been much affected by a higher minimum age of licensure. CONCLUSIONS: More stringent enforcement of existing licensing regulations, tougher penalties for breaching graduated driver licensing restrictions, raising the minimum age for motorcycle licensure, and prohibiting the sale or lending of motorcycles to unlicensed riders are possible injury prevention strategies.
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Burrows, B., Sears, M.R., Flannery E.M., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Relation of the course of bronchial responsiveness from age 9 to age 15 to allergy

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1995, 152(152), 1302-1308.
Our ref: RO264

Show abstract » Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was measured in a birth cohort of New Zealand children at ages 9, 11, 13, and 15. Overall bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) decreased with age. While the response at age 9 was significantly related to responsiveness, symptom severity, and low lung function at age 15, these relationships were much closer when bronchial response levels after age 9 were taken into account. Also, among children who were unresponsive to methacholine at age 15, those with previous BHR had more frequent wheeze and lower lung function than those whose previous tests were ail unresponsive. Both the overall tendency to BHR and the tendency to retain BHR were closely related to high serum IgE levels (determined at age 11) and to positive allergy skin tests (determined at age 13). These evidences of allergy, closely related to the severity and course of methacholine response, appeared to be important determinants of the frequency of wheeze and the degree of impairment of lung function at the end of follow-up. In view of the variability in BHR, a single estimate of bronchial responsiveness taken at an arbitrary point in time may not be an accurate index of the overall tendency to BHR.
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St George, I.M., Williams, S.M., Macfarlane, D.J., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Predicting resting blood pressure at 18 years: the Dunedin Study

Journal of Adolescent Health, 1995, 17(17), 133-139.
Our ref: RO263

Show abstract » Purpose: To examine the value of repeated blood pressure screening during childhood, and exercise testing in adolescence, for predicting resting blood pressure at eighteen years. Method: Regular measures of blood pressure and other variables in a birth cohort from 7 to 18 years. Cardiovascular responses to exercise testing at 15 and 18 years. Results: The best predictors of resting blood pressure at 18 years were body size at 18 years and resting blood pressure at 15 years. Neither exercise and recovery blood pressures at 15 years, nor the way blood pressure had tracked through childhood, added importantly to the prediction. Conclusions: We question the value of screening for hypertension during childhood, either by regular resting measures or by exercise testing in adolescence.
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Pryor, J., Silva, P.A., Brooke, M. | 1995

Growth, development and behaviour in adolescents born small-for-gestational age

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1995, 31(31), 151-157.
Our ref: RO262

Show abstract » Objective: To examine the effects on adolescents of being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Methodology: The sample are members of a cohort longitudinal study in which growth, cognitive development and behaviour are being studied into adulthood. Ninety-one SGA subjects were available for comparison with the rest of the sample (n = 1037) on measures of height, weight, head circumference, cognitive performance and behavioural variables to the age of 18 years old. Results: SGA subjects were shorter and lighter at 18 years of age than their appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) counterparts despite age of onset of menarche being the same in both groups. At age 13, SGA subjects scored significantly lower than the AGA group on the WISC-R scales. They were rated by parents as having more behaviour problems at age of 15. Conclusions: SGA birth appears to be a potential problem which extends beyond childhood in its effects on growth, behaviour and cognitive performance.
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Stanton, W.R. | 1995

DSM-III-R tobacco dependence and quitting during late adolescence

Addictive Behaviors, 1995, 20(20), 595-603.
Our ref: RO261

Show abstract » Previous studies of tobacco dependence have tended not to examine adolescent samples. In a cohort of 18-year-olds, the 12-month prevalence rate of dependence based on DSM-III-R criteria was found to be 19.3%. Cotinine levels in saliva were positively related to level of cigarette consumption but not to tobacco dependence and may not be a suitable measure of dependence. Measures of behavioral and psychological aspects of smoking supported the utility of DSM-III-R criteria for tobacco dependence among young smokers. As a large number of young smokers are dependent on tobacco, the results support the development of treatment programmes for youth that take into consideration their degree of dependence.
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Douglass, H.M., Moffitt, T.E., Dar, R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in a birth cohort of 18 year olds: Prevalence and predictors

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995, 34(34), 1424-1431.
Our ref: RO260

Show abstract » Objective: To report descriptive epidemiological information on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in an unselected birth cohort of 930 males and females, aged 18 years. Method: An epidemiological study of the prevalence of self-reported OCD at age 18, and a longitudinal analysis of the prospective predictors of OCD. Results: Using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the authors found a I-year prevalence rate of 4%, with a male-female ratio of 0.7:1. The majority of OCD cases met criteria for a comorbid disorder, most commonly depression (62%), social phobia (38%), and substance dependence (alcohol 24%, marijuana 19%). Conclusions: Data collected on the sample from birth to age 18 years indicated that many childhood risk factors theorized in the literature did not predict OCD in this sample. However, a history of depression and substance use were prospective risk factors for OCD.
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Dixon, G., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Langley, J.D., Murdoch, J.C. | 1995

Disability in late adolescence III: Utilisation of health services

Disability and Rehabilitation, 1995, 17(17), 225-230.
Our ref: RO259

Show abstract » Adolescent health service usage is a neglected research area. Data are important for planning of services and for prioritizing needs. A sample of 871 18-year-olds was surveyed about its use of health services in the preceding year. A significant proportion had made a consultation and were mostly satisfied with the service received. For a subsample of that cohort, who had a difficulty in their daily living, only a third had consulted a health professional for that difficulty over the past year. Help-seeking was related to the severity of that difficulty, particularly for the limitations that it imposed on everyday life. Some dissatisfactions with consultations were expressed in relation to expectations of the efficacy of treatment and to the communication of the health professionals.
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Stanton, W.R., Lowe, J.B., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Antecedents of vulnerability and resilience to smoking among adolescents

Journal of Adolescent Health, 1995, 16(16), 71-77.
Our ref: RO257

Show abstract » Purpose: Studies of adolescent smoking have concentrated on factors that are associated with smoking (vulnerability), but have tended not to examine whether these factors also describe adolescents who have been at risk of becoming smokers but have not succumbed, for example, to the social pressure of having friends who smoke (resilience). Methods: Results from a longitudinal study were used to examine the predictors of resilience to social influence from among a selected group of factors associated with adolescent smoking. Results: Among those with no recent history of smoking, the predictor variables for vulnerability and resilience were different across age. However, for adolescents who had a recent history of smoking there were no predictors of continued smoking or of stopping, apart from whether or not a friend smoked. Conclusions: Resilience factors against smoking show the characteristics of those who have successfully resisted the social influence to smoke. Identification of further predictors of resilience would help in the development of intervention programs and should include a reexamination of factors not usually correlated with smoking status.
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Feehan, M., McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Nada-Raja, S. | 1995

Models of adolescent psychopathology: childhood risk and the transition to adulthood

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995, 34(34), 670-679.
Our ref: RO256

Show abstract » Objective: To examine the relationship between DSM-III disorder in adolescence (age 15 years) and DSM-III disorder in early adulthood (age 18 years), in relation to a history of behavior problems or disorder, other family and individual characteristics, and events commonly associated with the transition to adulthood. Method: The sample came from a New Zealand birth cohort selected from the general population. Data were obtained from ages 3 to 18 years for 890 of those enrolled. Results: For both males and females, disorder at age 15 was strongly predicted by histories of early mental health problems. However, neither those histories, background characteristics, nor the experience of adolescent transition events modified the strength of association between disorder at ages 15 and 18 years. In childhood, after adjusting for histories of behavior problems, parental separations and (for boys) poor social competence remained independent predictors of disorder at age 15. Overall, boys appeared more vulnerable and those from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in early childhood had an elevated risk of disorder at age 18. After adjusting for disorder at age 15, adolescent unemployment remained an independent predictor of disorder at age 18 for both males and females. Conclusions: This study modeled the continuity of disorder across the adolescent transition period and, after taking earlier disorder into account, identified clear predictors of later disorder. This is the first step in the process of developing more effective interventions to reduce the risk of mental health disorders.
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Burrows, B., Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D. | 1995

Relation of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to allergy skin test reactivity, lung function, respiratory symptoms and diagnoses in thirteen year old New Zealand children

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1995, 95(95), 548-556.
Our ref: RO253

Show abstract » Background: Many factors have been found to relate univariately to bronchial responsiveness (BR), but their independent relationships are often unclear because many are interrelated Objective: The purpose of this study was to present a multivariate analysis of the closeness of the association of various factors that are related univariately to BR, including allergy skin tests. Methods: The results of methacholine challenge were transformed into a continuous variable (BRindex), which has a nearly Gaussian distribution. With stepwise multiple regression, the closeness of the association of the independent variables with BRindex was evaluated. Results: Of the 11 skin tests applied, four showed independent relationships to BRindex (mite, cat, dog, and Aspergillus species). The sizes of these skin test reactions were correlated with BRindex, and their sum appeared to maximize the overall correlation of allergy skin tests with BRindex (r = 0.516). The lowness of the ratio of forced expiratory volume in I second to vital capacity and of percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second added significantly to the skin tests in correlating with BRindex, (multiple r = 0.621). Adding diagnoses and symptoms increased the multiple r to 0.685. Conclusions: The size of the reactions to the four skin tests noted above showed much closet correlations with BR than total serum IgE had shown at age 11, and the relationship was present in asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects.
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Sears, M.R. | 1995

Risk factors for airway responsiveness in childhood asthma

Pediatric Pulmonology, 1995, 11(11), 42-43.
Our ref: RO252

Show abstract » This brief article provides an overview and discussion of some of the risk factors for asthma in the Dunedin Study over the years. It provides commentary on the significance of a wide range of factors that have to found to be associated with increased airway hyperresponsiveness or asthma.
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Caspi, A., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Temperamental qualities at age 3 predict personality traits in young adulthood: Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort

Child Development, 1995, 66(66), 486-498.
Our ref: RO248

Show abstract » In an unselected sample of over 800 subjects we studied whether behavioral styles at age 3 are linked to personality traits at age 18. We identified 5 temperament groups (labeled Undercontrolled, Inhibited, Confident, Reserved, and Well-adjusted) based on behavioral ratings made by examiners when the children were 3. These groups were reassessed at 18, and their personality styles were measured with the self-report Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. Results pointed to continuities across time. As young adults, Undercontrolled children scored high on measures of impulsivity, danger seeking, aggression, and interpersonal alienation; Inhibited children scored low on measures of impulsivity, danger seeking, aggression, and social potency; Confident children scored high on impulsivity; Reserved children scored low on social potency; and Well-adjusted children continued to exhibit normative behaviors.
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Stanton, W.R., Nada-Raja, S., Langley, J.D. | 1995

Stability in the structure of health locus of control among adolescents

British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1995, 34(34), 132-140.
Our ref: RO247

Show abstract » The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales have been widely used as a measure of health beliefs in adult populations. In a longitudinal study of an adolescent cohort, we examined some of the properties of the MHLC; whether there are changes in the locus of beliefs between the ages of 13 and 15 years; and the extent of gender differences at the two ages. The results provided some degree of support for the previously proposed structure of the MHLC, but showed correlations among the subscales that were higher than might be expected, and lower alpha reliability coefficients than have been reported for adult samples. There was also evidence of downward changes in scores for the 'chance' and 'powerful others' scales, as well as differences in the factor structures of females and males at age 15 years. In contrast to the structure of health beliefs found with some adult samples, 'chance' is a prominent, independent dimension of beliefs about control of health among adolescents. The independence of the 'internal control' and 'powerful others' scales seem to be a function of both age and gender. As health behaviours are multidetermined, it is concluded that the MHLC measure would be useful as part of an index of health status.
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Stanton, W.R., Langley, J.D., McGee, R. | 1995

Disability in late adolescence II: Follow-up of perceived limitation

Disability and Rehabilitation, 1995, 17(17), 70-75.
Our ref: RO244

Show abstract » The disabilities experienced by a large cohort of 18-year-olds have been reported in the previous paper of this series. In this paper, we present the results of a detailed examination of the extent to which the disabilities caused limitation in the everyday activities of this group of young people. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the members of the sample reported having one or more difficulties in performing activities in their daily lives, though the extent of limitation on their activities was low for most adolescents. Of this group who reported any type of disablement, 23% indicated it imposed very little general limitation on their lives (on a five point scale) and 6% rated it at the highest degree of limitation. Approximately half those with a disability felt the condition was improving, but 28% required an aid or help from another person. From 8% to 11% of those with a disability rated it as serious in relation to aspects of their daily living (education, leisure, social and work) and about half of those with a serious degree of limitation had sought help. The most common disabilities related to behaviour, communication and situations, for example environmental factors. As part of an ongoing study, the results provide a base from which to examine the extent and severity of disability among young people and change in disability as a result of the ageing process.
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Poulton, R., Moffitt, T.E. | 1995

The Rey Osterreith Complex Figure Test: Norms for young adolescents and an examination of validity

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1995, 10(10), 47-56.
Our ref: RO240

Show abstract » Although recent studies have investigated theoretically relevant aspects of performance and psychometric properties of the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), there is no documentation of the instrument's construct and predictive validity in an unselected, nonclinical population. This is necessary because knowledge of base rates of poor performance in the general population is required to evaluate the significance of performance deficits in clinical populations. The ROCFT was administered to 740 children aged 13 years who are members of an unselected birth cohort, representative of the general population. Normative findings are presented. Correlational analysis indicated that performance on the ROCFT was closely related to performance on the Block Design and Object Assembly subtests of the WISC-R. The first documentation was obtained of the ROCFT's predictive validity. Subjects in an unselected nonclinical sample who had a history of central nervous system health problems scored below the rest of the sample. Implications for the continued use of this instrument are discussed.
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Le Souef, P.N., Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R. | 1995

Size dependence of airway responsiveness in children

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1995, 152(152), 576-579.
Our ref: RO225

Show abstract » Methodologies used to assess airway responsiveness (AR) in children administer the same dosage schedule to all children despite the great range in the size of subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the level of AR is size dependent within same-age cohorts and between different ages. Among a birth cohort of 1,037 New Zealand children participating in a longitudinal study, 818 had at least two measurements of airway responsiveness between ages 9 and 15 yr. Each child performed spirometry and a four-dose methacholine inhalation test. A continuous slope index of methacholine responsiveness was computed. AR slope indexes were analyzed using longitudinal methods, which included an indicator variable for subjects who reported having any wheeze. AR was lowest in both males and females in the upper quartile for height than those in the lower quartile, independently of age. AR tended to be higher (responded to lower concentrations of methacholine) in boys than girls and to decline with age among wheezers. The greater level of responsiveness in smaller or younger children could be explained by these individuals having received a dose of methacholine that was relatively large for their size.
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Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1995

Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age 3 to age 15. [Abstracted in 1996 Year Book of Psychiatry & Applied Mental Health, Mosby - Year Book, Inc.]

Child Development, 1995, 66(66), 55-68.
Our ref: RO212

Show abstract » We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11, and by parents at ages 13 and 15. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems; Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys; and Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. These results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of later psychopathology.
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Langley, J.D., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Murdoch, J.C. | 1995

Disability in late adolescence I: Introduction, methods and overview

Disability and Rehabilitation, 1995, 17(17), 45-52.
Our ref: RO210

Show abstract » The research sought to describe the nature and severity of disability and its impact in a large sample of 18-year-olds. It was conducted as part of a larger longitudinal study of the health and development of a cohort of approximately 1000 children. This paper presents an overview of the methods used together with the results on the prevalence of specific disabilities. The three leading disabilities were: coping with dust, pollens, or chemicals (rate: 272 per 1000), equipment dependence (186), and disability in endurance (160).
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Reeder, A.I., Feehan, M., Chalmers, D.J., Silva, P.A. | 1994

Socio-economic characteristics of a much studied cohort: the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1994, 29(29), 209-213.
Our ref: NZ69

Show abstract » This paper summarises the results of socioeconomic comparisons made between the parents of 15-year-old children enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) and the population of New Zealand parents with children of similar age identified from the 1986 Census database. DMHDS parents were significantly advantaged in terms of education, income, occupation, and overall socioeconomic status. Prevalence estimates of characteristics associated with socioeconomic factors reported by the DMHDS are likely to be conservative. Nevertheless, the full socioeconomic spectrum of parents was represented, therefore, the identification of socioeconomic risk factors for particular outcomes can be achieved within the structure of the DMHDS cohort itself.
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McGee, R., Stanton, W.R. | 1994

Smoking in pregnancy and child development to age 9 years

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1994, 30(30), 263-268.
Our ref: RO258

Show abstract » This study examined the association between women's retrospective reports of smoking during pregnancy and subsequent language, cognitive, behavioural and physical development in their children up to age 9 years. While there was a strong association between maternal smoking and an index of disadvantageous child rearing, maternal smoking was not associated with more general family disadvantage. After controlling for levels of background disadvantage, no relationship was found between reports of smoking and language, cognitive or physical development. However, smoking was related to maternal reports of behaviour problems at age of school entry. Possible explanations for this relationship are discussed.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B. | 1994

Changes in airway responsiveness from age 9 to 15: relationship with atopy, symptoms and lung function [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1994, 194(194), A912.
Our ref: RO255

Show abstract » Abstract of study described in RO264 on rrlation of the course of bronchial responsiveness from age 9 to age 15 to allergy.
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Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D., Jones, D.T. | 1994

Sheepskins and bedding in childhood, and development of bronchial asthma [Abstract]

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1994, 93(93), 176.
Our ref: RO254

Show abstract » This abstract showed that there were no associations between the use of any type of bedding and the development of asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness or atopy. Use of a sheepskin in the bed in early childhood was not a risk factor for the development of asthma. [See RO251 for a full description of this study.]
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