Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below. Other publications will be uploaded shortly.

Displaying page 17 of 20.

Williams, S.M., Sanderson, G.F., Share, D.L., Silva, P.A. | 1988

Refractive error, IQ and reading ability: A longitudinal study from age 7 to 11

Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1988, 30(30), 735-742.
Our ref: RO105

Show abstract » Children from a population sample whose cycloplegic refractive errors included myopia, pre-myopia and hypermetropia were compared on measures of IQ and reading with a group of children without significance refractive errors. At age 11 both those with myopia and with pre-myopia had increased verbal and performance IQ, while those with hypermetropia had slightly reduced verbal and performance IQ, in comparison with the children without refractive errors. The differences in verbal IQ were not attributable simply to earlier differences, but the differences in performance IQ were attributable to earlier differences. No significant differences in reading scores were found at either age. It is concluded that differing abilities of myopic and other children at age 11 are not fully explained by differences in family background or in pre-existing ability.
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Share, D.L., McGee R., Silva, P.A. | 1988

IQ and reading progress: A test of the capacity notion of IQ

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1988, 28(28), 97-100.
Our ref: RO103

Show abstract » Concepts such as developmental reading disorder and dyslexia have been used to refer to children whose actual reading achievement is substantially below that predicted by performance on IQ tests. Such diagnostic concepts assume that IQ sets a limit on either the level of achievement or the rate of progress of which a child is capable. This assumption was investigated in a longitudinal study of an unselected cohort of 741 children whose reading achievement was assessed at ages 7, 9, 11, and 13 years. Findings on rates of progress and levels of achievement clearly indicate that IQ does not set a limit on reading progress, even in extreme low IQ children. Thus, the use of IQ tests to determine achievement potential in reading appears unwarranted.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1988

Psychological factors in unintentional childhood injuries: results from a longitudinal study

Journal of Safety Research, 1988, 18(18), 73-89.
Our ref: RO101

Show abstract » Relationships between several family, behavioural and developmental factors and injuries in mid-childhood were investigated. The results showed that none of the variables studied had a significant association with the number of injuries the child had received. There were, however, significant sex differences with boys experiencing more injuries than girls.
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Silva, P.A., Hughes, P., Williams, S.M., Faed, J.A. | 1988

Blood lead, intelligence, reading attainment and behaviour problems in eleven-year-old children in Dunedin, New Zealand

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1988, 29(29), 43-53.
Our ref: RO100

Show abstract » A study of blood lead levels and intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems was carried out using a sample of 579 Dunedin 11-yr-old children. The results suggested that when account was taken of social, environmental, and background factors, raised blood lead is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in children's general behaviour problems as reported by both parents and teachers. These results applied especially to the more specific problems of inattention and hyperactivity.
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Flett, R., Casswell, S., Brasch, P.E., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Alcohol knowledge and experience in children aged 9 and 11

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1987, 100(100), 747-749.
Our ref: NZ53

Show abstract » This paper describes alcohol knowledge and experience in 9 and 11 year old children.
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Silva, P.A., Sears, M.R., Jones, D.T., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Williams, S.M. | 1987

Some family social background, developmental and behavioural characteristics of nine year old children with asthma

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1987, 100(100), 318-320.
Our ref: NZ50

Show abstract » Children with moderate and severe, mild, and trivial asthma were compared with a group of children who did not have asthma on a range of measures including family social background (socioeconomic status, family adversity, family environment), intelligence, reading, spelling, and behaviour. None of the background measures significantly differentiated among the groups. The group of children with moderate and severe asthma was found to have a significantly lower mean score for verbal intelligence, full scale intelligence, and spelling than those with mild asthma, but did not differ significantly from the remainder of the sample. Children with mild asthma were found to have slightly higher reading scores.
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Yunus, N.N.N., Brown, R.H., Herbison, G.P. | 1987

Gingival condition and oral hygiene in 12 year old Dunedin children

New Zealand Dental Journal, 1987, 83(83), 4-7.
Our ref: NZ48

Show abstract » Although there is a considerable amount of data available on dental caries in New Zealand children, little information exists on gingival conditions. The only Source of data on normal children is from the lnternational Collaborative Study of Dental Manpower Systems which included children aged 8-9 years in the 1973 study in Canterbury). Other data are available on mentally retarded children.This report describes the findings on oral hygiene, gingival health, and periodontal treatment needs in 12-year-old Dunedin children. Two periodontal indices were used in the survey - the Community Periodontal lndex of Treatment Needs (CPlTN)4, and the Gingival lndex which allows a more detailed assessment of gingival health and the intra-oral distribution of gingival inflammation.
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Parnicky, J.J., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Mothers' characteristics, perceptions of family environments and sustained socio-economic status

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1987, 22(22), 121-124.
Our ref: NZ47

Show abstract » This paper describes some characteristics of mothers grouped according to sustained socio-economic status level. Characteristics studied included age, tertiary education, general verbal ability, reading, personality, family size, working and results from the Family Environment Scale.
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Suckling, G.W., Brown, R.H., Herbison, G.P. | 1987

Etiological factors influencing the prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel [Abstract]

New Zealand Dental Journal, 1987, 83(83), 16.
Our ref: NZ46

Show abstract » See RO104 for a full report of the data summarised in this abstract. Over 1000 children, participating in a longitudinal study of health and development, possess documented medical histories based on birth records and regular assessments starting at age 3. A dental examination at age 5 of 923 participants recorded their exposure to fluoride and evidence of trauma to the deciduous teeth. The prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in 696 of the children when aged 9 was reported as 56% (Suckling et al., 1985). For the present study, a number of illnesses, accidents, and other experiences were selected from the recorded information as possible etiological factors for any defect, demarcated and diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia. Despite extensive statistical testing, positive and strong associations were few. The prevalence of hypoplasia, seen in 15% of the sample, was higher in those children who had chicken pox before age 3 and, as reported previously, in those children with a history of trauma to their deciduous incisors. This study illustrates the difficulty of establishing the etiology of enamel defects, even when medical and dental histories are available.
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Langley, J.D. | 1987

The Injury Task Force

Community Health Studies, 1987, 10(10), 407-410.
Our ref: RO96

Show abstract » Critically reviews the Australian Injury Task Force report.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1987

A comparison of girls and boys with teacher-identified problems of attention

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1987, 26(26), 711-717.
Our ref: RO95

Show abstract » The backgrounds and behavioural and developmental characteristics of inattentive boys and girls (defined with reference to separate boys and girls distributions) were examined. The findings indicated that problems relating to inattention were equally prevalent in both sexes and the associated cognitive features were also similar.
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McKenzie-Parnell, J.M., Thomson, C.D. | 1987

Zinc, copper, selenium and glutathione peroxidaze in blood of 11-year-old Dunedin, New Zealand, children

Biological Trace Element Research, 1987, 14(14), 53-63.
Our ref: RO94

Show abstract » Blood was obtained from 564 11-yr-old children who had participated since birth in a multidisciplinary health and development study. Serum zinc concentration did not differ between the boys and the girls (mean _+ SD: 91 + 17 µg/100 mL, n = 453). Five-6% of serum zinc values were low; although there was a weak correlation with height, none of the boys with low values were below the 10th percentile for height for this group. Serum copper concentration (112 _+ 24 µg/100 mL, n = 454) was unrelated to sex, height, weight, body mass index, socioeconomic status (SES), or iron status. Blood selenium concentration (49 + 10 ng/mL, n = 564) was lower than previously reported for Dunedin children; it was higher in children in the lower SES categories. The data represent normal values for healthy, 11-yr-old NZ children.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1987

Lack of bias from missing cases: Results from a psychosocial study of unintentional childhood injury

Journal of Safety Research, 1987, 18(18), 27-32.
Our ref: RO93

Show abstract » This study examined the characteristics of children for whom there was missing injury history data compared with those with complete data. With two minor exceptions, the groups did not differ in psychosocial characteristics. This finding was in marked contrast to the findings of other studies.
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Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1987

WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an unselected cohort: clinical significance and longitudinal stability

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1987, 55(55), 768-774.
Our ref: RO92

Show abstract » This study examined some characteristics of children with verbal-performance IQ discrepancies. The results suggested that verbal- performance discrepancies in IQ are of doubtful diagnostic value given the differential base rates of brain disorder and verbal-performance discrepancy in the population.
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Share, D.L., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Language deficits and reading retardation: cause or effect

European (fmr Br) Journal of Disorders of Communication, 1987, 22(22), 219-226.
Our ref: RO91

Show abstract » This paper examined the language development of boys divided into three groups - reading disabled at ages 9 and 11, non-reading disabled at ages 9 and 11 but matched in language scores at age 3 and the remainder of the boys. The results showed a significant decline in language skills of the reading disabled group between ages 3 and 11. This was consistent with the view that general language deficits in this group may be partly the consequence of their reading difficulties.
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Jones, D.T., Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Childhood asthma in New Zealand

British Journal of Diseases of the Chest, 1987, 81(81), 332-340.
Our ref: RO90

Show abstract » To determine the prevalence and severity of childhood asthma in New Zealand we studied 815 children from a birth cohort by questionnaire, clinical examination and pulmonary physiological measurements at age 9 years. More than 19% of the sample had experienced wheezing in the previous year, and 11% had wheezed in the month before assessment. In all, 220 of 815 children (27.1%) had had wheezing episodes by age 9; in 34 (4.2%) episodes had been of sufficient frequency to warrant regular anti-asthma treatment. Only 32% of all wheezing children were reported by their parents to suffer from asthma, and, in groups matched for frequency of symptoms, treatment given for wheezing was influenced strongly by whether or not the label of 'asthma' had been given. The detailed history provided most information useful in diagnosing asthma; clinical examination, peak flow records, spirometry and bronchial provocation testing provided only limited additional information. A wide spectrum of frequency and severity of recurrent wheezing disorders was evident in New Zealand children. Throughout all degrees of severity, prevalence rates appeared higher than those reported in studies from the United Kingdom.
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Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M., McGee, R. | 1987

A longitudinal study of children with developmental language delay at age three: Intelligence, reading, and behaviour problems at ages seven, nine and eleven

Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1987, 29(29), 630-640.
Our ref: RO89

Show abstract » A large sample of Dunedin (New Zealand) children were assessed at age three to identify those with language delay. 2.6 per cent were defined as delayed in verbal comprehension only, 2.3 per cent as delayed in verbal expression only, and 2.3 per cent as delayed in both ('general language delay'). Most of these children, and the remainder of the sample, were assessed for intelligence, reading and behaviour problems at ages seven, nine and 11. Those in every language-delay group had significantly lower mean IQs and lower mean reading scores than the remainder of the sample. They also more often had a low IQ or a lower reading score at ages seven and nine and a lower Verbal and Full-scale IQ at 11. The groups with delayed verbal comprehension and general language delay had significantly more behaviour problems than the remainder of the sample. The group with general language delay was consistently the most disadvantaged in later intelligence, reading and behaviour. Two of the language-delay groups (comprehension and general language) had significantly higher scores on a family disadvantage index. The results of this study confirm the importance of early language delay as a predictor of lower than average intelligence and reading ability and increased behaviour problems.
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Storlein, L.H., Bird, L., Silva, P.A. | 1987

The assessment and stability of obesity during the first seven years of life

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1987, 23(23), 131-135.
Our ref: RO88

Show abstract » Measures of physical development were gathered at birth and at ages 3, 5 and 7 years on a sample of over 800 children as part of a multidisciplinary development study. Direct measures of obesity (skinfolds, visual estimate and calculated fat body mass) were correlated with a range of indices based on height and weight (Eid, Ponderal, Quetelet's or Body Mass Index [BMI] and a modified BMI) to determine a valid and reliable index of obesity. Quetelet's or BMI (weight divided by height squared) was found to be the best index of obesity, correlating between 0.88 and 0.96 with percentage fat body mass at ages 5 and 7 years. The BMI also correlated consistently higher indices with all direct measures of body fat than did the other indices. The results indicate that in children, as in adults, BMI can be used to assess obesity simply. It has several advantages, being easy to collect, non-invasive, objective, and requires no special equipment or highly trained personnel. Finally, the BMI, involving as it does only height and weight, can be used to assess obesity retrospectively in the numerous populations which have records of height and weight.
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McGee R., Williams S.M., Simpson, A., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Stereoscopic vision and motor ability in a large sample of seven year old children

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1987, 13(13), 343-351.
Our ref: RO86

Show abstract » Relationships between results on the TNO test of stereoscopic vision and motor development tests at age 5 and 7 were studied. Those with poor levels of stereoscopic vision were found to gain lower scores on certain tests of motor ability.
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Langley, J.D., Cecchi, J., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Injuries in the tenth and eleventh years of life

Australian Paediatric Journal, 1987, 23(23), 35-39.
Our ref: RO85

Show abstract » From a sample of 803 children, 307 were involved in 413 separate incidents which resulted in injuries requiring medical attention. The most common injuries were lacerations, fractures, abrasions, and sprains. The majority of injuries were of minor severity. The most common incident resulting in an injury was a fall, followed by incidents where a child was struck by a person or object. A fifth of all falls was from bicycles. Sporting and playground equipment were associated with a large number of injuries, particularly at school. The study serves to highlight shortcomings in national injury data bases, in particular the absence of injury severity indices, codes for sports and recreation, and inadequate codes for falls. A case is made for integrating injury prevention within the school syllabus. The importance of bicycle injuries and the need for an injury surveillance based on accident and emergency centres is stressed.
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Share, D.L., Silva, P.A., Adler, C.J. | 1987

Factors associated with reading plus spelling retardation and specific spelling retardation

Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1987, 29(29), 72-84.
Our ref: RO81

Show abstract » Factors associated with reading-plus-spelling retardation and specific spelling retardation were investigated in a large sample of Dunedin children who were studied longitudinally between the ages of three and 11 years. Those with reading-plus-spelling retardation showed poor performance on WISC-R Verbal subtests relative to non-retarded children, but superior performance on Picture Completion and Object Assembly subtests. The group with reading-plus-spelling retardation also had poor speech articulation but no significant language, motor or neurological dysfunction. Their educational attainment in reading, writing and mathematics was consistently poor. Specific spelling retardation was associated with deficits on WISC-R Arithmetic and Coding subtests, teacher ratings of low attentiveness and poor achievement in writing and mathematics. No language, motor or neurological deficits were apparent in this group.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1987

Cycling experiences and knowledge of the road code by nine year olds

Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1987, 19(19), 141-145.
Our ref: RO80

Show abstract » Sex differences in cycling experience and knowledge of the road code were examined in a sample of eight-hundred and fifteen nine-year-old children. The results showed that there were not significant sex differences for those who had ridden on the road or ridden to school in the week preceding the interview. However, males were more likely to have ridden at night. There were no significant sex differences in self reported unsafe acts or in knowledge of various dimensions of the road code. The results show a relatively high level of ignorance of the give-way rules for uncontrolled intersections and a disturbing number of children who reported they had ridden at night without tail or headlights.
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Share, D.L., McGee, R., McKenzie, D., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Further evidence relating to the distinction between specific reading retardation and general reading backwardness

British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1987, 5(5), 35-44.
Our ref: RO79

Show abstract » This paper presented data in support of the view that there should be no distinction between specific reading retardation and general reading backwardness. It argues that under-achievement should be treated as a continuum.
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Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1987

DSM III disorders in preadolescent children: Prevalence in a large sample from the general population

Archives of General Psychiatry, 1987, 44(44), 69-76.
Our ref: RO65

Show abstract » We investigated the prevalence of previous DSM-III disorders in 792 children aged 11 years from the general population and found an overall prevalence of disorder of 17.6% with a sex ratio (boys-girls) of 1.7:1. The most prevalent disorders were attention deficit, oppositional, and separation anxiety disorders, and the least prevalent were depression and social phobia. Conduct disorder, overanxious disorder, and simple phobia had intermediate prevalences. Pervasive disorders, reported by more than one source, had an overall prevalence of 7.3%. Examination of background behavioral data disclosed that children identified at 11 years as having multiple disorders had a history of behavior problems since 5 years of age on parent and teacher reports. Fifty-five percent of the disorders occurred in combination with one or more other disorders, and 45% as a single disorder.
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Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1987

Relationships between airway responsiveness, atopy and childhood asthma; a longitudinal study [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1987, 135(135), A380 .
Our ref: RO123

Show abstract » This paper reported relationships between airway responsive-ness following a methacholine inhalation, wheezing and asthma. The paper concluded that childhood asthma is not always associated with airway hyper-responsiveness, that hyper-responsiveness, if present, is not necessarily constant even if symptoms persist, but that persistent hyper-responsiveness is almost invariably associated with symptomatic asthma.
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Suckling, G.W., Herbison, G.P., Brown, R.H. | 1987

Etiological factors influencing the prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in nine-year-old New Zealand children participating in a health and development study

Journal of Dental Research, 1987, 66(66), 1466-1469.
Our ref: RO104

Show abstract » Over 1000 children, participating in a longitudinal study of health and development, possess documented medical histories based on birth records and regular assessments starting at age 3. A dental examination at age 5 of 923 participants recorded their exposure to fluoride and evidence of trauma to the deciduous teeth. The prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in 696 of the children when aged 9 was reported as 56% (Suckling et al., 1985). For the present study, a number of illnesses, accidents, and other experiences were selected from the recorded information as possible etiological factors for any defect, demarcated and diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia. Despite extensive statistical testing, positive and strong associations were few. The prevalence of hypoplasia, seen in 15% of the sample, was higher in those children who had chicken pox before age 3 and, as reported previously, in those children with a history of trauma to their deciduous incisors. This study illustrates the difficulty of establishing the etiology of enamel defects, even when medical and dental histories are available.
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Langley, J.D. | 1987

Frequency of injury events in New Zealand compared with the distribution of E codes

Methods of Information in Medicine, 1987, 26(26), 89-92.
Our ref: RO102

Show abstract » This paper compares the frequency of injury events resulting in death or hospitalisation in New Zealand in 1982 compared with the distribution of the International Classification of Diseases E-codes. Recommendations are made suggesting how the E-code could be improved to more closely reflect the distribution of injury events and to provide information more relevant to injury prevention.
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Russell, D.G., Isaac, A. | 1986

Patterns of sports participation of Dunedin eleven-year-olds: A descriptive study

New Zealand Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1986, 19(19), 8-10.
Our ref: NZ49

Show abstract » This paper describes 11-year-old boys' and girls' participation in sports and the age they began to play the sports.
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Brown, R.H. | 1986

Dental research in a health and development study

New Zealand Dental Journal, 1986, 82(82), 102-105.
Our ref: NZ45

Show abstract » The discipline of epidemiology includes the study of patterns of disease and the association of disease with demographic, biological, sociological, and behavioural characteristics in a population. Within the discipline there are several distinct research designs which can be applied to determine the nature and extent of disease, to develop hypotheses about causation, and to test such hypotheses through experimentation. Some of the correlates of ill health are not, however, readily amenable to experimental or intervention study. Behind those factors contributing to the causation of disease on the one hand, and the prevention of disease and the promotion of health on the other, are a number of complex determinants which include socio-economic status and the factors contributing to that state, social influences on behaviour of particular groups within society, and personal and family beliefs about self-image and control over one's health'. These are factors which bear directly on life-style or life events, or affect the social structure of a community or nation, and are thus difficult to manipulate experimentally. In such circumstances, the cohort study can be of particular value for studying the influence of these variables on the prevalence and incidence of a wide variety of parameters. By following a group of subjects over a long period, it is possible to study the subjects in considerable depth, to examine associations, and to test hypotheses in a prospective manner. Cohort studies involving dental health are not common. Even more uncommon in dentistry are cohort studies of a multidisciplinary nature in which data from a variety of sources can be applied to problems in dental health or dental care. The Nymegen Growth Study, in which the dental input has been largely but not exclusively centred on craniofacial growth and orthodontic considerations, is a notable example of dental involvement in multidisciplinary longitudinal research. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a further research programme in which dental health has been integrated with an extensive range of investigations of a large cohort.
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McLoughlin, E., Langley, J.D., Laing, R.M. | 1986

Preventing children's burns: Legislation and fabric flammability

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1986, 99(99), 804-807.
Our ref: NZ44

Show abstract » This paper described a study of national figures on hospitalisation for treatment of clothing ignition burns. It also reported a study of children's nightwear and home sewing practices. A number of findings with regard to the prevention of children's burns were reported.
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Silva, P.A., Hughes, P., Faed, J.A. | 1986

Blood Lead Levels in 579 Dunedin Eleven Year Old Children: A report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Unit

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1986, 99(99), 179-183.
Our ref: NZ43

Show abstract » Blood lead levels were determined for 579 eleven year old children. The range of blood lead levels was from 0.19 to 2.41 mumol/l with a geometric mean of 0.49 mumol/l (geometric SD 0.07) and an arithmetic mean of 0.54 mumol/l (arithmetic SD 0.24). Two children had levels above 1.45 mumol/l. There was no significant correlation between blood lead levels and socio-economic status. Ten children with elevated blood lead levels (greater than 1.11 mumol/l) were reassessed and the results from all but one child had returned to a lower level. In nine out of ten of these cases recent inside paint stripping activities had been carried out in the child's home.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Share, D.L., Anderson, J., Silva, P.A. | 1986

The relationship between specific reading retardation, general reading backwardness and behavioural problems in a large sample of Dunedin boys: a longitudinal study from five to eleven years

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1986, 27(27), 597-610.
Our ref: RO83

Show abstract » Parent and teacher reports of behaviour problems were obtained at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11 years for three groups of boys: specific reading retarded (N = 18), general reading backward (N = 22), and those with no severe reading disability (N = 436). At school entry, both groups of reading disabled boys were reported as having more behaviour problems, and the level of problems increased during their early school years. The results suggest that behaviour problems pre-date reading disability, while reading failure further exacerbates the existing problem behaviour.
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McGee, R., Anderson, J., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1986

Cognitive correlates of depressive symptoms in eleven year old children

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1986, 14(14), 517-524.
Our ref: RO82

Show abstract » Self-reports of depressive symptoms were obtained for 792 11-year-old New Zealand children using a structured interview. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology in children is associated with impairment on cognitive tasks. The results did not support this hypothesis. Depression was unrelated to performance on various subscales of the WISC-R, whereas self-reported inattention was associated with poor performance. Depressive symptoms, however, were significantly related to lower self-esteem and a poorer self-perception of scholastic ability.
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Silva, P.A., Chalmers, D.J., Stewart, I.A. | 1986

Some audiological, psychological, educational, and behavioural characteristics of children with bilateral otitis media with effusion: A longitudinal study

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1986, 19(19), 165-169.
Our ref: RO77

Show abstract » This is a longitudinal extension of the study described in RO19. It describes the development from age 3 to 11 of children with bilateral otitis media with effusion at age 5 in terms of intelligence, language development, speech articulation, reading and behaviour problems.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A. | 1986

Swimming experiences and abilities of nine year olds

British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1986, 20(20), 39-41.
Our ref: RO75

Show abstract » As part of a longitudinal study of children, 941 mothers were asked to report on their childrens' swimming experiences and abilities. At age nine, twenty-nine per cent of the children could swim only a few strokes or not at all. A disproportionate number of children who could swim more than a few strokes came from high socio-economic backgrounds, from families where one or more of the parents could swim, and which scored higher on an index of active recreational orientation. There were no significant sex differences in swimming ability. There were 97 incidents reported where a child had been in difficulties while in water and had to be rescued. The importance of collecting data on such incidents is discussed.
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McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1986

Non co-operation of preschoolers [Letter]

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine , 1986, 140(140), 8-9.
Our ref: RO69

Show abstract » Letter in response to Schmitt, 1984 (Am J Dis Child, 138:443-446) describing some of the later characteristics of children who failed to co-operate in a neurological examination conducted when they were three years of age.
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Share, D.L., Silva, P.A. | 1986

The stability and classification of specific reading retardation: a longitudinal study from age seven to eleven

British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1986, 56(56), 32-39.
Our ref: RO67

Show abstract » SUMMARY: The concept of specific reading retardation assumes that there exists a stable group of under-achieving children whose classification is not simply age- or test-specific. This assumption was investigated longitudinally in a large sample of New Zealand children who were followed from age 7 to age 11 . Substantial overlap was found between groups classified as specific reading retarded at ages 7, 9, and 11 on the basis of Burt reading and WISC-R Performance 1Q scores. At age 11, there was also substantial agreement between classifications based on three separate measures of reading achievement, although there was evidence of test-specific factors unique to comprehension- versus word recognition-based classifications. Agreement between classifications at age I1 based on WISC-R Performance 1Q and Fullscale IQ was high. The data indicated the existence of a fairly stable group of children characterised by enduring under-achievement in reading throughout the primary years of schooling.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Silva, P.A. | 1986

An evaluation of the Malaise Inventory

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1986, 30(30), 147-152.
Our ref: RO64

Show abstract » This paper reports some psychometric properties of the Malaise Inventory of Rutter and colleagues from a longitudinal study of a large sample of New Zealand mothers. Malaise scores were relatively stable over time and the scale showed good psychometric properties. The measure was also sensitive to potential sources of adversity in the backgrounds of the women. Some recommendations regarding a number of the questionnaire items are made.
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Hurst, P.L., Lovell-Smith, C.J. | 1985

Reference interval for alkaline phosphatase, angiotensin converting enzyme, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and 8-glutamyl transferase in eleven year old children

New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Technology, 1985, 39(39), 103-108.
Our ref: NZ42

Show abstract » This paper presents the reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase, angiotensin converting enzyme, asparate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and 8-glutamyl transferase in 11 year old children.
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Simpson, A., Laugesen, M., Silva, P.A., Walton, J.K. | 1985

The prevalence and treatment of retained testes

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1985, 98(98), 758-768.
Our ref: NZ41

Show abstract » A cohort of approximately 500 boys was screened for retained testes at ages five and seven years and when the boys were aged three, five, seven and nine years, their parents were questioned about hospitalisation for surgery. Orchidopexy for retained testes had been performed on 15 of the 536 boys (2.8%) while one other had orchidopexy for high retractile testes (0.2%). Eighty-one percent of this surgery was performed between the seventh and ninth years of age.
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