Publications

All peer reviewed publications are listed below. Other publications will be uploaded shortly.

Displaying page 14 of 20.

Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1992

Motor vehicle road crashes during the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1992, 105(105), 150-151.
Our ref: NZ65

Show abstract » From a sample of 848 teenagers, 50 individuals reported a total of 52 motor vehicle road crash events: 42 involved a car, six a motorcycle, and four a bus, over a two year period. Males and females were equally represented in each type of crash. Twenty-one of the car crashes, four of the motorcycle crashes and three of the bus crashes involved injury. The injuries sustained in the motorcycle crashes were predominantly to the extremities and in the other crashes they were mainly to the head or face. On average drivers less than 25 years of age had more passengers in their cars and were involved in more nighttime crashes. A seat belt was worn in only 18 (44%) of the car crashes. A motorcycle helmet was worn in four of the six motorcycle crashes. Six (15%) crashes were reported to have involved alcohol. The main areas of risk associated with motor vehicle road crashes involving teenagers and young adults have been addressed by legislation or the graduated drivers licensing system. An evaluation of these measures is required to establish whether they are effective.
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Stanton, W.R., Ferry, D.G. | 1992

Smokefree medical students

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1992, 105(105), 292-293.
Our ref: NZ64

Show abstract » This paper describes a small study of the smoking behaviour of medical students.
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Burrows, B., Sears, M.R., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Holdaway, M.D. | 1992

Relationships of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to serum IgE, lung function, systems and diagnoses in 11-year-old New Zealand children

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1992, 90(90), 376-85.
Our ref: RO224

Show abstract » This study describes the relationship of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to serum IgE, lung function and diagnosis of respiratory disorder. The results supported the view that IgE is a critical factor in the development of bronchial responsiveness in childhood.
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Sherrill, D.L., Martinez, F.D., Herbison, G.P., Sears, M.R. | 1992

An alternative method for describing methacholine challenge response curves [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), A706 .
Our ref: RO223

Show abstract » This abstract described a new approach to describing methacholine challenge response curves. See RO230 for a full account of this study.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P. | 1992

Gender differences in skin allergen sensitivities, and the risks for development of hayfever and asthma in childhood [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), A658.
Our ref: RO222

Show abstract » This abstract described gender differences in allergies and the risks for the development of hayfever and asthma in childhood.
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Sears, M.R., Holdaway, M.D., Herbison, G.P., Flannery, E.M., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Prevalence of wheezing, diagnosed asthma and cigarette smoking in a cohort of 18-year-old New Zealanders [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), A693.
Our ref: RO220

Show abstract » This study described the prevalence of respiratory ill-health symptoms in 18-year-olds and also examined the smoking behaviour of the sample.
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Williams, S.M., St George, I.M., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Intrauterine growth retardation and blood pressure at age seven and eighteen

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1992, 45(45), 1257-1263.
Our ref: RO209

Show abstract » The association between intrauterine growth retardation and blood pressure in middle childhood and early adulthood was examined. At age 7, after adjusting for sex and weight, the differences between normal children and those who had experienced intrauterine growth delay were 0.9 mmHg (95% CI -0.1 to 2.2) for systolic and 0 mmHg (-1.7 to 2.0) for diastolic blood pressure respectively. The differences between the blood pressures of intrauterine growth retarded infants with an appropriate ponderal index and those with a low ponderal index were 4.4 mmHg (-0.9 to 7.9) for systolic, and 3.8 mmHg (0.2 to 7.3) for diastolic blood pressure respectively. At age 18 the differences were much less pronounced. The association between blood pressure and the placental weight was also examined. The evidence from this sample lends weak support to the findings of other studies which suggest that there is an association between factors occurring before or around the time of birth and blood pressure in later life.
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Moffitt, T.E. | 1992

The neuropsychology of conduct disorder

Development and Psychopathology, 1992, 5(5), 133-149.
doi: 10.1017/S0954579400004302

Our ref: RO206

Show abstract » This article reviews evidence from neuropsychological tests that brain dysfunction is a correlate of conduct disorder. Most studies report consistent findings of differential neuropsychological deficits for antisocial samples in verbal and ''executive'' functions. Neuropsychological measures are related to some of the best indicators of poor outcome for children with conduct symptoms, such as early onset, stability across time, hyperactive symptoms, and aggressiveness. Neuropsychological tests statistically predict variance in antisocial behavior independently of appropriate control variables. This article argues that neuropsychological variables warrant further study as possible causal factors for conduct disorder and presents one developmental perspective on how neuropsychological problems might contribute risk for conduct disorder.
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McGee, R., Williams, S.M., Feehan, M. | 1992

Attention deficit disorder and age of onset of behaviour problems

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1992, 20(20), 487-502.
Our ref: RO204

Show abstract » In the course of a prospective longitudinal study, we examined age of onset of behavior problems in a group of boys and girls identified with attention deficit disorder (ADD) at age 11. Onset occurred during the preschool years, by the first year of schooling, or by the end of the second year of school. Onset was strongly related to informant source at age 11, pattern of comorbidity of disorder at age 11, and developmental language, perceptual motor, and IQ measures. Onset by the first year of schooling was particularly related to poor reading skills. By age 15, nearly three-quarters of those with onset of problems before age 6 had one or more DSM-III disorders.
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Stanton, W.R., Kelly, J.L., Bunyan, D.A., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Expected gain in body mass and the onset of menarche

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1992, 32(32), 338-340.
Our ref: RO202

Show abstract » Fertility is dependent on sexual maturity, which is associated with a number of factors, including body mass. In this study the Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to estimate body fat in a large sample of 13-year-old New Zealand girls. Nearly half of the subjects (46%) had experienced the menarche. Expected gain in body mass was calculated from growth rates at earlier ages and used to examine whether deviation from the expected gain was associated with the onset of the menarche. In general, the results show an association between the menarche and gain in body mass. However, many girls who failed to achieve their expected gain had experienced the menarche (18%), indicating that the relationship between body weight and the menarche may not be causal or is mediated by other factors.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Tracking changes in the patterns of parental smoking

Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1992, 113(113), 12-16.
Our ref: RO201

Show abstract » This study examined the prevalence and predictors of parental smoking in a representative sample of mothers and fathers. The results showed that in this New Zealand sample approximately 38% of mothers and 43% of fathers were smokers, and that proportionally more fathers than mothers were ex-smokers. The pattern of maternal smoking was relatively less stable, showing a rate of increase over the first 2-year period and an equivalent rate over the second period for those who started or resumed smoking compared to those who stopped smoking. Predictors of maternal smoking groups included level of educational qualifications, number of changes of residence, personality (extraversion and neuroticism scores) and being a young mother. Predictors of paternal smoking groups from a smaller range of background variables included level of educational qualifications, socio-economic status and age. The measures did not satisfactorily differentiate smokers who decreased their level of smoking from those who increased their level of smoking and those who continued to smoke or not to smoke.
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Caspi, A., Lynam, D.R., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Unravelling girls' delinquency: Biological dispositional and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehaviour

Developmental Psychology, 1992, 29(29), 19-30.
Our ref: RO200

Show abstract » Processes linking biological and behavioral changes in different contexts during adolescence were examined by studying an unselected cohort of New Zealand girls from childhood through adolescence when they entered either mixed-sex or all-girl secondary schools. The impact of menarcheal timing on female delinquency was moderated by the sex composition of schools; early-maturing girls in mixed-sex settings were at greatest risk for delinquency. Individual differences in delinquency were also significantly more stable among girls in mixed-sex schools than among those in all-girl schools. These contextual variations are interpreted in terms of the differential distribution of reinforcements and opportunities for delinquency.
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Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R., Lebowitz, M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1992

The effects of airway hyperresponsiveness, wheezing and atopy on longitudinal pulmonary function in children: a six year follow-up study

Pediatric Pulmonology, 1992, 13(13), 78-85.
Our ref: RO196

Show abstract » We examined growth of spirometric lung function in 696 children of European ancestry who were followed from ages 9 to 15 years and stratified according to their degree of responsiveness to methacholine inhalation challenge, atopic status, and respiratory symptoms. Subjects were participants in the longitudinal Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study in Dunedin, New Zealand. Forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1), and vital capacity (VC) were measured at 9, 11, 13, and 15 years of age, concurrently with assessment of airway responsiveness determined by the concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20 FEV1). Atopic status was assessed at age 13 by skin-prick testing to 11 allergens. In children demonstrating airway hyperresponsiveness, FEV1 increased with age at a slower rate, and the FEV1/VC ratio had a faster rate of decline through childhood, compared to non-responsive children. Subjects with positive skin tests to house dust mite and cat dander also had lower mean FEV1/VC ratios than the control group. Any reported wheezing was associated with slower growth of FEV1 and VC in males. We conclude that in New Zealand children with airway responsiveness and/or previous atopy to house dust mite or cat growth of spirometric lung function is impaired.
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Nada-Raja, S., Feehan, M., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R. | 1992

Prevalence and correlates of the premenstrual syndrome in adolescence

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1992, 31(31), 783-789.
Our ref: RO195

Show abstract » In a longitudinal study of their health and development, 384 15-year-old females reported their experience of symptoms indicative of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The prevalence of these symptoms is reported and a group of adolescents is identified with the syndrome (14%). PMS was associated with current self-reported anxiety, inattention, and poor health. Preadolescent self-report and maternal ratings of physical and mental health did not significantly predict adolescent PMS. The results suggest that the experience of PMS in adolescence may be mediated by perceived health status; the roles of mental health and maternal influence in the development of adolescent PMS may be minimal.
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Connolly, G.M., Casswell, S., Stewart, J., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Drinking context and other influences on the drinking of 15 year old New Zealanders

British Journal of Addiction, 1992, 87(87), 1029-1036.
Our ref: RO194

Show abstract » This study investigated the influence of the situational characteristics of the drinking setting and a number of parental, personal and demographic variables on adolescents' alcohol use. The sample were 15-year-old participants in a multidisciplinary longitudinal study carried out in New Zealand. Measures of alcohol consumption were self reported amount of alcohol consumed on the most recent drinking occasion and amount usually consumed. All of the situational variables investigated had an effect on the amount of alcohol consumed on the most recent occasion. Greater amounts of alcohol were consumed if the alcohol was obtained from peers or by the 15-year-olds themselves, if the drink was consumed away from their own home, in the presence of peers only, and during the evening. More money to spend each week and lower SES were also associated with reports of greater alcohol consumption on the most recent drinking occasion. Adolescents with female friends who approved of drinking reported greater amounts of alcohol, the effect of female friends was most marked in the lower amounts reported by males who had female friends that disapproved of drinking. For amount of alcohol usually consumed, reports of larger amounts of alcohol were associated with more money available to spend each week and with lower SES. Furthermore, both males and females reported greater usual amounts if their male friends approved of drinking; female friends' approval was associated with greater amounts of alcohol usually being consumed, this effect was strongest for males. Sixty-eight per cent of the 15-year-olds indicated that they thought they definitely or probably would get drunk in the future.
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Sherrill, D.L., Martinez, F.D., Lebowitz, M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Sears, M.R. | 1992

Longitudinal effects of passive smoking on pulmonary function in New Zealand children

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1992, 145(145), 1136-1141.
Our ref: RO192

Show abstract » In this study we examined the longitudinal effects of smoke exposure on lung function in a cohort of New Zealand children observed from 9 to 15 yr of age. Possible exposures included in utero exposure from mothers smoking during pregnancy, passive smoke from parents, and active smoking by the children. Lung function measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and vital capacity (VC) were measured biennially and ratios (FEV,IVC) were computed. The data were analyzed using longitudinal methodology, and all subjects with at least one pulmonary function test and responses to the questions concerning smoke exposures were included (n = 634). Subjects reporting wheeze or asthma were examined as a separate subgroup. In the whole cohort, no significant detrimental effects were detected for absolute FEV, or VC in either sex, related to active or passive smoke exposures. Parental smoking was, however, associated with persistent but mild and nonprogressive impairment of the FEV1/VC ratio in males, an effect that was present at the time lung function measurements were first made. This effect was not seen in females. In children with reported wheeze or asthma, parental smoking had progressive, more serious, and clinically significant effects on the FEV1/VC ratio among adolescents of both sexes, causing a mean reduction in FEV1/VC ratios by age 15 of 3.9% in males and 2.3% in females, in contrast to the observed increase in FEV1/VC ratios with age seen in nonexposed wheezing children. We conclude that passive smoking is a major contributing factor to the development and persistence of airflow limitation in wheezing children.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1992

A longitudinal study of the influence of parents and friends on children's initiation of smoking

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1992, 13(13), 423-434.
Our ref: RO191

Show abstract » The results of some cross-sectional studies have indicated that the influence of parents on their offspring's initiation of smoking may or may not decrease in adolescence, but that the influence of peers increases during adolescence. Results of a short-term longitudinal study provide evidence of a strong erect for parents and friends in childhood and adolescence. Arguments about the mechanism for this association are often expressed in terms of modeling behavior. The present study, which follows change in the smoking behavior of a large cohort of children through childhood and adolescence, led to the conclusion that friends have as early an influence as parents in terms of nonsmoking behavior. However, friends who smoke but not parents who smoke had an influence on children's initiation of smoking. Furthermore, children tended not to be influenced to desist from smoking by parents who were ex-smokers.
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McGee, R., Stanton, W.R. | 1992

Sources of distress among New Zealand adolescents

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1992, 33(33), 999-1010.
Our ref: RO190

Show abstract » This study examined sources of distress experienced by 15-year-old adolescents in a large sample from the general population. We identified four types of stressful life circumstances relating to problems of self-image and independence, academic and physical competence, parental conflict, and moving residence and schools. Girls reported higher levels of distress for the first three types of circumstance. Reports of distress were associated with poor family social support, maternal depression and parental separation. Both DSM-III disorder and poor social competence were associated with differential patterns of distress. Lastly, poor social competence and high distress were independent and additive predictors of mental health disorders.
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Nada-Raja, S., McGee, R., Stanton, W.R. | 1992

Perceived attachments to parents and peers and psychological well-being in adolescence

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1992, 21(21), 471-485.
Our ref: RO189

Show abstract » This paper reports the findings from a study of 935 adolescents' perceived attachments to their parents and peers, and their psychological health and well-being. Perceived attachment to parents did not significantly differ between males and females. However, females scored significantly higher than males on a measure of attachment to peers. Also, relative to males, they had higher anxiety and depression scores, suggesting poorer psychological well-being. Overall, a lower perceived attachment to parents was significantly associated with lower scores on the measures of well-being. Adolescents who perceived high attachments to both their parents and peers had the highest scores on a measure of self-perceived strengths. In this study, adolescents' perceived attachment to peers did not appear to compensate for a low attachment to parents in regard to their mental ill-health. These findings suggest that high perceived attachment to parents may be a critical variable associated with psychological well-being in adolescence.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1992

The Parental Attitude Research Instrument: An approach to use of attitude questionnaires

Infant and Child Development, 1992, 1(1), 121-126.
Our ref: RO188

Show abstract » Parental attitude questionnaires such as the Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) are still in use despite their inherent difficulties. In light of the need to test theoretical models by measuring a range of parental characteristics, the properties of the PARI were re-examined and, on the basis of a factor analysis of the 23 subtests of the PARI, a shortened version was constructed. A measure of maternal Authoritarian Control, which was found to be associated with measures of maternal mental ability, personality, level of education, reading age, number of adverse family conditions and child-rearing practices, has proved useful for other projects related to this ongoing study. It is recommended that such instruments be used only in conjunction with other measures which examine the family environment, for example in an index of child-rearing practices.
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Kelly, J.L., Stanton, W.R., McGee, R., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Tracking relative weight in subjects studied longitudinally from ages 3 to 13 years

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1992, 28(28), 158-161.
Our ref: RO187

Show abstract » Heights and weights of a large sample of subjects studied longitudinally from ages 3 and 13 years were used to calculate relative weight, using a Body Mass Index score (BMI) which estimates adiposity. Males and females differed significantly in BMI scores only at ages 3 and 13 years. The correlations between BMI scores at all ages were positive and significant. The subjects were divided at each age into a 'light', an 'average' and a 'heavy' group based on the position of their BMI score relative to the 25th and 75th percentiles. Subjects were 'tracked' from ages 3, 7 and 11 years to determine whether they had remained in the same BMI group by age 13 years relative to their peers. Slightly fewer than half of the 3 year old subjects but the majority of 7 and 11 year old subjects remained in the same relative weight group by age 13 years. Only 1% of 7 and 11 year old subjects in the top and the bottom quartiles for BMI scores shifted from one extreme group to the other. Relative weight at 3, 7 and 11 years was more persistent for subjects with extreme bodyweights than subjects with bodyweights in the middle range. Consistent with the pattern of correlations, the tracking pattern for all 3 groups showed that subjects' BMI scores remained more stable as the subjects grew older.
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Langley, J.D., Williams, S.M. | 1992

Cycling health beliefs, crash experiences and night cycling behaviour of 13 year olds

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1992, 28(28), 231-235.
Our ref: RO186

Show abstract » The relationship of selected health beliefs to self-reported crash experiences, cycling at night and the use of tail-lights at night was examined for a sample of 730 13 year olds. The questions relating to cycling health beliefs were similar to those asked by Weinstein10 in his study of unrealistic optimism about susceptibility to a range of health problems. They included: vulnerability, worry, controllability, chance, barriers, seriousness, apprehension and safety. The majority of 13 year olds interviewed did not exhibit a strong optimistic bias regarding their vulnerability and skills as safe cyclists. In general the majority considered a crash involving a car would most likely be serious and only a minority said they were not worried about being involved in such a crash. In addition, the majority did not consider that crashes are a matter of chance or that there are significant barriers to adopting safety measures. They tended to consider the chances of being apprehended by a traffic officer for failure to use a tail-light at night as being low. Overall the univariate analyses failed to show a consistent pattern of relationships between health beliefs and the two cycling behaviours. The same was true for crash experiences. The joint effects of beliefs and crash experience on the use of a light at night were examined using logistic regression. The results suggest that the health beliefs work in an additive way as far as boys are concerned, but that they have very little influence on the behaviour of girls. The model for boys suggests that the variables have a relatively small influence on behaviour.
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Mahalski, P.A., Stanton, W.R. | 1992

The relationship between digit sucking and behaviour problems: A longitudinal study over 10 years

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1992, 33(33), 913-923.
Our ref: RO185

Show abstract » Data from the Dunedin (New Zealand) Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to examine continuity and discontinuity in digit sucking between 5 and 11 years. The data were also used to examine the relationship between digit sucking and behaviour problems at 5, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed a relationship between digit sucking and behaviour problems at all ages, except 5 years. Longitudinal analysis by multiple regression showed that digit sucking at 5 and 7 years predicted behaviour problems at 7, 9 and 11 years. This effect was most apparent at 7 years. Children who sucked their digits at 11 years were more likely to have overjets of 6mm or more between their upper and lower dental arches. The behavioural and dental evidence suggest that it would be better for children to stop sucking their digits before they started school and acquired their permanent dentition.
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McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, S.M., Anderson, J. | 1992

DSM-III disorders from age 11 to age 15 years

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1992, 31(31), 50-59.
Our ref: RO183

Show abstract » Although research into the continuity of disorder from childhood to adolescence is sparse, results from both longitudinal and cross sectional studies suggest that the prevalence of disorder increases for girls but may remain more stable for boys. In this paper, the methodologies of two assessment phases of the Dunedin longitudinal study have been equated to estimate the continuity of DSM-III disorder from ages 11 to 15. Although the overall prevalence of disorder doubled between the ages, this was primarily because of an increase in nonaggressive conduct disorder and major depressive episode. The sex ratios in disorder had largely reversed from a male predominance at 11 to a female predominance at 15. In terms of persistence, over 40% of those with disorder at age 11 were also identified at age 15. However, over 80% of those identified with disorder at 15 did not have a history of disorder at 11. Significant sex differences were also found in the continuity of internalizing and externalizing disorders, with externalizing disorders showing more continuity for boys, and internalizing for girls. Logistic regression models were employed to evaluate the roles family background, academic and social competence, and early histories of behavior problems may play in the determination of disorder continuity.
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Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, J.D., Begg, D.J. | 1992

Motorcycling attitudes and behaviours 2: 14 and 15-year-old adolescents

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1992, 28(28), 387-394.
Our ref: RO177

Show abstract » Of 846 adolescents interviewed near their 15th birthday, 51% could drive a motorcycle. A further 13% intended to learn. Drivers reported friends (mean age 16.5 years) as the most common source of instruction. Forty-four per cent of drivers and 69% of intending learners planned to apply for licences. Thirty-five per cent of the sample had driven or ridden as passengers on a motorcycle on-road in the past year and 85% of these had worn a helmet on the last occasion. The commonest cause of injuries to motorcyclists resulting in hospitalization (lower limb injury) was correctly identified by 52% of the sample. Fear of injury was the reason given for not learning to ride by 55% of confirmed non-drivers. Fifteen medically treated motorcycling injuries were reported for a 2-year recall period. Females reported significantly less exposure and less use of protective clothing than males. The issues of initiation, training, constraints on use and preventive strategies are discussed.
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Reeder, A.I., Chalmers, D.J., Langley, J.D. | 1992

Motorcycling attitudes and behaviours 1: 12 and 13-year-old adolescents

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 1992, 28(28), 225-230.
Our ref: RO176

Show abstract » The death and serious injury of adolescent motorcyclists is a major public health problem. Effective preventive strategies depend on knowledge about target populations. The attitudes and patterns of exposure to motorcycling of 730 13 year old New Zealand adolescents are described. Fifty-two per cent could ride a motorcycle, a further 13% intended to learn, 22% had driven on-road, and 60% had ridden as pillion passengers on-road. Significantly more males than females were riders (P<0.001) and had ridden as pillion passengers (P<0.05). More male than female non-riders intended to learn (P<0.001). Eighty per cent of the sample recognized road 'accidents' as the main cause of death for their peers, and 31 % had known a motorcyclist killed or injured. Seventeen per cent of on-road riders had not worn a helmet when last riding. Few statistically significant differences in risk perception were obtained between males and females or riders and non-riders. Preventive options are discussed.
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Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Belsky, J., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Childhood experience and the onset of menarche

Child Development, 1992, 63(63), 47-58.
Our ref: RO175

Show abstract » We tested predictions about psychosocial factors in the onset of menarche using data from a longitudinal study of 16-year-old girls. Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper have proposed a model that seeks to explain individual differences in maturational timing in terms of stressful childhood experiences. Their model hypothesizes that (1) individuals who grow up under conditions of family stress (2) experience behavioral and psychological problems which (3) provoke earlier reproductive readiness. In this study, the effect of family stressors on menarche was mediated by neither behavior problems nor weight, contrary to the predictions. However, the most provocative proposition advanced by Belsky et al, received empirical support. Family conflict and father absence in childhood predicted an earlier age of menarche, and these factors in combination with weight showed some evidence of an additive influence on menarche. A genetic inheritance model may provide a more parsimonious account of these data than does a conditional adaptation model derived from sociobiology.
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Calvert, B., Stanton, W.R. | 1992

Perceptions of parenthood: similarities and differences between 15 year old girls and boys

Adolescence, 1992, 27(27), 315-218.
Our ref: RO174

Show abstract » Similarities and differences between the contributions of both parents, and some reasons for these similarities and differences, are explored through the responses of a cohort of Dunedin teenagers to questions about their expectations of becoming parents, their relevant experience and knowledge, and their future needs for information. It is concluded that both sexes have a commitment to parenting and expectations of sharing the tasks of parenthood, and that they expect the basis of sharing to be expediency as dictated by economic and other factors rather than any inherent superiority of one sex for the tasks.
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Henry, B., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Disentangling delinquency and learning disability: Neuropsychological function and social support

International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1992, 13(13), 1-6.
Our ref: RO146

Show abstract » In an effort to further disentangle the correlates of delinquency and learning disability, a study by Sobotowicz, Evans and Laughlin (1987) was replicated using boys from an unselected cohort. Four groups were identified: normal subjects (N; n=316), delinquent subjects (JD: n=50), learning disabled subjects (LD: n=39), and learning disabled/delinquent subjects (LD/JD: n=20). It was predicted that: (1) the N group would outperform the other groups on neuropsychological variables assessing verbal functioning and language skills; (2) the JD group would outperform the LD and LD/JD group on measures of verbal skill; (3) the LD group would out perform the LD/JD group on measures of executive functioning; and (4) the two non-delinquent groups would score higher on measures of social support than would the two delinquent groups. Results indicated that both the delinquent subjects and the learning disabled subjects performed more poorly than controls on measures of verbal skill, and scored lower than controls on measures of social support. No group differences were found on the executive function variables. The results were interpreted as indicating that "known" correlates of delinquency are actually correlates of delinquency per se, and not simply a result of the large numbers of learning disabled subjects often found in delinquent samples.
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White, J.L., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A. | 1992

Neuropsychological and socioemotional correlates of specific-arithmetic disability

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1992, 7(7), 1-16.
Our ref: RO145

Show abstract » Neuropsychological and socio-emotional factors associated with specific-arithmetic disability were investigated in an unselected sample of New Zealand children. Subjects were 17 specific-arithmetic disabled, 27 specific-reading disabled, 63 generally disabled, and 50 nondisabled 13 year olds. Evidence was sought for an association between specific-arithmetic disability and the neuropsychological and socio-emotional correlates of Nonverbal Learning Disability syndrome (NLD). NLD is characterized by a pattern of nonverbal and verbal neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses, and appears to place individuals at greater risk for internalizing psychopathology, than other learning disabilities. Only specific-arithmetic disabled subjects were found to show a neuropsychological profile reminiscent of NLD. Evidence of poor socio-emotional adjustment was found across all three learning-disabled groups, and was greatest among generally disabled subjects. We found that the specific-arithmetic-disabled subjects exhibited the greatest degree of overlap between internalizing psychopathology and a NLD neuropsychological profile. The results are interpreted as providing some support for the idea that specific-arithmetic-disabled individuals may be at greater risk for the NLD syndrome than either generally disabled or specific-reading-disabled individuals.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. | 1991

Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic and asymptomatic children is related to serum total IgE even in the absence of asthma and atopic disease [Abstract]

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1991, 104(104), 190.
Our ref: NZ66

Show abstract » See RO178 for a full report of this study.
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Calvert, B., Stanton, W.R. | 1991

Educating for parenthood: the role of the school

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1991, 26(26), 75-86.
Our ref: NZ63

Show abstract » This paper describes the results of interviews with 846 15 year olds regarding their expectations of becoming parents, the relevant experience and knowledge they already had for this task, the sources of their knowledge, their expected needs for further knowledge, and the anticipated sources of that knowledge. The role of the school in providing parenting education is discussed. The authors conclude that schools should provide all boys and girls with general information on a number of parenting-related topics which are of significance and interest to adolescents; should help parents understand the needs of their adolescent children; and should try to provide students with contacts with young children in everyday settings so that students are familiar with child development and child behaviour. See also NZ60 and MO22 for the full report.
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Begg, D.J., Langley, J.D., Chalmers, D.J. | 1991

Bicycle road crashes in the fourteenth and fifteenth years of life

New Zealand Medical Journal, 1991, 104(104), 60-61.
Our ref: NZ62

Show abstract » From a sample of 848 teenagers 57 individuals reported a total of 62 bicycle road crashes, 40 (65%) of which involved injury to a cyclist. Thirty (48%) of the crashes occurred when the cyclist lost control of the bicycle (73% of which involved injury) and 17 crashes (27%) involved a moving motor vehicle (41% of which involved injury). The majority of the injuries were not serious and of those with multiple injuries no one had an injury severity score greater than five. The body area most frequently injured was the extremities (74%), with the remainder primarily head injuries. Environmental conditions were not a major contributing factor in these crashes. In only five cases the cyclist was wearing a safety helmet. Recommended measures to prevent, or minimise, bicycle related injuries include the wearing of safety helmets, bicycle maintenance checks, and road safety awareness instruction
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1991

Children's exposure to smoking

International Journal of Epidemiology, 1991, 20(20), 933-937.
Our ref: RO184

Show abstract » Exposure to smoking and the attitudes of other people have, in many studies, been associated with an increase in smoking through childhood and adolescence. Previous studies which have examined the relative influence of parents, siblings and friends on young people smoking do not show the same pattern of results, indicating that parents and siblings who smoke may or may not have an influence above or beyond that of friends. In this study, the extent to which these sources of exposure influence young people is examined. A related hypothesis which is tested in this study is that the amount of exposure to smoking may be a factor which influences young people to smoke independent of the particular source of the influence. The pattern of results suggests that the source of the influence is more important than the extent of influence among friends and family members. In particular, the influence of friends' smoking was evident at ages 9 to 15 years to the exclusion of the parental example of smoking. Parental smokers may lead their children to try smoking but it seems unlikely that this is related to them smoking at a later age. While peer influence may result in smoking, the influence of parents or older people smoking may be becoming a disincentive in this time of changing attitudes to smoking.
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McGee, R., Feehan M. | 1991

Are girls with problems of attention under-recognised

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 1991, 13(13), 187-198.
Our ref: RO182

Show abstract » There is a generally held belief that disorders of attention (e.g., ADHD) are to be found primarily among boys, not girls. We question the evidence relating to sex differences in the prevalence of attentional disorders and suggest possible reasons why reported sex differences appear limited to teacher ratings. An examination of the admittedly scarce literature on correlates of ADHD behaviors suggests no strong evidence for sex differences in the pattern of developmental, attentional and background correlates. We recommend the use of sex-specific norms and diagnostic criteria to identify girls with problems of attention and our plea is for more research to examine the nature of attention deficits in girls.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A., Oei, T.P.S. | 1991

Change in children's smoking from age 9 to age 15 years: the Dunedin Study

Public Health, 1991, 105(105), 425-433.
Our ref: RO181

Show abstract » Studies have shown that the rate at which children take up smoking is still very high, particularly for female adolescents. While some progress has been made in determining the factors related to the initiation of smoking, an issue that still requires investigation is the relationship between early smoking patterns and later smoking behaviour. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study which examined the continuity between smoking at an early age and later smoking behaviour. The smoking behaviour of a cohort of New Zealand children was followed from age 9 to age 15 years. Results showed that children's smoking pattern at age 9 years was not highly related to their smoking behaviour at age 15. The children most likely to become daily smokers by age 15 were those who had smoked within the last year at ages 11 and 13. It was concluded that the formative period for children's daily smoking at age 15 was from 10 to 13 years of age.
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Sherrill, D.L., Sears, M.R., Lebowitz, M.D., Holdaway, M.D., Hewitt, C.J., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Silva, P.A. | 1991

The effects of bronchial reactivity, persistent wheeze and atopy on longitudinal pulmonary function in children [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1991, 143(143), A500.
Our ref: RO180

Show abstract » See RO196 for full report of this study.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. | 1991

Airway hyperresponsiveness in children is related to serum total IgE even in the absence of asthma and atopic disease [Abstract]

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1991, 143(143), A19.
Our ref: RO179

Show abstract » See RO178 for a full report of this study.
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Sears, M.R., Burrows, B., Flannery, E.M., Herbison, G.P., Hewitt, C.J., Holdaway, M.D. | 1991

Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children

New England Journal of Medicine, 1991, 325(325), 1067-1071.
Our ref: RO178

Show abstract » This study concluded that even in children who have been asymptomatic and have no history of atopic disease, airway hyperresponsiveness appears to be closely linked to an allergic diathesis, as reflected by the serum total IgE level.
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Stanton, W.R., Silva, P.A. | 1991

School Achievement as an independent predictor of smoking in childhood and adolescence

Health Education Journal, 1991, 50(50), 84-88.
Our ref: RO173

Show abstract » This study looked at the effect of school achievement as an independent predictor of child and adolescent smoking, when a large number of other measures relating to family background, attitudes to smoking, exposure to smoking and self-esteem were taken into account. After the effect of these other variables were controlled for, academic achievement was not related to smoking at age 9 but was related to change in smoking for age 9 to 11 years and, for boys, further change in smoking from age 11 to age 13 years.
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