The Dunedin Study - DMHDRU


Search results for 'early childhood'

Childhood caries experience in two Aotearoa New Zealand birth cohorts: implications for research, policy and practice | 2022
Ruiz, Begoña, Broadbent, Jonathan M., Thomson, ... Show all » W. Murray, Ramrakha, Sandhya, Boden, Joe, John Horwood, L., Poulton, Richie « Hide
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2022, 1-18.
download pdf Our ref: NZ101
Show abstract » Oral health in Aotearoa New Zealand has improved in the last seven decades, but improvements among young children have stagnated in the last two. Four out of ten 5-year-olds are affected by caries and many pre-schoolers require dental treatment under general anaesthesia. We analysed data from two longitudinal studies, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study and the Christchurch Health and Development Study. We compared their methods, cohort characteristics and childhood oral health findings and discuss their implications for policy, research, and practice. Age 5 dmft was obtained in the Dunedin Study from clinical examinations, and from School Dental Service records in the Christchurch Study. Findings were consistent with respect to childhood socioeconomic status, exposure to community water fluoridation, and maternal education. Despite overall improvements, caries rates remain relatively unchanged: dmft in these cohorts, measured in the 1970s–1980s, resemble New Zealand’s statistics for 5-year-olds in the 2000s. Notwithstanding the steep caries decline observed over the years, the caries distribution has shifted, hereby the greatest severity of disease is now concentrated among a smaller group of the most deprived children. Early childhood caries appears to be a useful indicator of deprivation that should inform interventions for
those in greatest need.

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Associations between birth weight, early childhood weight gain and adult lung function | 2009
Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R., Greene, ... Show all » J. M. , McLachlan, C. R. , Pearce, M. S. , Sears, M.R. « Hide
Thorax, 2009, 64(64), 228-232.
download pdf Our ref: RO577
Show abstract » Background. Low birth weight is associated with lower values for spirometry in adults but it is unknown if birth weight influences other measures of pulmonary function. It is also unclear whether post-natal growth affects adult lung function. We assessed the associations between birth weight, post-natal growth and adult lung function in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 children. Methods. Birth weight, weight gain between birth and age 3 years, and lung function at age 32 years were measured. Analyses adjusted for adult height and sex and further adjusted for multiple other potential confounding factors. Results. Birth weight was positively correlated with spirometric (FEV1 and FVC) and plethysmographic (TLC and FRC) lung function and with lung diffusing capacity. These associations persisted after adjustment for confounding factors including adult weight, exposure to cigarette smoke in utero and during childhood, personal smoking, socio-economic status, asthma, and gestational age. Weight gain between birth and age 3 was also positively associated with lung diffusing capacity, and was associated with higher values of lung volumes in men after adjustment for covariates. Neither birth weight nor post-natal weight gain were associated with airflow obstruction. Conclusions. Low birth weight and lower weight gain in early childhood are associated with modest reductions in adult lung function across a broad range of measures of lung volumes and with lower diffusing capacity. These findings are independent of a number of potential confounding factors and support the hypothesis that foetal and infant growth is a determinant of adult lung function.
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Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression | 2002
Jaffee, S. R. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, ... Show all » A. , Fombonne, E. , Poulton, R. , Martin, J. « Hide
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 215-222.
download pdf Our ref: RO405
Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. METHOD: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood, but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). RESULTS: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of- origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.
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Experiences, activities and the preschool child | 1980
Silva, P.A.
Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 1980, 5(5), 13-19.
Our ref: RO8
Show abstract » This paper describes preschool children's experiences and activities and the relationship between these and a variety of measures of child development.
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Motor co-ordination and childhood accidents | 1980
Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, ... Show all » S.M. « Hide
Journal of Safety Research, 1980, 12(12), 75-78.
Our ref: RO17
Show abstract » This study showed a positive correlation between motor co-ordination and number of accidents experienced by children. The size of the association, however, was not sufficiently large to be considered clinically significant.
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Gross motor development and delays in development in early childhood: Assessment and significance | 1980
Silva, P.A., Ross, B.
Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1980, 6(6), 9-24.
Our ref: RO11
Show abstract » This paper describes the modification and use of the Bayley Motor Scales at ages three and four and the McCarthy Leg Co-ordination Scale at ages five and six. Relationships between these measures of motor development and language development, intelligence, perceptual motor development, speech articulation, and early reading are presented.
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