The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


Search results for 'self-control'

Childhood self-control forecasts the pace of midlife aging and preparedness for old age | 2021
Richmond-Rakerd, L. S. Caspi, A. Ambler, A. d'Arbeloff, T. de Bruine, ... Show all » M. Elliott, M. Harrington, H. Hogan, S. Houts, R. M. Ireland, D. Keenan, R. Knodt, A. R. Melzer, T. R. Park, S. Poulton, R. Ramrakha, S. Rasmussen, L. J. H. Sack, E. Schmidt, A. T. Sison, M. L. Wertz, J. Hariri, A. R. Moffitt, T. E. « Hide
PNAS, 2021, 118(3), .
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Our ref: RO748
Show abstract » The ability to control one's own emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in early life predicts a range of positive outcomes in later life, including longevity. Does it also predict how well people age? We studied the association between self-control and midlife aging in a population-representative cohort of children followed from birth to age 45 y, the Dunedin Study. We measured children's self-control across their first decade of life using a multi-occasion/multi-informant strategy. We measured their pace of aging and aging preparedness in midlife using measures derived from biological and physiological assessments, structural brain-imaging scans, observer ratings, self-reports, informant reports, and administrative records. As adults, children with better self-control aged more slowly in their bodies and showed fewer signs of aging in their brains. By midlife, these children were also better equipped to manage a range of later-life health, financial, and social demands. Associations with children's self-control could be separated from their social class origins and intelligence, indicating that self-control might be an active ingredient in healthy aging. Children also shifted naturally in their level of self-control across adult life, suggesting the possibility that self-control may be a malleable target for intervention. Furthermore, individuals' self-control in adulthood was associated with their aging outcomes after accounting for their self-control in childhood, indicating that midlife might offer another window of opportunity to promote healthy aging.
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Cumulative childhood risk is associated with a new measure of chronic inflammation in adulthood | 2019
Rasmussen, L.J.H., Moffitt, T.E., Eugen-Olsen, ... Show all » J., Belsky, D.W., Danese, A., Harrington, H., Houts R.M., Poulton, R., Sugden, K., Williams, B., Caspi, A. « Hide
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2019, 60(2), 199-208.
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Our ref: RO708
Show abstract » Background:Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it isunknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation markersoluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test the hypothesis that childhood exposureto risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP).Methods:Prospective study of a population-representa-tive 1972–1973 birth cohort; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants toage 38 years. Main childhood predictors were poor health, socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse childhoodexperiences (ACEs), low IQ, and poor self-control. Main adult outcomes were adulthood inflammation measuredas suPAR and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP).Results:Participants with available plasma samples at age 38 wereincluded (N=837, 50.5% male). suPAR (mean 2.40 ng/ml;SD0.91) was positively correlated with hsCRP (r0.15,p<.001). After controlling for sex, body mass index (BMI), and smoking, children who experienced more ACEs, lowerIQ, or had poorer self-control showed elevated adult suPAR. When the five childhood risks were aggregated into aCumulative Childhood Risk index, and controlling for sex, BMI, and smoking, Cumulative Childhood Risk wasassociated with higher suPAR (b0.10; SE 0.03;p=.002). Cumulative Childhood Risk predicted elevated suPAR, aftercontrolling for hsCRP (b0.18; SE 0.03;p<.001).Conclusions:Exposure to more childhood risk factors wasassociated with higher suPAR levels, independent of CRP. suPAR is a useful addition to studies connecting childhoodrisk to adult inflammatory burden.
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Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort | 2016
Sugden, K., Moffitt, T.E., Pinto, ... Show all » L., Poulton, R., Williams, B.S., Caspi, A. « Hide
PlosOne, 2016, 11(2), e0148435.
download pdf Our ref: RO678
Show abstract » Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the host’s behavior. In particular, Toxoplasma infection has been linked to schizophrenia, suicide attempt, differences in aspects of personality and poorer neurocognitive performance. However, these studies are often conducted in clinical samples or convenience samples. In a population-representative birth-cohort of individuals tested for presence of antibodies to T. gondii (N=837) we investigated the association between infection and four facets of human behavior: neuropsychiatric disorder (schizophrenia and major depression), poor impulse control (suicidal behavior and criminality), personality, and neurocognitive performance. Suicide attempt was marginally more frequent among individuals with T. gondii seropositivity (p = .06). Seropositive individuals also performed worse on one out of 14 measures of neuropsychological function. On the whole, there was little evidence that T. gondii was related to increased risk of psychiatric disorder, poor impulse control, personality aberrations or neurocognitive impairment.
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Lifelong Impact of Early Self-Control | 2013
Terrie E. Moffitt, Richie Poulton, and Avshalom Caspi
American Scientist, 2013, 101 352-359.
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Our ref: PJ39
Show abstract » The Dunedin Study is a longitudinal research effort that has followed more than 1,000 people from birth over four decades, collecting information on their physical health and social wellbeing. Over the past 38 years, the participants have been physically and psychologically examined 12 times, at birth and then at ages 3, 5, 7,9,11,13,15,18,21,26,32, and 38.
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Undercontrolled temperament at age 3 predicts disordered gambling at age 32: a longitudinal study of a complete birth cohort | 2012
Slutske, W., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, ... Show all » A., Poulton, R. « Hide
Psychological Science, 2012, 23(23), 510-516.
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Our ref: RO620
Show abstract » Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation.
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Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance? | 2012
Piquero, N.L., Moffitt, T.E.
Justice Quarterly, 2012, 1-29.
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Our ref: RO617
Show abstract » Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults' workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than trajectories, and/or whether each or both of these childhood factors relate to later criminal activity. This paper provides evidence on this debate by examining two types of workplace deviance: production and property deviance separately for males and females. We use data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort followed into adulthood, to examine how childhood factors (conduct-problem trajectories and low self-control) and then adult job characteristics predict workplace deviance at age 32. Analyses revealed that none of the childhood factors matter for predicting female deviance in the workplace but that conduct-problem trajectories did account for male workplace deviance.
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A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety | 2011
Moffitt, T.E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, ... Show all » D.W., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H. L., Houts, R., Poulton, R., Roberts, B.W., Ross, S., Sears, M.R., Thomson, W. M., Caspi, A. « Hide
PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA), 2011, 108(108), 2693-2698.
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Our ref: RO602
Show abstract » Policy-makers are considering large-scale programs aimed at self-control to improve citizens' health and wealth and reduce crime. Experimental and economic studies suggest such programs could reap benefits. Yet, is self-control important for the health, wealth, and public safety of the population? Following a cohort of 1,000 children from birth to the age of 32 y, we show that childhood self-control predicts physical health, substance dependence, personal finances, and criminal offending outcomes, following a gradient of self-control. Effects of children's self-control could be disentangled from their intelligence and social class as well as from mistakes they made as adolescents. In another cohort of 500 sibling-pairs, the sibling with lower self-control had poorer outcomes, despite shared family background. Interventions addressing self-control might reduce a panoply of societal costs, save taxpayers money, and promote prosperity.
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Self-control and criminal career dimensions | 2007
Piquero, A.R., Moffitt, T. E. , Wright, ... Show all » B.R. « Hide
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 2007, 23(23), 72-89.
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Our ref: RO524
Show abstract » The criminal career paradigm parcels offenders' careers into multiple dimensions, including participation, frequency, persistence, seriousness, career length, and desistance, and each dimension may have different causes. In a forceful critique of this perspective, Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that low self-control equally predicts all dimensions of criminal behavior and that its effect holds steady across types of people, including both men and women. This study examines the link between low self-control and the career dimensions of participation, frequency, persistence, and desistance from crime. Analyses also investigate whether self-control distinguishes between persistence and desistance. Using data from 985 participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Human Development Study, the authors found overall support for Gottfredson and Hirschi's position.
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Does the perceived risk of punishment deter criminally-prone individuals? Rational choice, self-control, and crime | 2004
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Paternoster, R. « Hide
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 2004, 41(41), 180-213.
download pdf Our ref: RO456
Show abstract » Society's efforts to deter crime with punishment may be ineffective because those individuals most prone to commit crime often act impulsively, with little thought for the future, and so they may be unmoved by the threat of later punishment. Deterrence messages they receive, therefore, may fall on deaf ears. This article examines this issue by testing the relationship between criminal propensity, perceived risks and costs of punishment, and criminal behavior. The authors analyzed data from the Dunedin (New Zealand) Study, a longitudinal study of individuals from birth through age26 (N = 1,002). They found that in fact, deterrence perceptions had their greatest impact on criminally prone study members.
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The effects of social ties on crime vary by criminal propensity: A life-course model of interdependence | 2001
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 2001, 39(39), 321-351.
download pdf Our ref: RO386
Show abstract » Previous studies have explained the transition from criminal propensity in youth to criminal behavior in adulthood with several hypotheses: (1) enduring criminal propensity, (2) unique social causation, and (3) cumulative social disadvantage. In this article we develop an additional hypothesis derived from the life-course concept of interdependence: (4) that the effect of social ties on crime vary as a function of individuals' levels of criminal propensity. Prosocial ties, such as ties to education , should deter criminal behavior most strongly among individuals prone to crime. We term this a social-protection effect. Antisocial ties, such as delinquent peers, should promote criminal behavior most strongly among the same, criminally-prone individuals - a social-amplification effect. We tested these four hypotheses with data from the Dunedin Study. In support of previous hypotheses, low self-control predicted more criminal behavior, prosocial ties predicted less crime, and low self-control predicted weaker social ties that led to more crime. In support of life-course interdependence, low self-control significantly interacted with social ties. Prosocial ties, such as education, employment, family ties, and partnerships deterred crime, and antisocial ties, such as delinquent peers, promoted crime, most strongly among individuals displaying low self-control. Our findings bear upon the generalizability of standard psychological and sociological theories of crime and on practical intervention for youthful offenders.
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Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: social causation, social selection, or both? | 1999
Wright, B.R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, ... Show all » T.E., Silva, P.A. « Hide
Criminology, 1999, 37(37), 479-514.
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Our ref: RO347
Show abstract » This article examines the social-selection and social-causation processes that generate criminal behavior. We describe these processes with three theoretical models: a social-causation model that links crime to contemporaneous social relationships; a social-selection model that links crime to personal characteristics formed in childhood; and a mixed selection-causation model that links crime to social relationships and childhood characteristics. We tested these models with a longitudinal study in Dunedin, New Zealand, of individuals followed from birth through age 21. We analyzed measures of childhood and adolescent low self-control as well as adolescent and adult social bonds and criminal behavior. In support of social selection, we found that low self-control in childhood predicted disrupted social bonds and criminal offending later in life. In support of social causation, we found that social bonds and adolescent delinquency predicted later adult crime and, further, that the effect of self-control on crime was largely mediated by social bonds. In support of both selection and causation, we found that the social-causation effects remained significant even when controlling for preexisting levels of self-control, but that their effects diminished. Taken together, these findings support theoretical models that incorporate social-selection and social-causation processes.
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