Search Results

Hancox, R. J. , Poulton, R., Greene, J. M. , McLachlan, C. R. , Pearce, M. S. , Sears, M.R. | 2009

Associations between birth weight, early childhood weight gain and adult lung function

Thorax, 2009, 64(64), 228-232.

Our ref: RO577

Show abstract » Background. Low birth weight is associated with lower values for spirometry in adults but it is unknown if birth weight influences other measures of pulmonary function. It is also unclear whether post-natal growth affects adult lung function. We assessed the associations between birth weight, post-natal growth and adult lung function in an unselected birth cohort of 1037 children. Methods. Birth weight, weight gain between birth and age 3 years, and lung function at age 32 years were measured. Analyses adjusted for adult height and sex and further adjusted for multiple other potential confounding factors. Results. Birth weight was positively correlated with spirometric (FEV1 and FVC) and plethysmographic (TLC and FRC) lung function and with lung diffusing capacity. These associations persisted after adjustment for confounding factors including adult weight, exposure to cigarette smoke in utero and during childhood, personal smoking, socio-economic status, asthma, and gestational age. Weight gain between birth and age 3 was also positively associated with lung diffusing capacity, and was associated with higher values of lung volumes in men after adjustment for covariates. Neither birth weight nor post-natal weight gain were associated with airflow obstruction. Conclusions. Low birth weight and lower weight gain in early childhood are associated with modest reductions in adult lung function across a broad range of measures of lung volumes and with lower diffusing capacity. These findings are independent of a number of potential confounding factors and support the hypothesis that foetal and infant growth is a determinant of adult lung function.
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Koenen, K., Moffitt, T. E. , Poulton, R., Martin, J. , Caspi, A. | 2007

Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort

Psychological Medicine, 2007, 37(37), 181-192.
Our ref: RO522

Show abstract » Background. Childhood factors have been associated with increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies assessed only a limited number of childhood factors retrospectively. We examined the association between childhood neurodevelopmental, temperamental, behavioral and family environmental characteristics assessed before age 11 years and the development of PTSD up to age 32 years in a birth cohort.Method. Members of a 1972-73 New Zealand birth cohort (n=1037) who were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years for PTSD as defined by DSM-IV.Results. We identified two sets of childhood risk factors. The first set of risk factors was associated both with increased risk of trauma exposure and with PTSD assessed at age 26. These included childhood externalizing characteristics and family environmental stressors, specifically maternal distress and loss of a parent. The second set of risk factors affected risk for PTSD only and included low IQ and chronic environmental adversity. The effect of cumulative childhood factors on risk of PTSD at age 26 was substantial; over 58% of cohort members in the highest risk quartile for three developmental factors had PTSD as compared to only 25% of those not at high risk on any factors. Low IQ at age 5, antisocial behavior, and poverty before age 11 continued to predict PTSD related to traumatic events that occurred between the ages of 26 and 32.Conclusions. Developmental capacities and conditions of early childhood may increase both risk of trauma exposure and the risk that individuals will respond adversely to traumatic exposures. Rather than being solely a response to trauma, PTSD may have developmental origins.
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Jaffee, S. R. , Moffitt, T. E. , Caspi, A. , Fombonne, E. , Poulton, R. , Martin, J. | 2002

Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression

Archives of General Psychiatry, 2002, 59(59), 215-222.
Our ref: RO405

Show abstract » BACKGROUND: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. METHOD: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood, but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). RESULTS: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of- origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.
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Pisecco, S., Baker, D.B., Silva, P.A., Brooke, M. | 2001

Boys with reading disabilities and/or ADHD: Distinctions in Early Childhood

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2001, 34(34), 98-106.
Our ref: RO375

Show abstract » Examined distinctions in the early childhood characteristics of boys with reading disabilities and/or ADHD. A four group mixed design consisting of boys identified at age 11 with reading disabilities only (RD only; N=46), reading disabilities and ADHD (RD/ADHD; N=16), ADHD only (N=20), and a comparison group (N=281) was utilized. Differences on receptive and expressive language and temperament for ages 3 and 5, were investigated. Analyses indicated that the boys from the RD only group performed worse on measures of receptive and expressive language. The results also indicated that boys from the RD/ADHD groups consistently performed worse on measures of receptive language and exhibited more behaviors indicative of an under-controlled temperament. In summary we suggest that reading disabilities and ADHD represent moderately unique disorders, which frequently co-occur and are characterized by distinct developmental pathways.
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Silva, P.A. | 1980

Experiences, activities and the preschool child

Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 1980, 5(5), 13-19.
Our ref: RO8

Show abstract » This paper describes preschool children's experiences and activities and the relationship between these and a variety of measures of child development.
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Langley, J.D., Silva, P.A., Williams, S.M. | 1980

Motor co-ordination and childhood accidents

Journal of Safety Research, 1980, 12(12), 75-78.
Our ref: RO17

Show abstract » This study showed a positive correlation between motor co-ordination and number of accidents experienced by children. The size of the association, however, was not sufficiently large to be considered clinically significant.
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Silva, P.A., Ross, B. | 1980

Gross motor development and delays in development in early childhood: Assessment and significance

Journal of Human Movement Studies, 1980, 6(6), 9-24.
Our ref: RO11

Show abstract » This paper describes the modification and use of the Bayley Motor Scales at ages three and four and the McCarthy Leg Co-ordination Scale at ages five and six. Relationships between these measures of motor development and language development, intelligence, perceptual motor development, speech articulation, and early reading are presented.
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